INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS GUIDANCE

(ITSG)

(Part 3 of 14 parts)

USER INTERFACE SERVICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version 3.1 - April 7, 1997

 

 

AREA IPSC

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.3 User interface services 3.3-

3.3.1 Introduction 3.3-

3.3.2 User interface hardware 3.3-

3.3.2.1 Keyboard device layout 3.3-

3.3.2.2 Human factors for video display terminals 3.3-

3.3.2.3 Human factors for keyboards 3.3-

3.3.2.4 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices 3.3-

3.3.2.5 Human factors for the physical environment 3.3-

3.3.3 GUI client-server operations 3.3-

3.3.3.1 Data stream encoding 3.3-

3.3.3.2 Data stream interface 3.3-

3.3.3.3 Subroutine foundation library 3.3-

3.3.3.4 Raster data interchange 3.3-

3.3.3.5 Communication between GUI client applications 3.3-

3.3.3.6 User Interface Management System 3.3-

3.3.3.7 Data interchange format for GUI-based applications 3.3-

3.3.3.8 X Logical Font Description 3.3-

3.3.3.9 Compound text encoding 3.3-

3.3.3.10 Uniform API 3.3-

3.3.3.11 X Windows over OSI 3.3-

3.3.4 Object definition and management 3.3-

3.3.4.1 Application programming interfaces 3.3-

3.3.4.2 User Interface Definition Language 3.3-

3.3.4.3 Graphical user interface style guides 3.3-

3.3.4.4 Three-dimensional appearance 3.3-

3.3.4.5 Interchange format for design tools 3.3-

3.3.4.6 Customization to local norms 3.3-

3.3.4.7 Language bindings for GUIs 3.3-

3.3.4.8 Visualization 3.3-

3.3.4.9 Color use 3.3-

3.3.5 Window management 3.3-

3.3.5.1 Independent window management services 3.3-

3.3.5.2 Multiple displays 3.3-

3.3.5.3 Shared screens 3.3-

3.3.5.4 On-line help 3.3-

3.3.5.5 Drivability 3.3-

3.3.5.6 Commands, menus, and dialog services 3.3-

3.3.5.7 Input device management and control 3.3-

3.3.5.8 Multimedia input APIs to windows-based systems 3.3-

3.3.6 Character-based user interface 3.3-

3.3.6.1 Style guide 3.3-

3.3.6.2 Character-based terminal support 3.3-

3.3.6.3 Electronic forms 3.3-

3.3.7 Audio user interface 3.3-

3.3.7.1 Voice recognition 3.3-

3.3.7.2 Speech synthesis 3.3-

3.3.7.3 Voice messaging 3.3-

3.3.8 Security 3.3-

3.3.8.1 User interface security labeling 3.3-

3.3.8.2 Personal authentication 3.3-

LIST OF TABLES

3.3-1 Keyboard device layout standards 3.3-

3.3-2 Human factors for video display terminals standards 3.3-

3.3-3 Human factors for keyboards standards 3.3-

3.3-4 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices standards 3.3-

3.3-5 Human factors for the physical environment standards 3.3-

3.3-6 Data stream encoding standards 3.3-

3.3-7 Data stream interface standards 3.3-

3.3-8 Subroutine foundation library standards 3.3-

3.3-9 Raster data interchange standards 3.3-

3.3-10 Communication between GUI client applications standards 3.3-

3.3-11 User Interface Management System standards 3.3-

3.3-12 Data interchange format for GUI-based applications standards 3.3-

3.3-13 X Logical Font Description standards 3.3-

3.3-14 Compound text encoding standards 3.3-

3.3-15 Uniform API standards 3.3-

3.3-16 X Windows over OSI standards 3.3-

3.3-17 Application programming interfaces standards 3.3-

3.3-18 User Interface Definition Language standards 3.3-

3.3-19 Graphical user interface style guides standards 3.3-

3.3-20 Three-dimensional appearance standards 3.3-

3.3-21 Interchange format for design tools standards 3.3-

3.3-22 Customization to local norms standards 3.3-

3.3-23 Language bindings for GUIs standards 3.3-

3.3-24 Visualization standards 3.3-

3.3-25 Color use standards 3.3-

3.3-26 Independent window management services standards 3.3-

3.3-27 Multiple displays standards 3.3-

3.3-28 Shared screens standards 3.3-

3.3-29 On-line help standards 3.3-

3.3-30 Drivability standards 3.3-

3.3-31 Commands, menus, and dialog services standards 3.3-

3.3-32 Input device management and control standards 3.3-

3.3-33 Multimedia input APIs to windows-based systems standards 3.3-

3.3-34 Style guide standards 3.3-

3.3-35 Character-based terminal support standards 3.3-

3.3-36 Electronic forms standards 3.3-

3.3-37 Voice recognition standards 3.3-

3.3-38 Speech synthesis standards 3.3-

3.3-39 Voice messaging standards 3.3-

3.3-40 User interface security labeling standards 3.3-

3.3-41 Personal authentication standards 3.3-

3.3 User interface services. User interface services define how users may interact with an application. Depending on the capabilities required by users and the applications, these interfaces may include window management, dialog support, and user interface security.

NOTE: throughout Part 3, all tables shall have abbreviations listed under the column (Standard Type) as follows:

a. National Public Consensus = NPC
b. International Public Consensus = IPC
c. Government Public Consensus = GPC
d. Consortia Public Consensus = CPC
e. Corporate Private Non-Consensus = CPN-C

3.3.1 Introduction. The user interface is a combination of menus, screen design, keyboard commands, command language, and help screens, which create the way a user interacts with a computer. The use of mice, touch screens, and other input hardware are included as part of the user interface. A well-designed user interface is vital to the success of an application.

A graphical user interface (GUI) lets users initiate, enter, and exit applications and manipulate the commands in those applications primarily by the use of a pointing device (often a mouse). A GUI uses a visual metaphor (icons) representing actual desktop objects. The user can access and manipulate these icons with a pointing device on the display.

User Interface Services (UIS) provide a consistent way for the people who develop, administer, and use a system to gain access to applications programs, operating systems, and various system utilities. UIS standards define the multi-tier environment which exists between applications and the operating system and hardware of the computer platform.

Historically, software applications interfaced directly to the operating system and even to the platform hardware. The advent of the GUI and the desire for easy to use, platform-independent, uniform interfaces for user applications have led to a layered approach to interfacing well behaved, user friendly applications to operating systems and platforms. Modern GUI based applications predominately interface through a high level Windowing Application Programming Interface (API) which provides a common look and feel to users across applications via a supplied toolkit of functions and data structures. This interface is explicitly designed to be platform independent. The Windowing API interfaces to a Basic Windowing Toolkit which provides middle level windowing functionality. At this level, the emphasis is also on platform independence, but look and feel is not as tightly controlled as at the higher level. This basic toolkit interfaces to a set of toolkit primitives which supplies an operating system and platform specific interface. Thus, it should be possible to write cross-platform applications using Windowing API calls and require implementation of platform and operating system specific tailoring at the primitives level. These three intervening layers between the platform and the operating system are the areas of concern for UIS.

The Adopted Information Technology Standards (AITS) and ITSG recognize Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) POSIX operating systems and hardware as the open system of choice for the Department of Defense (DOD). Graphical user interface oriented applications and environments are emphasized over character-based interfaces. This emphasis arises from the realization that, for modern computer systems, GUIs can provide consistent, easy-to-use software to users and thereby lower training time and expense and enhance individual productivity. An information system architecture must address not only the technical features of the user interface but also the human engineering considerations. Thus, many of the UIS standards discussed in this part of the ITSG address the specification of aspects of a GUI environment layering on a POSIX operating system.

The major UIS standards issues facing DOD is the widespread use within DOD of Microsoft Windows (MS Windows) GUI platforms. This usage mirrors the 85% commercial market dominance of MS Windows. While POSIX systems are the adopted DOD standard, the vast majority of DOD systems are based upon MS Windows. Commercial users may accept the proprietary MS Windows as a de facto standard, but the DOD OSE mandate does not allow the adoption of this single vendor product as a standard with the resulting total reliance of the US defense establishment on the caprice of a single corporation. Unfortunately due to economic and office automation compatibility reasons, these platforms are commonly procured for DOD agencies and services in circumvention of the OSE standards.

A solution to this issue is being sought in the current consortium development activity by a working group within the European Computer Manufacturer's Association (ECMA) to produce an ISO standard for an Applications Programming Interface for Windows (APIW). The APIW will be an open specification based upon key MS Windows 3.1 functionality. This ECMA/ISO standard will allow eventual adoption of the APIW by DOD as a GUI windowing API, thus legitimizing existing Windows platforms and encouraging other vendors to develop alternate, compliant UIS windowing products.

There are several standards defining organizations which are significant contributors to UIS IT standards. To aid the reader in following the standards discussions in this chapter, these organizations are briefing described in the following paragraphs.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), part of the Department of Commerce, is the primary standards defining agency for the US government. NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards, produces the Applications Portability Profile (APP) and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). NIST Standards in this chapter are labeled as GPC.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is an open, non-profit standards making body composed of over 10,000 engineers, scientists, and students in electronics and related fields. IEEE produces telecommunications and computing standards include those for and relating to the POSIX operating system. Adopted IEEE standards for UIS are noted as NPC.

The Open Software Foundation (OSF) is a non-profit organization which emphasizes the development of open computing environment standard products. Motif and the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) are their primary UIS standard specifications. ITSG adopted OSF standards are CPC.

X/OPEN is a consortium of computer manufacturers which promotes the development of information technology specifications based on UNIX and provides a program for product branding. X/OPEN standards are denoted as CPC.

The Common Open Software Environment (COSE) was a consortium of six UNIX vendors. COSE in now defunct and its primary standard specification, the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is now being developed by X/OPEN.

The Organization for International Standards (ISO) sets a broad range of international standards. For information technology, ISO has established the Joint Technical Committee for Information Technology (JTC1). ISO UIS standards are labeled as IPC.

Several standards, particularly those which relate to GUIs, are referenced by a number of base service areas discussed in the following sections. Additionally, while each set of standards associated with a base service area are summarized in a table in each section, there is significant overlap between these common standards. A summary of these key standards, the various base service areas addressed by each, and the overlap of the standards is presented in the following discussion.

FIPS 158-1, The User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile, October 8, 1993, adapts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF) specifications of the X Window System, Version 11, Release 5 (X11R5). (See following paragraph.) This current version supersedes the original FIPS 158, X-Windows User Interface, May 1990, which was based upon X Windows System, Version 11, Release 3 (X11R3) and compatible with X11R4. (The name of the older standard differs from the current standard as it predated the existence of the NIST APP.) A new version, FIPS 158-2, is being developed to adopt the new X11R6 windowing standard. Whenever FIPS 158-1 is referenced in a base service area, it is the adopted standard in the AITS. Components of this standard are referenced in the following base service areas (BSAs):

3.3.3.1 Data stream encoding

3.3.3.2 Data stream interface

3.3.3.3 Subroutine foundation library

3.3.3.4 Raster data interchange

3.3.3.6 User Interface Management System

3.3.3.7 Data interchange format for GUI-based applications

3.3.4.4 Three-dimensional appearance

The original FIPS 158 is noted in these base service areas as a superseded standard which supports legacy systems based upon X11R3 and X11R4. FIPS 158-2 is noted as a formative standard in the base service area called Communications between GUI client applications.

X11R6 is the current release (May 1994) of the X-Windows standard developed by the MIT X Consortium. It is a GUI standard which provides portability of information across hardware and operating systems and allows applications and resources to be distributed across a network, based upon a client-server architecture. X11R6 implements advanced windowing concepts and support "thread safe" multi-threading. As no significant products are as yet available for the newly released X11R6, the previous version, X11R5, as adopted by FIPS 158-1, remains as the accepted secondary reference standard for many UIS BSAs, including all BSAs noted above, except Raster data interchange and User Interface Management System. Additionally, X11R5 and X11R6 are referenced independently in the following base service areas:

3.3.4.6 Customization to local norms

3.3.5.1 Independent window management services

X11R6 is listed as the primary standard in base service area called X windows over Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) at 3.3.3.11. X11R5 does not address this BSA.

OSF/Motif Version 2.0 is the current version (June 1994) of the Open Systems Foundation specification for GUI behavior and screen appearance for applications running on systems that support X11R5. It includes an API consisting of a toolkit (adopted by IEEE MTE, 1295), a User Interface Language, the Application Environment Specification (AES), and a style guide. It is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in the new X11R6 standard. As no significant products are as yet available for the newly released Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2 remains as the reference standard for many UIS BSAs. Adoption of Motif 2.0 as an ITSG standard will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved. Components of the Consortia Public Consensus Motif 2.0 and 1.2 standards are referenced in the following base service areas:

3.3.3.1 Data stream encoding

3.3.3.2 Data stream interface

3.3.3.3 Subroutine foundation library

3.3.3.6 User Interface Management System

3.3.3.7 Data interchange format for GUI-based applications

3.3.3.8 X Logical Font Description

3.3.3.9 Compound text encoding

3.3.4.1 Application programming interfaces

3.3.4.2 User Interface Definition Language

3.3.4.3 GUI style guides

3.3.4.5 Interchange format for design tools

3.3.4.6 Customization to local norms

3.3.4.7 Language bindings for GUIs

3.3.5.1 Independent window management services

3.3.5.2 Multiple displays

3.3.5.4 On-line help

3.3.5.5 Drivability

3.3.5.6 Commands, menus, and dialog services

The IEEE Modular Toolkit Environment (IEEE MTE, 1295) is a standard for GUI applications and user interfaces to open systems and defines the application interface to display objects (widgets) built upon the X Window System X Toolkit Intrinsics. It adopts the software interface toolkit associated with OSF/Motif Version 1.2. As with Motif, the MTE defines a C language binding. It is referenced as an approved standard in base service areas Application programming interfaces, 3.3.4.1, and Language bindings for GUIs, 3.3.4.7.

The Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide, Version 3.0, is a DOD publication that provides a common framework for HCI design and implementation with particular emphasis on standard look and feel for GUI based applications. It is currently published as volume 8 of the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM). This DOD style guide is adopted as the AITS standard in the following base service areas:

3.3.2.2 Human factors for video display terminals

3.3.2.3 Human factors for keyboards

3.3.2.4 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices

3.3.2.5 Human factors for the physical environment

3.3.4.3 GUI style guides

3.3.4.6 Customization to local norms

3.3.4.9 Color use

3.3.5.4 On-line help

3.3.5.5 Drivability

3.3.5.6 Commands, menus, and dialog services

3.3.8.1 User interface security labeling

UIS standards must be consistent with other ITSG service areas. It has already been noted that UIS standards are consistent with the DOD mandate of the POSIX operating system standard. Three other base service areas discussed in this part of ITSG have a direct overlap with other service areas. These areas and the overlapping service areas are listed below:

3.3.8 Security base service areas, cloned from the equivalent base service areas in Security Services.

3.3.3.4 Raster data interchange, cloned from the BSA in Data Interchange Services and coincident with the BSA in Graphics Services.

3.3.6.3 Electronic forms, cloned from the BSA in Data Management Services and coincident with the BSA in Data Interchange Services.

Modern systems and applications are and will be based upon graphical user interfaces and the associated standards for such systems. However, many legacy systems still include a large number of character-based terminals. Base service areas for character-based display terminals discuss standards which can be applied to such systems. No recommendations are made as to the use of these standards on legacy systems, since such recommendations may be inappropriately or uneconomically applied to such systems. Should a new system be developed employing such technology, the appropriate character-based standards should be used.

3.3.2 User interface hardware. User interface hardware deals with all forms of hardware used to provide an interface between humans and computers. These devices include, for example, keyboards.

3.3.2.1 Keyboard device layout. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 14, Internationalization.) Keyboard device layout standards specify the arrangement of keys on a keyboard.

3.3.2.1.1 Standards. Table 3.3-1 presents standards for keyboard device layout.

TABLE 3.3-1 Keyboard device layout standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layouts for Text and Office Systems

9995-1..8:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Standard Keyboard Arrangements

MIL-STD-1280, Notice 1, 1969

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Allocation of Letters to the Keys of Numeric Keypads

T1.703 (1995)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Coded Character Sets for Keyboard Arrangement in ANSI X4.23-1982 and X4.22-1983

X3.114-1984 (R1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Keyboard Arrangement

X3.154-1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Alternate Keyboard Arrangement

X3.207-1991

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Key Values (in Window Management, Issue 3)

XPG3 Vol. 6 C216

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Numeric Applications

3791:1976

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Numeric Keyboard for Home Electronic Systems (HES)

946:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Common Secondary Keyboard Layout for Languages Using a Latin Alphabet

115 (1986)

Informational

(Canceled)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) part 4: Keyboard requirements

9241-4

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard for International Information Processing Interchange Using the ISO 7-Bit Coded Character Set - Alphanumeric Area

2530:1975

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Text/Office Systems

3243:1975

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Text/Office Systems

3244:1984

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Text/Office Systems

8884:1987

Informational

(Superseded)

NPC

ANSI

Keyboard Arrangement

X4.23-1982

Informational

(Superseded)

3.3.2.1.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.2.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.2.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.2.1.5 Related standards. No standards are related to keyboard device layout standards.

3.3.2.1.6 Recommendations. Conformance to all ISO and ISO/IEC keyboard specifications conforming to DIS or IS levels is recommended. This is especially important for equipment that will interoperate with that of U.S. allies (e.g., NATO).

3.3.2.2 Human factors for video display terminals. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) This base service area addresses the human factors requirements for all types of video displays, and includes safety concerns.

3.3.2.2.1 Standards. Table 3.3-2 presents human factors standards for video display terminals.

TABLE 3.3-2 Human factors for video display terminals standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 1: Introduction

9241-1:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 2: Task Requirements

9241-2: 1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 3: Visual Display Requirements

9241-3:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Requirements for Non-CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Visual Display Units

136 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles in the Design of Work Systems

6385:1981

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Electronic Imaging Output Displays

TR19-1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Guide to Working Safely with Computers - Manual (relates to VDTs)

13068-0000

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Procedure for Measurement of Emissions of Electric and Magnetic Fields from VDUs from 5 Hz to 400 kHz`

172 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 8: Requirements for displayed colors

9241-8

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 7: Display requirements with reflections

9241-7

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Flat Panel Display Ergonomic Requirements

13406

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Requirements for Colour Visual Display Devices

126 (1987)

Informational

(Canceled)

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Requirements for Monochromatic Visual Display Devices

110 (1985)

Informational

(Canceled)

3.3.2.2.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available.

3.3.2.2.3 Standards deficiencies. The performance-based test described in ISO 9241-3 adequately discriminates between a display that meets the physical requirements of the standard and one that does not. However, timing scores may be badly affected by the effects of testing practice. Changes to the test method and metrics are under consideration. ISO 9241-3 does not adequately address flat panel displays. ISO 13406 is intended to remedy this situation.

3.3.2.2.4 Portability caveats. No portability problems are known with the above specifications.

3.3.2.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for video display terminals:

a. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load, Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

b. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definition of Human Factors Terms.

c. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

d. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems (Air Force published, but rarely used, duplicates MIL-STD-1472).

e. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

f. MIL-HDBK-761A(1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

g. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

h. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

i. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

j. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.3.2.2.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require hardware components to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for computer displays. Display characteristics include brightness and contrast, character legibility, image stability, glare, and the use of color.

Note, however, that ISO human factors/ergonomics standards are either normative or informative. An informative standard contains no mandatory requirements. A normative standard contains one or more requirements that must be met in order to achieve conformance with the standard.

ISO 9241-1 presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the Committee Draft (CD) level and will soon be released for Draft International Standard (DIS) ballot. ISO 9241-2 presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative. Part 3 of the ISO 9241 standard is normative; parts 2-9 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance requirements for each normative part are embedded within that part. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

Procurements must recognize the difference between informative and normative parts of the standard in question. Where possible, both the informative and normative parts should be required for the best implementation of modern human factors/ergonomic thinking. In general, conformance tests for informative parts will not be available.

The ISO and ISO/IEC standards cited in the gray area of the table are being balloted and revised at a rapid rate. Interested parties should monitor the progress of these standards at six month intervals to ensure they have the latest information. Offerers of products meeting existing or emerging standards should be required to provide a migration plan to ensure compliance of the products with the final standards documents.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended, in particular section 3, which deals with hardware.

3.3.2.3 Human factors for keyboards. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) This BSA covers keyboard layout, including specific directions for layout of regions of the keyboard, and keyboard design. Ease of use and correct ergonomic design also are a part of this BSA.

3.3.2.3.1 Standards. Table 3.3-3 presents human factors standards for keyboards.

TABLE 3.3-3 Human factors for keyboards standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 1: General principles governing keyboard layout

9995-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 2: Alphanumeric section

9995-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 3: Common secondary layout of the alphanumeric section

9995-3:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 4: Numeric section

9995-4:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 5: Editing section

9995-5:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 6: Function section

9995-6:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 7: Symbols used to represent functions

9995-7:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 8: Allocation of Letters to the Keys of a Numeric Keyboard

9995-8:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Coded Character Sets for Keyboard Arrangement in ANSI X4.23-1982 and X4.22-1983

X3.114-1984 (R1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Keyboard Arrangement

X3.154-1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Alternate Keyboard Arrangement

X3.207-1991

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Standard Keyboard Arrangements

MIL-STD-1280, Notice 1, 1969

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

IEC

Man-Machine Interface (MMI) - Actuating Principles

447:1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Cumulative Trauma Disorders: a Manual for Musculoskeletal Diseases of the Upper Limbs

12221-0000

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles in the Design of Work Systems

6385:1981

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ACGIH

Ergonomic Interventions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Injuries in Industry

9000:1987

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Evaluating Your Workplace: Hands & Arms - Ergonomic Changes Manual

12587-0004

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) part 4: Keyboard requirements

9241-4

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

3.3.2.3.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available.

3.3.2.3.3 Standards deficiencies. MIL-STD-1472D is in need of a comprehensive revision to update technical material so that it is reasonably consistent with the state of the art and to ensure that the two commands not currently using the standard can do so.

3.3.2.3.4 Portability caveats. No portability problems are known with the above specifications.

3.3.2.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for keyboards:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs), part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ISO 9241-2:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 2: Task Requirements, presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

c. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load -- Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

d. MIL-STD-1908 (1992), Definition of Human Factors Terms.

e. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

f. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems.

g. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

h. MIL-HDBK-761A(1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

i. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

j. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

k. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

l. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.3.2.3.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require hardware components to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for keyboards. Keyboard characteristics include keyboard height, slope, profile, surface properties, adjustability, bounce and character repeat, key positioning, key displacement and force, keytop shape, and keytop legends.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard (see related standards) are informative. Parts 2-9 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance requirements for each normative part are embedded within that part. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

Parts 1-8 of the ISO/IEC 9995 standard are normative. Conformance requirements for each normative part are embedded within that part. Conformance with the overall ISO 9995 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended, particularly for section 3, which covers hardware.

3.3.2.4 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) This section presents human factors standards for input devices other than keyboards. These devices include trackballs, pens, and tablets among others.

3.3.2.4.1 Standards. Table 3.3-4 presents human factors standards for non-keyboard input devices.

TABLE 3.3-4 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 7: Symbols used to represent functions

9995-7:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

IEC

Man-Machine Interface (MMI) - Actuating Principles

447:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles in the Design of Work Systems

6385:1981

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Cumulative Trauma Disorders: a Manual for Musculoskeletal Diseases of the Upper Limbs

12221-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Evaluating Your Workplace: Hands & Arms - Ergonomic Changes Manual

12587-0004

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Cumulative Trauma

15229-0000

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ACGIH

Ergonomic Interventions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Injuries in Industry

9000:1987

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Text and Office Systems, Dialog Interaction Part 1: Cursor Control

10741-1:1992

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 9: Requirements for non-keyboard input devices

9241-9

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

3.3.2.4.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available. Research in this area includes a foot operated control for the cursor when the hands are occupied (nicknamed a "mole" in obvious derivation from "mouse").

3.3.2.4.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the cited standards are not known.

3.3.2.4.4 Portability caveats. No portability problems are known with the above specifications.

3.3.2.4.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for non-keyboard input devices:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ISO 9241-2:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 2: Task Requirements, presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

c. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load -- Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

d. MIL-STD-1908 (1992), Definition of Human Factors Terms.

e. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

f. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems.

g. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

h. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

i. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

j. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

k. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

l. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.3.2.4.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require hardware components to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for non-keyboard input devices. Ergonomic issues for non-keyboard input devices include keyclick, tracking speed, and on-screen ghosting of the pointer.

Parts 1 and 2 of ISO 9241 are informative. Parts 2-9 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product. Parts 1-8 of ISO/IEC 9995 are normative. Conformance with the overall ISO 9995 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product. Part 1 of the ISO/IEC 10741 standard is expected to be normative on completion.

Procurements must recognize the difference between informative and normative parts of the standard in question. Where possible, both the informative and normative parts should be required for the best implementation of modern human factors/ergonomic thinking. In general, conformance tests for informative parts will not be available.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended particularly for section 3, which covers hardware.

3.3.2.5 Human factors for the physical environment. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) Procurements that require computing environments to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for illuminance, glare, acoustic noise, the thermal environment, electromagnetic emissions, computer workspace design and furniture design.

The effects of low-level non-ionized radiation, particularly from CRTs, on humans have been a controversial topic. Over the years there have been articles advising pregnant women who have a prior history of miscarriage to stay away from working in computer areas. During the cold war, the Soviets were suspected of secretly bombarding foreigners with non-ionized radiation to study long term effects. People who live near high voltage power lines and have developed cancer are suspected victims of electromagnetic radiation. While there are no hard theories to describe the relationship between health problems and this kind of radiation, let alone a standard established. Some VDT vendors have made claims regarding the emissions of their products and there are aftermarket shields available that may provide some protection against this form of radiation.

Laser printers are said to emit ozone during the printing process. In an enclosed area, high levels of ozone can be unhealthy or even toxic. This issue is still unclear. It remains to be seen how much ozone is emitted and what concentrations are hazardous.

3.3.2.5.1 Standards. Table 3.3-5 presents human factors standards for the physical environment.

TABLE 3.3-5 Human factors for the physical environment standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif Style Guide

Motif SG Rev. 1.2:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPN-C

Microsoft

The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide, Microsoft Press, 1992

API Design Guide

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Noise Limits for Military Material

MIL-STD-1474C of 8 March 1991

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Physical Ear Noise Attenuation Testing

MIL-STD-912 of 11 December 1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles Related to Mental Work Load - General Terms and Definitions

10075:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Principles of Visual Ergonomics - Lighting of Indoor Work Systems

8995:1989

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Expression of Users' Requirements Part 1: Thermal Requirements

6242-1:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Expression of Users' Requirements Part 2: Air Purity Requirements

6242-2:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Expression of Users' Requirements Part 3: Acoustical Requirements

6242-3:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

Considerations Used in Establishing the X-Radiation Ratings of Monochrome and Color Direct-View Television Picture and Data Display Tubes

TEP 194, Amd 1 1987, Amd 2 1988

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Ergonomics in Computerized Offices

12223-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Guide to Working Safely with Computers - Manual (relates to VDTs)

13068-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Guide to Working Safely with Computers

13608-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Working Safely with Your Computer

15223-0000

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Recommendations for VDU (Visual Display Units) Work Places

TR/22 (1984)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Application of Human Engineering to Advanced Aircrew Systems

3994 (1984)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Computer and Business Equipment

74 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Measurement of High Frequency Noise Emitted by Computer and Business Equipment

108 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Declared Noise Emission Values of Computer and Business Equipment

109 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Determination of Sound Power Levels of Computer and Business Equipment Using Sound Intensity Measurements; Scanning Method in Controlled Rooms

160 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 5: Workplace requirements

9241-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 6: Environmental requirements

9241-6

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 7: Display requirements with reflections

9241-7

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

3.3.2.5.2 Alternative specifications. MPR II 1990:8 (Test Methods for Visual Display Units, Section 2.0.1) is a Swedish document containing recommended values for electronic emissions from visual display units. While not an ISO standard, it serves as a de facto electromagnetic emissions standard for displays in most other countries. Many vendors of monitors claim compliance with this or a similar specification. After-market radiation and glare shields are also available.

3.3.2.5.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are not known.

3.3.2.5.4 Portability caveats. MIL-STD-1474C's criteria are more stringent than those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and also covers additional topics such as nondetectability. This standard may be incorporated into the next revision of MIL-STD-1472, eliminating the need to retain MIL-STD-1474C.

3.3.2.5.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for computer environments:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs, part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ANSI/ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, 1992.

c. ANSI S12.10-1985, Method for Measurement and Designation of Noise Emitted by Computer and Business Equipment.

d. ANSI S1.13-1971, Methods for the Measurement of Sound Pressure Levels.

e. ANSI X5.1-1985, Tests for General Office Chairs.

f. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

g. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems.

h. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

i. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

j. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

k. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

l. MIL-STD-740-1 (1986) Airborne Sound Measurements and Acceptance Criteria of Shipboard Equipment.

m. MIL-STD-740-2 (1986) Structureborne Vibratory Acceleration Measurements Acceptance Criteria of Shipboard Equipment.

n. MIL-STD-1294A (1985) Acoustical Noise Limits in Helicopters.

o. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.3.2.5.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable. Parts 2-9 and 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended particularly for section 3, which covers hardware.

3.3.3 GUI client-server operations. Graphical client-server operations define the relationships between client and server processes operating within a network; in particular, graphical user interface display processes. The program that controls each display unit is a server process, while independent user programs are client processes that request display services from the server.

3.3.3.1 Data stream encoding. Data stream encoding provides a client-server protocol to interface between the local windowing system and the outside world.

3.3.3.1.1 Standards. Table 3.3-6 presents standards for data stream encoding.

TABLE 3.3-6 Data stream encoding standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

X Window System Protocol (X Protocol)

C150 (7/91)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

Data Stream Encoding (X Protocol)

X11R6 (1994)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

X-Windows User Interface (same as in X11R3)

FIPS PUB 158

Informational

(Superseded)

3.3.3.1.2 Alternative specifications. The Sun Microsystems X11/NeWS specification is also available for appropriate legacy systems. Users of X11/NeWS need Sun's proprietary "libcps" library instead of Xlib. (See Data stream interface.)

3.3.3.1.3 Standards deficiencies. A formal standards effort is no longer in progress for the X Protocol because the American National Standards Institute (ANSI X3H3.6) X Protocol effort has been disbanded. Efforts to resume its work have failed and there will be no ANSI X Protocol standard. If the X Protocol is required for a procurement, reference Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 158-1 (which references the MIT X Consortium).

As no significant products are as yet available for the newly released X11R6, the previous version, X11R5, as adopted by FIPS 158-1, remains as the accepted secondary reference standard.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.3.1.4 Portability caveats. System V Interface Definition (SVID) users with Sun's X11/NeWS (instead of the X Protocol) need Sun's proprietary "libcps" library instead of Xlib (see Data stream interface).

3.3.3.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to data stream encoding or data stream encoding standards:

a. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC18/WG9: Working on a Voice Messaging User Interface Forum (VMUIF). (This effort moves the ANSI work of X3V1.9 to International Standard (IS) status.)

b. ANSI X3V1.9 User-System Interfaces and Symbols committee: Working on a Voice Messaging User Interface Forum (VMUIF).

c. X Consortium: Data Stream Interface (Xlib).

d. X Consortium: Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM).

3.3.3.1.6 Recommendations. The MIT X Consortium X11R5 Data Stream Encoding (X Protocol) is recommended in all procurements using a client-server computing architecture in a networked environment. It is specified in FIPS 158-1 and the NIST APP (NIST Special Publication 500-187). FIPS 158-1 is the current release of the government standard which adopts the MIT X Consortium X11R5 specification. If the X Protocol is required for a procurement, provision should be made for hard copy output systems to be delivered in a portable manner or for such systems to be developed in-house.

FIPS 158 is the original version of this standard and adopts the X11R3 specification. It is included in the table for support of legacy systems. Motif 1.2 is the reference version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces.

3.3.3.2 Data stream interface. The data stream interface is a library of interfaces to the data stream and the graphical object library. It is not to be confused with a library of subroutines which implements graphical objects (e.g., Xt Intrinsics).

3.3.3.2.1 Standards. Table 3.3-7 presents standards for the data stream interface.

TABLE 3.3-7 Data stream interface standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif 1.2

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

XLIB - C Language Binding

C140 (8/91)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

Data Stream Interface (Xlib)

X11R6 (1994)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

X-Windows User Interface (same as in X11R3)

FIPS PUB 158

Informational

(Superseded)

3.3.3.2.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are available only to support legacy systems:

a. Sun's X11/NeWS, which uses Sun's proprietary "libcps" library. This library is not compatible with the X Consortium's Xlib.

b. Application Programming Interface for Windows (APIW).

c. Systems Application Architecture (SAA)'s Presentation Manager.

These specifications are referenced here for completeness and are not recommended for use in systems which do not require support of legacy components.

3.3.3.2.3 Standards deficiencies. As no significant products are as yet available for the newly released X11R6, the previous version, X11R5, as adopted by FIPS 158-1, remains as the accepted secondary reference standard.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.3.2.4 Portability caveats. Sun Microsystems "libcps" library, included in X11/NeWS, is not compatible with the X Consortium's Xlib.

3.3.3.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to data stream interface or data stream interface standards:

a. X Consortium: X Protocol.

b. X Consortium: Xt Intrinsics.

3.3.3.2.6 Recommendations. The MIT X Consortium X11R5 Data Stream Interface (Xlib) is required in all procurements using a client-server computing architecture with a graphical user interface in a networked environment. It is specified in FIPS 158-1 and NIST Special Publication 500-187, Application Portability Profile (NIST APP). FIPS 158-1 is the current release of the government standard which adopts the MIT X Consortium X11R5 specification.

FIPS 158 is the original version of this standard and adopts the X11R3 specification. It is included in the table for support of legacy systems. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces.

3.3.3.3 Subroutine foundation library. The subroutine foundation library is a library of basic objects to use in implementing or customizing a graphical user interface.

3.3.3.3.1 Standards. Table 3.3-8 presents standards for the subroutine foundation library.

TABLE 3.3-8 Subroutine foundation library standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

X Toolkit Intrinsics (Xt Intrinsics)

C160 (7/91)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

Subroutine Foundation Library (Xt Intrinsics)

X11R6 (1994)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

X-Windows User Interface (same as in X11R3)

FIPS PUB 158

Informational

(Superseded)

3.3.3.3.2 Alternative specifications. The following proprietary specifications are available for support of legacy systems:

a. X11/NeWS, which uses Sun Microsystems Xview Intrinsics, instead of the X Consortium's Xt Intrinsics.

b. Applications Programming Interface for Windows (APIW) Intrinsics.

c. IBM Presentation Manager.

3.3.3.3.3 Standards deficiencies. As no significant products are as yet available for the newly released X11R6, the previous version, X11R5, as adopted by FIPS 158-1, remains as the accepted secondary reference standard.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.3.3.4 Portability caveats. Sun's Xview Intrinsics included in X11/NeWs, is not compatible with the X Consortium's Xt Intrinsics.

Intrinsics from proprietary but widely-used offerings from Microsoft Windows' Presentation Manager, IBM's SAA Presentation Manager, and Apple Computer's Macintosh interface are not compatible with one another or with Xt Intrinsics.

3.3.3.3.5 Related standards. The following specifications are related to the subroutine foundation library or subroutine foundation library standards:

a. Open Software Foundation (OSF): Motif High-Level Toolkit.

b. X Consortium: Xlib.

c. Xview.

d. The News Toolkit (TNT).

3.3.3.3.6 Recommendations. The MIT X Consortium X11R5 Xt Intrinsics Subroutine Foundation Library is recommended in all procurements using a client-server computing architecture with a graphical user interface in a networked environment. It is specified in FIPS 158-1 and the NIST APP. FIPS 158-1 is the current release of the government standard which adopts the MIT X Consortium X11R5 specification.

FIPS 158 is the original version of this standard and adopts the X11R3 specification. It is included in the table for support of legacy systems. Motif 1.2 is the reference version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces.

3.3.3.4 Raster data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 3, part 5, and part 6.) Raster data interchange MIL SPEC identifies the requirements to be met when raster graphics data represented in digital, binary format are delivered to the government. Raster graphics standards are standards for pixel-by-pixel representation of images. (See still image compression, section 3.5.8.2, for more facsimile standards suitable for raster data interchange.)

3.3.3.4.1 Standards. Table 3.3-9 presents standards for raster data interchange.

TABLE 3.3-9 Raster data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 6: Raster

9636-6:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Raster Product Format (RPF)

MIL-STD-2411:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles (formerly Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES))

10303-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

X Window System File Formats and Application Conventions (Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF))

C170 (7/91)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

General Aspects of Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA-536-1988)

FIPS PUB 149:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Facsimile Coding Schemes and Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA 538-1988)

FIPS PUB 150:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (adopts ASME/ANSI Y14.26M-1989) (IGES ver. 4)

FIPS PUB 177:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-PRF-28003

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice; File Format for Storage and Exchange of Images; Bi-Level Image File Format: Part 1

MS53-1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Standard for the Interchange of Large Format Tiled Documents

NISTIR 88-4017

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Analogue Video Standard for Aircraft System Applications

STANAG 3350

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Exchange Specifications for ARC Standardized Raster Graphics (ASRG)

STANAG 4387:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Specifications for UTM/UPS Standardized Raster Products (USRP)

STANAG 7077

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Application Profile for the Interchange of Formatted Mixed Mode Document - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.501 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Application Profile for the Interchange of Group 4 Facsimile Documents

T.503 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

AIIM

Interchange of Tiled Raster Documents

TR14:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Exchange Specifications for ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG)

STANAG 7108

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

3.3.3.4.2 Alternative specifications. Currently IGES is the most mature and widely implemented standard for conveying product data information. Other bitmap formats include proprietary formats such as GIF, PCX, TIFF, RLE, and TGA. Except for support of legacy products, these formats are not recommended.

3.3.3.4.3 Standards deficiencies. Raster graphics files require enormous amounts of storage and must be supplemented by compression standards.

3.3.3.4.4 Portability caveats. A standard technique for raster data interchange should be selected for use throughout the DOD and applied wherever possible.

3.3.3.4.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to raster data interchange or raster data interchange standards:

a. ASME/ANSI Y14.28M-1989, which describes product design and manufacturing information.

b. ITU-T, facsimile transmission standards.

c. Raster compression standards.

3.3.3.4.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended for raster data interchange.

MIL PRF-28002 (Raster) can be used in a Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) environment, and, when needed, supplemented by National Institute of Standards and Technology Interim Report (NISTIR) 88-4017 (tiling). FIPS Pub 150 can also be used. With only the CALS Raster standard available, no real tailoring guidance is possible. This version (MIL-PRF-28002) supports engineering drawings and technical manual illustrations. The previous CALS Raster standard (MIL-R-28002B) can be used for in-place and unrevised legacy data. Tiling (as in NISTIR 88-4017) and compression are desirable for very large raster graphics files. (See the Still image compression BSA, part 3.5.8.2 of the ITSG.) MIL-PRF-28003 (CGM) offers the capability for having raster and vector graphics in the same file. The approved BDF provides conventions for font conversion/interchange between external and internal X Windows fonts and can be used in procurements using a client-server computing architecture with a graphical user interface in a networked environment. BDF can be compiled in Server Normal Format to be optimized for a particular server.

3.3.3.5 Communication between GUI client applications. Communications between GUI client applications is a functionality of a windowing system which includes the dynamic exchange of data and manual exchange via cut-and-paste operations between windows.

3.3.3.5.1 Standards. Table 3.3-10 presents standards for communication between GUI client applications.

TABLE 3.3-10 Communication between GUI client applications standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

OSF

Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

ICCCM Version 1.0

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

ICCCM Version 1.0

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

ICCM

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the APP Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

FIPS PUB 158-2

Informational

(Formative)

3.3.3.5.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary (e.g., Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE), Object Linking and Embedding(OLE)), and should be used only to support legacy products.

3.3.3.5.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.3.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.3.5.5 Related standards. The X Consortium's X Protocol is a standard which is related to interclient communications and interclient communications.

3.3.3.5.6 Recommendations. The OSF ICCCM is recommended in all procurements using a client-server computing architecture with a graphical user interface in a networked environment. It will be specified in FIPS 158-2. Note that this area is not covered in FIPS 158-1. FIPS 158-2 is a formative release of the government standard which adopts the MIT X Consortium X11R6 specification.

3.3.3.6 User Interface Management System. The User Interface Management System (UIMS) is a CASE-like GUI building tool, which can be used to develop GUI-based applications that are portable across platforms with different appearance and functionality.

3.3.3.6.1 Standards. Table 3.3-11 presents standards for the user interface management system.

TABLE 3.3-11 User Interface Management System standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif User Interface Management System (UIMS)

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.3.6.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available to support legacy systems:

a. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Serpent UIMS (unsupported).

b. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA) Transportable Application Environment (TAE+) (for Motif, based on X11R5).

3.3.3.6.3 Standards deficiencies. Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.3.6.4 Portability caveats. OSF's Motif User Interface Management System (UIMS) and USL's Xt+ user interface management systems are not compatible with one another.

3.3.3.6.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.3.3.6.6 Recommendations. If a CASE-like GUI applications prototyping tool (set) is required for a procurement, a UIMS should be acquired that works with the proprietary product to which it is matched. No formal standards efforts are in progress.

FIPS 158-1 is recommended. It is the current release of the government standard that adopts the MIT X Consortium X11R5 specification. Motif 1.2 is the reference version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces.

3.3.3.7 Data interchange format for GUI-based applications. A data interchange format for GUI-based applications allows data to be exchanged via a standard format between applications using different GUIs.

3.3.3.7.1 Standards. Table 3.3-12 presents standards for a data interchange format for GUI-based applications.

TABLE 3.3-12 Data interchange format for GUI-based applications standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

OSF

Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

ICCCM Version 1.0

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

ICCCM Version 1.0

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

ICCCM (X11R6)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the APP Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM)

FIPS PUB 158-2

Informational

(Formative)

3.3.3.7.2 Alternative specifications. The legacy supporting specification available is the Application Programming Interface for Windows (APIW): Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE).

3.3.3.7.3 Standards deficiencies. The MIT X Consortium's ICCCM provides incomplete coverage, but now defines interapplication drag and drop.

As no significant products are as yet available for the newly released X11R6, the previous version, X11R5, as adopted by FIPS 158-1, remains as the accepted secondary reference standard.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.3.7.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.3.7.5 Related standards. The X Consortium's X Protocol is related to data interchange formats for GUI-based applications.

3.3.3.7.6 Recommendations. The OSF ICCCM is recommended in all procurements using a client-server computing architecture with a graphical user interface in a networked environment. It will be specified in FIPS 158-2. Note that this area is not covered in FIPS 158-1. FIPS 158-2 is a formative release of the government standard which adopts the MIT X Consortium X11R6 specification.

If a standard data interchange format for data to be exchanged between applications using different GUIs is needed, no complete specification is available. Some capability is provided in MIT's ICCCM for X Windows-based systems, while APIW-based applications can exchange data between conforming applications using MS's DDE software.

3.3.3.8 X Logical Font Description. The X logical font description is a format for fonts in use in the X Windows System.

3.3.3.8.1 Standards. Table 3.3-13 presents standards for X logical font description.

TABLE 3.3-13 X Logical Font Description standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

X/Open

X Logical Font Description (XLFD)

XLFD Version 1.3

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Logical Font Description (XLFD)

XLFD Version 1.3

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.3.8.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.3.8.3 Standards deficiencies. Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.3.8.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.3.8.5 Related standards. The X Consortium's X Window System is related to X Logical Font Description.

3.3.3.8.6 Recommendations. The X Logical Font Description (XLFD) is recommended to provide standardized conventions for client applications to query and access fonts across all X servers in a procurement. Motif 1.2 is the reference version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. This standard equivalently includes the X Logical Font Description.

3.3.3.9 Compound text encoding. A compound document is composed of a variety of data types and formats. Each data type is linked to the application used to create it. A compound document might include audio, video, images, text, and graphics.

3.3.3.9.1 Standards. Table 3.3-14 presents standards for compound text encoding.

TABLE 3.3-14 Compound text encoding standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

X/Open

Compound Text Encoding (CTE)

CTE Version 1.1

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

Compound Text Encoding (CTE)

CTE Version 1.1

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.3.9.2 Alternative specifications. No other specifications are available.

3.3.3.9.3 Standards deficiencies. Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.3.9.4 Portability caveats. OSF's Motif support of two CTEs can result in portability problems.

3.3.3.9.5 Related standards. The X Consortium's X Window System is related to compound text encoding.

3.3.3.9.6 Recommendations. The CTE for a standards-based X Windows interchange format for multiple character sets in a procurement is recommended. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. This standard equivalently specifies a Compound Text Encoding standard.

3.3.3.10 Uniform API. A uniform GUI API toolkit is a software library defining a layer between application specific code and a system specific GUI code, as defined by a platform or system specific toolkit (API). It does not directly provide window or graphics support, but it should allow software developers to write their applications to one common interface regardless of the underlying (native) GUI of a particular system or platform.

3.3.3.10.1 Standards. Table 3.3-15 presents standards for a uniform API.

TABLE 3.3-15 Uniform API standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.3.3.10.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are available:

a. Planning Research Corporation's (PRC) THINGS (The Higher-Level Interface-Non-GUI Specific): A public domain specification developed under a U. S. Air Force Contract.

b. TAE Plus (Transportable Applications Environment Plus): A public domain window programming tools specification developed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Century Computing, Inc.

3.3.3.10.3 Standards deficiencies. No standards exist for UAPIs.

3.3.3.10.4 Portability caveats. All existing UAPIs are proprietary products. There are no standards for their implementation.

3.3.3.10.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to GUI uniform toolkit APIs:

a. IEEE P1201.2: Drivability (recommended practice, in ballot).

b. OSF: Motif.

3.3.3.10.6 Recommendations. The IEEE P1201.1 working group, which was attempting to produce a standard in this area, has disbanded. There is a lack of interest in this area by the commercial software community. A number of proprietary products are available for the development of cross-platform applications based upon a uniform API. All existing UAPIs are proprietary products. There are no standards for their implementation. If a proprietary UAPI toolkit must be selected, one supporting Ada should be chosen.

3.3.3.11 X Windows over OSI. (This BSA appears in part 3 and part 11.) These are standards for implementing the X Window System in an application running on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol stack.

3.3.3.11.1 Standards. Table 3.3-16 presents standards for X Windows over OSI.

TABLE 3.3-16 X Windows over OSI standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Windows Over OSI

X11R6

Informational

(Formative)

3.3.3.11.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.3.11.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.3.11.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.3.11.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to implementing X Windows over the OSI stack:

a. X Consortium: X Window System.

b. ISO: OSI Stack.

3.3.3.11.6 Recommendations. No formal standard is available to support a procurement for X Windows running on the OSI stack and none is in progress. The MIT X Consortium intends to incorporate a version of the European Workshop for Open Systems (EWOS) X Windows over OSI specification in a future X11 release (X11R6), which probably will be adopted by X/Open and appear in a future version of FIPS 146, the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile. The manner in which X11R6 handles "safe threading" to support multi-threaded applications is inconsistent with the Motif 2.0 standard, which is based upon X11R5. Motif 2.0 will execute on X11R6, but thread-safe operation is not assured. X11R6 is the current version of the X Windows Version 11 GUI standard.

3.3.4 Object definition and management. GUI object definitions are display objects specifications that define characteristics of display elements such as color, shape, size, movement, graphics context, user preferences, interactions among display elements.

3.3.4.1 Application programming interfaces. An application programming interface (API) is a library of predefined higher-level objects which defines a programming "layer" to facilitate development of applications. A GUI API usually is designed to implement a GUI for a particular environment and, therefore, may not produce portable applications. A uniform GUI API supports common functionality across operating systems and platforms specifically to promote portability.

3.3.4.1.1 Standards. Table 3.3-17 presents standards for application programming interfaces.

TABLE 3.3-17 Application programming interfaces standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

X/Open

Common Desktop Environment (CDE); XCDE Services and Applications

C323 (4/95)

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Common Desktop Environment (CDE); XCDE Definitions and Infrastructure

C324 (4/95)

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Modular Toolkit Environment (MTE)

1295:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Application Programming Interface for Windows (APIW)

234 (1995)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

CDEnext/Motif (CDE/Motif under OSF Prestructured Technology (PST))

CDE/Motif PST

Emerging

(Formative)

3.3.4.1.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary and should only be used to support legacy software.

3.3.4.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Formal and government standards will not be available in the near-to-medium term.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 is resolved.

3.3.4.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.4.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to APIs or API standards:

a. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC18/WG9: Working on a VMUIF. (This effort moves the ANSI work of X3V1.9 to ISO status.) The group also is developing standards for user interfaces and symbols associated with text and office systems.)

b. ISO DIS 11730 FIMS.

c. ANSI X3V1.9 User-System Interfaces and Symbols committee: Working on a VMUIF.

3.3.4.1.6 Recommendations. The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is recommended. CDE is a unified UNIX interface based on a highly customized Motif toolkit. Initially developed by the Common Open Software Environment (COSE), it is now part of a unified, vendor-neutral development of CDE, Motif, and the X Window System under the X Consortium. CDE provides a more modern and robust GUI interface than Motif for POSIX platforms as well as a more robust development environment. CDE is found in two companion documents, C323 and C324.

The IEEE 1295 standard is based upon a C language binding to Motif. A number of products are available which support the development of applications using an IEEE 1295 like Ada API interface. An IEEE study group is currently beginning the process of specifying an Ada-95 binding to MTE (IEEE 1295) and Motif. IEEE 1295 adopts the C language toolkit defined by the OSF/Motif 1.2 specification. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces.

An ECMA working group has developed an API specification for Windows based upon MS Windows 3.1 functionality. This specification will provide an ISO open standard for interfacing to MS Windows and similar alternate GUIs.

3.3.4.2 User Interface Definition Language. A User Interface Language (UIL) is a rapid prototyping tool that simplifies programming of GUI-based applications. It allows application developers to create a file containing a high-level description of an interface's graphical objects and resources.

3.3.4.2.1 Standards. Table 3.3-18 presents standards for user interface definition language.

TABLE 3.3-18 User Interface Definition Language standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

OSF

Motif User Interface Language (UIL)

Motif AES 1.2

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.4.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary and are not recommended except in support of legacy systems.

3.3.4.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.4.2.4 Portability caveats. The OSF Motif User Interface Language (UIL)/User Interface Management Services (UIMS) and the USL Xt+ user interface definition languages are not compatible with one another.

3.3.4.2.5 Related standards. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.4.2.6 Recommendations. Motif UIL is recommended. A UIL usually is contained within a UIMS. A UIMS may contain a UIL with additional tools. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. It includes the specification of the UIL.

3.3.4.3 Graphical user interface style guides. A GUI's style guide, which is part of the presentation management layer in the NIST's User Interface Reference Model, specifies a standard "look" for the GUI of an application to the user.

3.3.4.3.1 Standards. Table 3.3-19 presents graphical user interface style guides.

TABLE 3.3-19 Graphical user interface style guides standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif Style Guide

Motif SG Rev. 1.2:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Principles of Presentation of Information in Aircrew Stations

STANAG 3705

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

User/Computer Interface

MIL-STD-1801 29 May 1987

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

MIL-STD-1800A 10 Oct. 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Handbook, Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

MIL-HDBK-761A 30 Sep. 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software

ESD-TR-86-278

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Air Force Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) Style Guide

IDHS Style Guide 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Factors Guidelines for the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Soldier-Machine Interface

ATCCS Guidelines v.1.0 and v.2.0, 1990 and 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

The User Interface Specifications for Navy Command and Control Systems

Navy CCS, Version 1.1, 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

DOD-HDBK-71A (DOD 1989c)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

MIL-STD-46855B 26 May 1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems Style Guide

DODIIS Style Guide, 10/91

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 10: Dialogue principles

9241-10:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 11: Guidance on usability specifications and measures

9241-11

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 12: Presentation of information

9241-12

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 13: User guidance

9241-13

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 14: Menu dialogs

9241-14

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 15: Command language dialogs

9241-15

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Officer Work with VDTs Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogs

9241-16

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 17: Form-filling dialogs

9241-17

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Graphical Symbols Used on Screens: Interactive Icons

11581

Informational

(Draft (CD))

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

GPC

DOD

Joint Satellite Control (JSC) Human Computer Interface Standard, Version 1.0

JSC HCI Std., 1.0

Informational

(Draft)

3.3.4.3.2 Alternative specifications. Several applicable consortia or de facto style guides are available for software user interfaces. These style guides promote consistency in user interface design across applications. However, conformance with one or more the style guides listed below does not guarantee conformance with ergonomic standards (e.g., ISO 9241). These style guides include:

a. The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide (Microsoft)

b. Object-Oriented Interface design: IBM Common User Access Guidelines (IBM)

c. Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines (Apple Computer)

d. SAA Presentation Manager Style Guide/ Common User Access (CUA) (IBM)

e. Standard User Interface Style Guide for Compartmented Mode Workstations (Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA))

f. Compartmented Mode Workstation Labeling: Source Code and User Interface Guidelines (DIA)

g. Air Force Standard Systems Center GUI Style Guide, SSCR 700-10, Vol I

h. User Interface Specifications for the Global Command and Control System (GCCS), Version 1.0, draft, October 1994

i. Theater Battle Management Style Guide (U.S. Navy)

j. Army Theater Battle Management HCI Specification

k. Navy JMCIS.

3.3.4.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Currently, conformance to parts 12-17 of the ISO 9241 standard is on a part-by-part basis. There is concern that the overall standard may thus fail to address potential ergonomic problems arising from interactions between the user interface elements covered by the individual parts.

There is concern that ISO/IEC 11581 may contain overly rigid specifications for the set of icon shapes that can be used to represent different user interface parts.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.4.3.4 Portability caveats. NIST FIPS 158-1 (User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile) mandates the use of the X Window protocol, X library, and X toolkit intrinsics. IEEE P1201.2, when completed, is intended to increase the level of user interface consistency (and thus user interface portability) across X Windows-based environments. There are potential conflicts here.

DOD HCI Style Guide is based on (and intended to supersede) the Army, Navy, Air Force, and DODIIS style guides cited in the table above. The goal of this effort is to minimize unnecessary user interface diversity across DOD systems. There are potential problems with systems designed to accommodate different style guides.

MIL-STD-1800 is an Air Force-only standard that duplicates MIL-STD-1472D and is largely ignored in Air Force acquisitions. It has been recommended that MIL-STD-1800 be canceled and any value added material be added to MIL-STD-1472D.

3.3.4.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to user interface style guides:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ISO 9241-2:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 2: Task Requirements, present an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

c. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load -- Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well- being, performance, and effectiveness.

d. MIL-STD-1908 (1992), Definition of Human Factors Terms.

e. NIST FIPS 158-1, User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile.

f. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

g. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

h. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

i. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

j. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

k. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.3.4.3.6 Recommendations. A style guide is necessary for development of all GUIs. There are no formal standards efforts in this area. A style guide is part of the Presentation Layer in NIST FIPS 158-1. Procurements that require software user interfaces to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for menu structures, command languages, direct manipulation dialogs, forms-based dialogs, windowing, icons, screen formatting, information coding, and user guidance.

It is recommended that the practices of the DOD HCI Style Guide, TAFIM, Volume 8 be followed. It provides a common framework for HCI design and implementation with emphasis on standard look and feel for GUI based applications. As many aspects of standard GUI style are application specific, application area style guides should also be used when available. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. It includes a style guide for GUI interfaces and is also recommended.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative; parts 10 and 11 are expected to be informative on completion. Parts 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product. The ISO/IEC 11581 standard is expected to be normative on completion.

3.3.4.4 Three-dimensional appearance. Modern, color GUI applications make use of a three-dimensional appearance which is more pleasing to the user than the older two-dimensional appearance of monochrome GUIs.

3.3.4.4.1 Standards. Table 3.3-20 presents standards for three-dimensional appearance.

TABLE 3.3-20 Three-dimensional appearance standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Consortium's PHIGS-based 3-D Extension to the X Window System (PEX)

X11R5

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Consortium's PHIGS-based 3-D Extension to X Window System (PEX)

X11R6

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.4.4.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.4.4.3 Standards deficiencies. As no significant products are as yet available for the newly released X11R6, the previous version, X11R5, as adopted by FIPS 158-1, remains as the accepted secondary reference standard.

3.3.4.4.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.4.4.5 Related standards. The standard related to integration of 3-D graphics with GUIs is ISO 9592-1, -2, -3: PHIGS (Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System).

3.3.4.4.6 Recommendations. Conformance to FIPS 158-1, which subsumes PHIGS Extension to X (PEX), is required if 3-D extensions to X Windows based on the PHIGS graphics standard (ISO 9592) are needed. FIPS 158-1 is the current release of the government standard which adopts the MIT X Consortium X11R5 specification. These standards specify the PHIGS Extension to X Windows (PEX).

3.3.4.5 Interchange format for design tools. A common, GUI-independent Interchange Format for Interactive Design Tools (IDTIF) would allow different tools for developing interactive graphical windowing applications to exchange graphic objects and basic screen information.

3.3.4.5.1 Standards. Table 3.3-21 presents standards for interchange formats for design tools.

TABLE 3.3-21 Interchange format for design tools standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

X/Open

Common Desktop Environment (CDE); XCDE Services and Applications

C323 (4/95)

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Common Desktop Environment (CDE); XCDE Definitions and Infrastructure

C324 (4/95)

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

OSF User Interface Management System (UIMS) Working Group

UIMS WG

Informational

(Formative)

CPC

OSF

CDEnext/Motif (CDE/Motif under OSF Prestructured Technology (PST))

CDE/Motif PST

Emerging

(Formative)

3.3.4.5.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.3.4.5.3 Standards deficiencies. Interactive Design Tools (IDT) that want to interchange graphic objects and screen information need a common GUI-independent Interchange Format (IF). There are few of these tools (IDTs), and they do not have a common IDTIF. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.4.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing specification are unknown.

3.3.4.5.5 Related standards. No standards are related to design tool interchange format standards.

3.3.4.5.6 Recommendations. Consortia work on IDTIF specifications is in the early stages. Tools must be procured for specific GUIs, and these cannot work with tools for other GUIs.

The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is recommended. CDE is a unified UNIX interface based on a highly customized Motif toolkit. Initially developed by the Common Open Software Environment (COSE), it is now part of a unified, vendor-neutral development of CDE, Motif, and the X Window System under the X Consortium. CDE provides a more modern and robust GUI interface than Motif for POSIX platforms as well as a more robust development environment. CDE is found in two companion documents, C323 and C324.

3.3.4.6 Customization to local norms. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, part 13, Human Factors, and part 14, Internationalization.) Customization to local norms involves modification of the key mapping to accommodate the local language and display of data in the commonly-used format (e.g., numbers, dates, time).

3.3.4.6.1 Standards. Table 3.3-22 presents standards for customization to local norms.

TABLE 3.3-22 Customization to local norms standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation Guide, version 2

G304 (7/93)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Locale Registry Procedures

G303 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif 1.2 (consistent with X/Open's NLS specifications & also double-byte character sets)

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Window System (X font manager- includes double-byte character sets)

X11R5

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Standard Keyboard Arrangements

MIL-STD-1280, Notice 1, 1969

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

User/Computer Interface

MIL-STD-1801 29 May 1987

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

MIL-STD-1800A 10 Oct. 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Handbook, Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

MIL-HDBK-761A 30 Sep. 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software

ESD-TR-86-278

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems Style Guide

DODIIS Style Guide, 10/91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Air Force Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) Style Guide

IDHS Style Guide 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Factors Guidelines for the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Soldier-Machine Interface

ATCCS Guidelines v.1.0 and v.2.0, 1990 and 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

The User Interface Specifications for Navy Command and Control Systems

Navy CCS, Version 1.1, 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

DOD-HDBK-71A (DOD 1989c)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Distributed Internationalisation Services

S213 (11/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation of Internetworking Specifications

S302 (4/93)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

File System Safe UCS Transformation Format (FSS-UTF)

P316 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

System Interface and Headers, Issue 3

C212 (3/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Supplementary Definitions, Issue 3

C213 (3/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set Coexistence and Migration

E401 (3/94)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/SAE

Human Interface Design Methodology for Integrated Display Symbology

ARP 4155 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

MIL-STD-46855B 26 May 1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification (Spec. 1170), System Interface Definitions, Issue 4, Version 2 (part of XPG4)

C434 (9/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification (Spec. 1170), System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 4, Version 2, (Part of XPG4)

C435 (9/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Locale Registry Procedures, Version 2

G502 (5/95)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation Guide, Version 3

G503 (11/95)

Informational

(TBD)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 11: Guidance on usability specifications and measures

9241-11

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 12: Presentation of information

9241-12

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

GPC

DOD

Joint Satellite Control (JSC) Human Computer Interface Standard, Version 1.0

JSC HCI Std., 1.0

Informational

(Draft)

3.3.4.6.2 Alternative specifications. Several applicable consortia or de facto style guides are available for internationalization. However, conformance with one or more the style guides listed below does not guarantee conformance with ergonomic standards:

a. The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide (Microsoft)

b. Object-Oriented Interface design: IBM Common User Access Guidelines (IBM)

c. Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines (Apple Computer).

3.3.4.6.3 Standards deficiencies. Currently, conformance to parts 12-17 of the ISO 9241 standard is on a part-by-part basis. There is concern that the overall standard may thus fail to address potential ergonomic problems arising from interactions between the user interface elements covered by the individual parts.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.4.6.4 Portability caveats. Although Motif supports the X/Open Native Language System, it also supports a number of its own internationalization extensions which makes it incompatible with some legacy specifications.

NIST FIPS 158-1 (User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile) mandates the use of the X Window protocol, X library, and X toolkit intrinsics. IEEE P1201.2, when completed, is intended to increase the level of user interface consistency (and thus user interface portability) across X Windows-based environments. There are potential conflicts here.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is based on (and intended to supersede) the Army, Navy, Air Force, and DODIIS style guides cited in the table above. The goal of this effort is to minimize unnecessary user interface diversity across DOD systems. There are potential problems with systems designed to accommodate different style guides.

3.3.4.6.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to cultural convention services:

a. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L001 (1994): ja_JP - Japanese for Japan.

b. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L002 (1994): da_DK - Danish for Denmark.

c. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L003 (1994): de_AT - German for Austria.

d. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L004 (1994): en_DK - English for Denmark.

e. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L005 (1994): fo_FO - Faroese for the Faroes.

f. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L006 (1994) is_IS - Icelandic for Iceland.

g. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L007 (1994) kl_GL - Greenlandic for Greenland.

h. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L008 (1994) lt_LT - Lithuanian for Lithuania.

i. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L009 (1994): lv_LV - Latvian for Latvia.

j. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L010 (1994): de_CH - German for Switzerland.

k. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L011 (1994): de_DE - German for Germany.

l. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L012 (1994): en_GB - English for Great Britain.

m. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L013 (1994): en_IE - English for Ireland.

n. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L014 (1994): en_US - English for the U.S.A.

o. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L015 (1994): hu_HU - Hungarian for Hungary.

p. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L016 (1994): it_IT - Italian for Italy.

q. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L017 (1994): nl_NL - Dutch for the Netherlands.

r. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L018 (1994): pl_PL - Polish for Poland.

s. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L019 (1994): pt_PT - Portuguese for Portugal.

t. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L020 (1994): ro_RO - Romanian for Romania.

u. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

v. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definitions of Human Factors Terms.

w. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

3.3.4.6.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require software user interfaces to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for menu structures, command languages, direct manipulation dialogs, forms-based dialogs, windowing, icons, screen formatting, information coding, and user guidance.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative; parts 10 and 11 are expected to be informative on completion. Part 3 of the ISO 9241 standard is normative; parts 2-9 and 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

Procurements must recognize the difference between informative and normative parts of the standard in question. Where possible, both the informative and normative parts should be required for the best implementation of modern human factors/ergonomic thinking. In general, conformance tests for informative parts will not be available.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended for customization to local norms.

3.3.4.7 Language bindings for GUIs. These are specifications for language bindings for the display, manipulation, and management of objects in windows on a raster graphics screen.

3.3.4.7.1 Standards. Table 3.3-23 presents standards for language bindings for GUIs.

TABLE 3.3-23 Language bindings for GUIs standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

IEEE

Modular Toolkit Environment (MTE)

1295:1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif binding to C

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.4.7.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available for support of legacy systems:

a. Rational Systems implements Xlib with an Ada binding.

b. The Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS) program has an Ada binding for Xlib and Xt Intrinsics.

c. APIW.

d. Ada bindings for Motif.

3.3.4.7.3 Standards deficiencies. The X Window system was designed with the C language in mind. Ada code can interface with the X libraries, which are written in C, but fundamental semantic incompatibilities exist between the Ada and C programming languages.

No open-standard bindings are present from Ada to any GUI or GUI toolkit, so an Ada application will have to be written to a GUI/toolkit using a nonstandard binding with portability severely compromised.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.4.7.4 Portability caveats. Although Ada compiler vendors are required by the Ada Language Reference Manual to provide the capability for Ada to call routines written in other languages, they are not required to provide a capability that allows routines written in other languages to call Ada programs. The result is reduced portability, interoperability, and integratability between the X Window system and Ada systems.

3.3.4.7.5 Related standards. GUI standards and language standards are related.

3.3.4.7.6 Recommendations. An IEEE study group has begun work on the specification of an Ada-95 binding to IEEE 1295/Motif. Several proprietary products are available which supply an Ada-83 binding to Motif. Most of these interface to C function libraries (Xlib, Xt Intrinsics), although at least one such product has directly reprogrammed these libraries into Ada-83. If an Ada application must be interfaced via an IEEE 1295 C binding, a layered approach should be taken which limits the direct calls of C functions by the application. This will allow a smoother transition to a future standard Ada binding to Motif. Program managers for procurements specifying graphical windowing interfaces should take a practical and realistic approach in view of the current lack of a standard for Ada bindings to GUIs. Choice of an existing library which takes this layering approach is desirable.

IEEE 1295 adopts the C language toolkit defined by the OSF/Motif 1.2 specification. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces.

3.3.4.8 Visualization. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) Visualization is the method of displaying data in a graphical manner to aid in recognition of patterns and trends in data and to give the viewer a depiction of a physical system that has been modeled by data points (e.g., finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)). Another technique is the visualization user interface (VUI), a GUI that interprets text and numbers as pictures to show their relative scales and other relationships. A VUI remodels data so that text and numbers are hidden behind a picture expressing their complex relationships. Engineering visualization is a term freely applied to almost any intersection where the engineering process meets image creation technologies.

3.3.4.8.1 Standards. Table 3.3-24 presents standards for visualization.

TABLE 3.3-24 Visualization standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI/SAE

Aerodynamic Flow Visualization Techniques and Procedures

HS J1566 - 1986

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.4.8.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available, but extensive academic research on this topic is taking place, particularly in the University of Maryland's Human-computer Interaction Laboratory and the Software Psychology Society. Topics include using treemaps for visualizing hierarchical information, using statistical distortion to promote the detection of outlying data, and use of color coding as a visualization aid.

3.3.4.8.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.4.8.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.4.8.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to visualization standards:

a. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems

b. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

c. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definitions of Human Factors Terms

d. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

e. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

3.3.4.8.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations for visualization itself, but it does require the use of power graphics generation if a dynamic system will be shown, rather than a series of static views. Other requirements can include a high degree of mathematical precision and single-pixel accuracy in rendering.

3.3.4.9 Color use. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) The use of color is a vital part of communication with the user of computer applications. Computer representation of color is done through the use of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color separation method which must be used to approximate color definitions used in graphic technologies.

3.3.4.9.1 Standards. Table 3.3-25 presents standards for color use.

TABLE 3.3-25 Color use standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

CIE

Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color-Difference Equations, and Psychrometric Color Terms

CIE Pub. 15, Suppl. 2 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Aircraft Electronic Colour Display Systems

STANAG 3940 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 8: Requirements for displayed colors

9241-8

Informational

(Draft)

3.3.4.9.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications include any user interface style guide that addresses the use and meaning of color.

3.3.4.9.3 Standards deficiencies. Comparison of color defined by the existing standards assumes identical viewing conditions. There are no standards directly addressing comparisons across viewing environments, although developers are working on models.

3.3.4.9.4 Portability caveats. Translation of color from one color definition system to another can be difficult and is only an approximation at best. There are three different color definitions from the CIE. They are CIEXYZ, CIELAB, and CIELUV. These standards have existed for a long time and are seen as the common basis for any future unifying definitions.

One problem with the use of color is color blindness. To accommodate the color blind, if color is used to convey important information, then a second method should also be used (such as brightness of the color).

3.3.4.9.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for the use of color:

a. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems

b. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

c. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definitions of Human Factors Terms

d. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Info. Systems

e. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

3.3.4.9.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable. The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended, particularly section 4.3 which addresses the use and meaning of color.

3.3.5 Window management. Window management specifications define how windows are created, moved, stored, retrieved, removed, and related to each other.

3.3.5.1 Independent window management services. (This BSA appears both in part 3 and part 9.) Window management services are a necessary part of any windows system to perform functions such as resizing or moving windows. These services are not to be confused with services managing individual windows as though they were separate terminals.

3.3.5.1.1 Standards. Table 3.3-26 presents standards for independent window management services.

TABLE 3.3-26 Independent window management services standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

IEEE

Modular Toolkit Environment (MTE)

1295:1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Window System (Tab Window Manager)

X11R5

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.5.1.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available for legacy support:

a. APIW

b. USL/Sun Open Look Windows Manager (olwm)

c. IBM SAA Presentation Manager Window Manager.

3.3.5.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Although all window managers perform functions such as window resizing and moving (window manipulation), some do not manage their windows independently, as if each window were a separate system. Failure to manage windows independently may create situations in which an application seizing in one window may propagate the errors to other windows causing them to seize (lock up). In addition, without an independent window manager, usually it is not possible to invoke programs that run in graphical mode at the same time (but in different windows on the same screen) as programs running in character mode. Certain windows systems running under single-tasking DOS also do not support independent window managers.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.5.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.5.1.5 Related standards. No standards are related to independent window management standards.

3.3.5.1.6 Recommendations. A procurement should specify a Windows Manager that accommodates window manipulation and application seizure protection. Windows systems using X Windows operating on protected operating systems like UNIX are more robust (i.e., the failure of one application will not cause other applications to fail automatically) than some running on the unprotected DOS operating system.

3.3.5.2 Multiple displays. Multiple display services allow the use of multiple, possibly heterogeneous, displays as separate windows within an application.

3.3.5.2.1 Standards. Table 3.3-27 presents standards for multiple displays.

TABLE 3.3-27 Multiple displays standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.5.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary and should only be used to support legacy systems.

3.3.5.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is avaiable and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.5.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.5.2.5 Related standards. No standards are related to multiple display standards.

3.3.5.2.6 Recommendations. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. Motif 1.2 includes specifications for multiple physical displays used in the same logical display without downgrading the performance of the most advanced display to that of the least advanced.

3.3.5.3 Shared screens. Shared screen capabilities enable two or more workstations to display the same screen simultaneously. Changes made by one user can be seen by others as they are made. Shared screens can be implemented in two ways. One way enables people to view each other's screen, while one person makes changes. The other way enables people to run the same application on both screens so both users can make changes simultaneously.

3.3.5.3.1 Standards. Table 3.3-28 presents standards for shared screens.

TABLE 3.3-28 Shared screens standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.3.5.3.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.5.3.3 Standards deficiencies. There are no standards to have deficiencies.

3.3.5.3.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.3.5.3.5 Related standards. Currently, no standard specifies sharing and updating by two or more users on the same screen(s), and none are anticipated.

3.3.5.3.6 Recommendations. No standards-based way to require that screens be sharable and updatable by two or more communicating users working on the same screen(s) is available for a procurement, and no standards are anticipated.

3.3.5.4 On-line help. On-line help allows the user to access application reference material directly from the application or system through the computer.

3.3.5.4.1 Standards. Table 3.3-29 presents standards for on-line help.

TABLE 3.3-29 On-line help standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

3.3.5.4.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.5.4.3 Standards deficiencies. On-line help is included in the P1201.2 Drivability specification. However, this document is a "Recommended Practice" rather than an IEEE standard.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 are resolved.

3.3.5.4.4 Portability caveats. There are no known portability problems with the existing standards.

3.3.5.4.5 Related standards. No standards are related to on-line help standards.

3.3.5.4.6 Recommendations. The only specification for on-line help available for a procurement is the specification provided by the proprietary GUIs. The P1201.2 effort is not yet available. The DOD HCI Style Guide, TAFIM, Volume 8, is recommended for its partial specification.

3.3.5.5 Drivability. Drivability refers to the ease with which users may transfer from one GUI "look and feel" or application to another with minimal interference, errors, confusion, relearning, or retraining. The intent is to eliminate error provoking inconsistencies, misleading expectations about the results of user actions, gross inconsistencies in the high-level user model or metaphor, and incompatible motor control tendencies. This only relates to those aspects for which consistency is necessary to promote easy transfer among conforming environments.

3.3.5.5.1 Standards. Table 3.3-30 presents standards for drivability.

TABLE 3.3-30 Drivability standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif Style Guide

Motif SG Rev. 1.2:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

3.3.5.5.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. APIW drivability

b. IBM: SAA's Common User Access (CUA).

3.3.5.5.3 Standards deficiencies. Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 is resolved.

3.3.5.5.4 Portability caveats. The IEEE P1201.2 Working Group, is producing a "Recommended Practice" rather than a mandatory standard. This specification uses the best features from commercial products, as well as features from various ISO standards and human-computer interface research. Its hybridization prevents it from being completely compatible with any particular commercial product. Portability problems can result if vendors selectively implement parts of P1201.2.

3.3.5.5.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to drivability or drivability standards:

a. ISO DIS 9995 Parts 1-7: Keyboard Layouts.

b. ISO TC159/SC4/WG5: This software Ergonomics and Man-Machine Dialog committee is developing parts of ISO 9241 ("Ergonomics of Visual Display Terminals").

c. ANSI X3V1.9 User-System Interfaces and Symbols committee: Working on a VMUIF.

d. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC18/WG9: Working on a VMUIF. (This effort moves the ANSI work of X3V1.9 to ISO status.) The group also is developing standards for user interfaces and symbols associated with text and office systems.

e. ANSI HFS-HCI: This ANSI committee is working on drafts on the design process, information presentation, forms-based dialog, and window-based interaction.

3.3.5.5.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended. IEEE P1201.2 specifies recommended practice for drivability of GUI based applications. IEEE P1201.2 will be recommended for use once completed.

3.3.5.6 Commands, menus, and dialog services. In any software system it is necessary for users to command it to perform functions. In a GUI commands are entered either by pointing and clicking on a menu item, or by entering commands interactively in data entry windows known as dialogs. Dialog support services translate the data entered for display to that which is actually displayed on the screen (e.g., cursor movements, keyboard data entry, external data entry devices).

3.3.5.6.1 Standards. Table 3.3-31 presents standards for command, menu, and dialog services.

TABLE 3.3-31 Commands, menus, and dialog services standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Software Ergonomics and Man-Machine Dialogue

TC159/SC4/WG5

Informational

(Draft)

3.3.5.6.2 Alternative specifications. The following proprietary specifications are available for support of legacy systems:

a. IBM: SAA Presentation Manager
b. Microsoft: MS Windows.

3.3.5.6.3 Standards deficiencies. The emerging ISO standard on Software Ergonomics and Man-Machine Dialogue (under development in ISO TC159/SC4/WG5) contains only text-based style information rather than implementable specifications.

Motif 2.0 is somewhat incompatible with the multi-threading implementation in X11R6.

As no significant products are as yet available for Motif 2.0, the previous version, Motif 1.2, remains as the reference standard. Adoption of Motif 2.0 will be delayed until an appropriate threshold of Motif 2.0 products is available and until potential conflicts between Motif 2.0 and X11R6 is resolved.

3.3.5.6.4 Portability caveats. Because the ISO effort only addresses style, products written to the ISO standard may not be portable.

3.3.5.6.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to dialog, command, and menu service standards:

a. ISO TC159/SC4/WG5: This software Ergonomics and Man-Machine Dialog committee is developing parts of ISO 9241 ("Ergonomics of Visual Display Terminals").

b. ISO 11730 Forms Interface Management System (FIMS).

c. ANSI HFS-HCI: This ANSI committee is working on the design process, information presentation, forms-based dialogs, and window-based interaction.

3.3.5.6.6 Recommendations. No strong recommendation can be made. For specifying how to enter commands in graphical menus through dialogs, only proprietary offerings are available for procurement. The ISO effort is in its early stages and, even when it is complete, it will not offer implementable specifications but, rather, style information.

The Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide is recomomended. This style guide provides a common framework for HCI design and implementation with emphasis on standard look and feel for GUI based applications.

3.3.5.7 Input device management and control. Input device management covers the keyboard, pointing devices, tablets, and touch screens which allow the user to control the application.

3.3.5.7.1 Standards. Table 3.3-32 presents standards for input device management and control.

TABLE 3.3-32 Input device management and control standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.3.5.7.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.5.7.3 Standards deficiencies. Such input devices as pointing devices, tablets, and touch screens have no input device service standards, and none are known to be developing.

3.3.5.7.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.3.5.7.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to input device management and control:

a. ISO DIS 9995 Parts 1-7: Keyboard Layouts.

b. ANSI X3V1.9 User-System Interfaces and Symbols committee: Working on a VMUIF.

c. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC18/WG9: Working on a VMUIF. (This effort moves the ANSI work of X3V1.9 to ISO status.)

3.3.5.7.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations.

3.3.5.8 Multimedia input APIs to windows-based systems. Multimedia input refers to the integration of windows systems with non-traditional computer input, such as audio (digital and voice) and video (photographic and full motion).

3.3.5.8.1 Standards. Table 3.3-33 presents standards for multimedia input APIs to windows-based systems.

TABLE 3.3-33 Multimedia input APIs to windows-based systems standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.3.5.8.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.5.8.3 Standards deficiencies. There are no multimedia API standards for windows-based systems, and none are known to be under development.

3.3.5.8.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.3.5.8.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to multimedia input APIs or their standards:

a. ANSI X3V1.9 User-System Interfaces and Symbols committee: Working on a VMUIF.

b. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC18/WG9: Working on a VMUIF. (This effort moves the ANSI work of X3V1.9 to ISO status.)

3.3.5.8.6 Recommendations. There are no standards to recommend.

3.3.6 Character-based user interface. Character-based user interface can be either a command-line interface or a menu-driven interface similar to a graphical user interface, but it does not use graphics and may depend solely on the keyboard for user input, i.e., not make use of an explicit pointing device. Modern systems and applications are and will be based upon graphical user interfaces and the associated standards for such systems. However, many legacy systems still include a large number of character-based terminals. The following sections discuss standards which can be applied to such systems. No recommendations will be made as to the use of these standards on legacy systems, since such recommendations may be inappropriately or uneconomically applied to such systems.

3.3.6.1 Style guide. A style guide, which is part of the Presentation Management layer in the NIST User Interface Reference Model, determines the "look" of an interface. Many style guides for GUIs have application to character-based interfaces.

3.3.6.1.1 Standards. Table 3.3-34 presents style guides.

TABLE 3.3-34 Style guide standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Principles of Presentation of Information in Aircrew Stations

STANAG 3705

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

User/Computer Interface

MIL-STD-1801 29 May 1987

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

MIL-STD-1800A 10 Oct. 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Handbook, Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

MIL-HDBK-761A 30 Sep. 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software

ESD-TR-86-278

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems Style Guide

DODIIS Style Guide, 10/91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Air Force Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) Style Guide

IDHS Style Guide 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Factors Guidelines for the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Soldier-Machine Interface

ATCCS Guidelines v.1.0 and v.2.0, 1990 and 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

The User Interface Specifications for Navy Command and Control Systems

Navy CCS, Version 1.1, 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

DOD-HDBK-71A (DOD 1989c)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

MIL-STD-46855B 26 May 1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 10: Dialogue principles

9241-10:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 11: Guidance on usability specifications and measures

9241-11

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 12: Presentation of information

9241-12

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 13: User guidance

9241-13

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 14: Menu dialogs

9241-14

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 15: Command language dialogs

9241-15

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Officer Work with VDTs Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogs

9241-16

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 17: Form-filling dialogs

9241-17

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Graphical Symbols Used on Screens: Interactive Icons

11581

Informational

(Draft (CD))

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

GPC

DOD

Joint Satellite Control (JSC) Human Computer Interface Standard, Version 1.0

JSC HCI Std., 1.0

Informational

(Draft)

3.3.6.1.2 Alternative specifications. Several applicable consort or de facto style guides are available for software user interfaces. These style guides promote consistency in user interface design across applications. However, conformance with one or more of the style guides listed below does not guarantee conformance with ergonomic standards (e.g., ISO 9241). These style guides include the following:

a. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Standard User Interface Style Guide for Compartmented Mode Workstations.

b. DDS-2600-6215-91: Compartmented Mode Workstation Labeling: Source Code and User Interface Guidelines.

d. The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide (Microsoft).

e. Object-Oriented Interface Design: IBM common user Access Guidelines (IBM).

f. Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines (Apple Computer).

g. SAA Presentation Manager Style Guide/Common User Access (CUA) (IBM).

h. Air Force Standard Systems Center GUI Style Guide, SSCR 700-010, Vol. I.

i. User Interface Specifications for the Global command and Control System (GCCS), version 1.0, draft, October 1994.

j. Theater Battle Management Style Guide (U.S. Navy).

k. Army Theater Battle Management HCI Specification.

l. Navy JMCIS.

3.3.6.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.6.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.6.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to user interface style guides:

a. DOD Human-Computer Interface (HCI)Style Guide, TAFIM Volume 8, Version 2.0, 30 September 1994. The Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide provides a common framework for HCI design and implementation with emphasis on standard look and feel for GUI based applications.

b. OSF Motif Style Guide, Motif SG Rev. 1.2:1992.

c. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot. (Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative; parts 10 and 11 are expected to be informative on completion. Parts 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.)

d. ISO 9241-2:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 2: Task Requirements, presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

e. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load -- Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

f. MIL-STD-1908 (1992), Definition of Human Factors Terms.

g. NIST FIPS 158-1, User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile.

h. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

i. MIL-HDBK-759B(2)(1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

j. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

k. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

l. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Opening Procedures.

m. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.3.6.1.6 Recommendations. No recommendation is made for legacy systems which are based upon a character-based interface. Modifications of software running on such systems should be consistent with the existing look and feel of the system. New systems should be based on equipment which supports GUI applications.

3.3.6.2 Character-based terminal support. These specifications provide the ability to mimic a GUI interface on a character-based terminal.

3.3.6.2.1 Standards. Table 3.3-35 presents standards for character-based terminal support.

TABLE 3.3-35 Character-based terminal support standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

DIA

AlphaWindows

AlphaWindows

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.6.2.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available to support legacy systems:

a. USL's SVID, which provides screen/menu enhancements to Curses, which will be compatible with Open Look.

b. Some proprietary implementations of Motif and MS Windows on character-based terminals.

3.3.6.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.3.6.2.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.3.6.2.5 Related standards. Some virtual APIs can provide character terminal support.

3.3.6.2.6 Recommendations. No recommendation is made for legacy system which are based upon a character-based interface.

AlphaWindows specifies a standard developed by the Display Industry Association for displaying applications software on low-cost terminals which do not support graphics.

3.3.6.3 Electronic forms. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, part 4, Data Management, and part 5, Data Interchange.) These standards specify the functional interface requirements, transfer of various fields and the interface between programming languages and form filling applications for use on a terminal display.

3.3.6.3.1 Standards. Table 3.3-36 presents standards for electronic forms.

TABLE 3.3-36 Electronic forms standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

DOD Standardized Electronic Forms Requirements

JIEO-E-2300

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Forms Interface Management System (FIMS)

11730:1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP 2): Virtual Terminal Forms Class Profile

FIPS PUB 146-1:1991

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single UNIX Specification (Spec. 1170) Commands and Utilities, Issue 4, Version 2 (part of XPG4)

C436 (9/94)

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification: X/Open Curses, Issue 4 (part of XPG4)

C437 (2/95)

Emerging

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Forms Management Program Procedures Manual

DOD 7750.7-M

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Numerous vendors

Query by Forms

Query by Forms

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Virtual Terminal Basic Class Service, Amendment 2: Additional Functional Units (forms capability)

9040:1990 DAM 2

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Virtual Terminal (VT) Basic Class Protocol, Part 1, Amendment 2: Additional Functional Units (Forms Capability)

9041-1:1990 DAM 2

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalized Terminal Interfaces (XCURSES), Issue 4

S422 (4/94)

Informational

(Superseded)

3.3.6.3.2 Alternative specifications. The Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) 4.2/4.3 UUNIX Curses are also available.

3.3.6.3.3 Standards deficiencies. The X/Open Portability Guide 4 (XPG4) Curses is based on the System V Interface Definition (SVID) Issue 2 Curses version, which does not include the SVID's forms and menu libraries.

Forms Class Virtual Terminal has bindings in C only.

DOD has developed a specification for electronic forms (JIEO-E-2300). It defines the minimum operational requirements for electronic forms software and mandates an interchange file format based on Forms Interface Management System (FIMS).

3.3.6.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.3.6.3.5 Related standards. The Forms Class Virtual Terminal requires the Synchronous mode (S-mode) of operation and specifies simple delivery control. The following standards are related to forms query and management:

a. ISO 9075: SQL
b. ANSI X3.135-1992: SQL2
c. NIST FIPS 127-2: SQL
d. NIST FIPS 193: SQL Environments

3.3.6.3.6 Recommendations. The recommended standard is JIEO-E-2300. For User Interface, FIMS should be considered. For Data Management, make sure the forms management systems are compatible with FIPS 127-2 SQL. Database forms management systems should be integrated with the SQL database language and formats set forth in FIPS PUB 127-2.

3.3.7 Audio user interface. An audio user interface allows voice commands as input or voice or digital sound output.

3.3.7.1 Voice recognition. Voice recognition is the conversion of spoken words into computer text. Speech is digitized first then matched against a dictionary of coded wave forms. The matches are converted into text as if the words were typed on the keyboard. Speaker-dependent systems must be trained before using by taking samples of actual words from the person who will use it. Speaker-independent systems can recognize limited vocabularies such as numeric digits and a handful of words.

3.3.7.1.1 Standards. Table 3.3-37 presents standards for voice recognition.

TABLE 3.3-37 Voice recognition standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.3.7.1.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.7.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.3.7.1.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.3.7.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to voice recognition or voice recognition standards:

a. ANSI X3V1.9 User-System Interfaces and Symbols committee: Working on a VMUIF.

b. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC18/WG9: Working on a VMUIF. (This effort moves the ANSI work of X3V1.9 to ISO status.)

3.3.7.1.6 Recommendations. There are no standards to recommend.

3.3.7.2 Speech synthesis. Speech synthesis is the generation of machine voice by arranging phonemes (e.g., k, ch, and sh) into words. Speech synthesis performs real time conversion without a predefined vocabulary but does not create human-sounding speech.

3.3.7.2.1 Standards. Table 3.3-38 presents standards for speech synthesis.

TABLE 3.3-38 Speech synthesis standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.3.7.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.7.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.3.7.2.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.3.7.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to speech synthesis or speech synthesis standards:

a. X3V1.9 User-System Interfaces and Symbols committee: Working on a VMUIF.

b. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC18/WG9: Working on a VMUIF. (This effort moves the ANSI work of X3V1.9 to ISO status.)

3.3.7.2.6 Recommendations. There are no standards to recommend.

3.3.7.3 Voice messaging. Voice messaging is the use of voice mail as an alternative to electronic mail, in which voice messages are recorded intentionally, not because the recipient was not available. Voice mail is a computerized telephone answering system that digitizes incoming voice messages and stores them on disks. It usually provides auto attendant capability, which uses prerecorded messages to route the caller to the appropriate person, department, or mail box.

3.3.7.3.1 Standards. Table 3.3-39 presents standards for voice messaging.

TABLE 3.3-39 Voice messaging standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

User Interface to Telephone-Based Services - Voice Messaging Applications

13714:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Voice Messaging User Interface Forum (VMUIF) (related to ANSI X3V1.9)

JTC1/SC18/WG9

Informational

(Formative)

3.3.7.3.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.3.7.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown.

3.3.7.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specification are unknown.

3.3.7.3.5 Related standards. No standards are related to voice messaging standards.

3.3.7.3.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations.

3.3.8 Security. Security concerns for user interface services concentrate on identifying and authenticating the access control restrictions placed on system users, as well as the labeling of data by which those access control decisions can be made.

3.3.8.1 User interface security labeling. (This BSA appears in part 3 and part 10.) User interface security labeling provides a human readable representation of the internal security labels associated with data management, data interchange, graphics, data communications, system, and distributed computing services.

3.3.8.1.1 Standards. Table 3.3-40 presents standards for user interface security labeling.

TABLE 3.3-40 User interface security labeling standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) Evaluation Criteria

DDS-2600-6243-92

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Encoding Format

DDS-2600-6216-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Source Code and User Interface Guidelines, Revision 1

DDS-2600-6243-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Defense Intelligence Agency Standard User Interface Style Guide for Compartmented Mode Workstations

DIA Style Guide: 1983

Informational

(Approved)

3.3.8.1.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.3.8.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.8.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.8.1.5 Related standards. DOD 5200.28-STD is a related standard. DOD 5200.1-R, "Information Security Program Regulation," June 1986, establishes DOD policy for security classification, declassification, and marking of DOD information. It also contains DOD policy for safeguarding of classified information, including accountability, storage, transmission, and destruction of the information.

Security-related interface requirements for workstations operating in System High or Compartmented Mode are discussed in DDS-2600-6243-91 and the DIA Style Guide, which provide the basis for the security portion of the HCI Style Guide (TAFIM Volume 8).

3.3.8.1.6 Recommendations. Appendix A of the TAFIM, Volume 8, DOD HCI Style Guide, outlines security presentation guidelines for workstations and is recommended.

3.3.8.2 Personal authentication. (This BSA appears in part 2, part 3, part 9, and part 10.) Personal authentication supports the accountability objective of being able to trace all security relevant events to individual users. In addition to supporting unique identification, standards are provided to authenticate the claimed identity.

3.3.8.2.1 Standards. Table 3.3-41 presents standards for personal authentication.

TABLE 3.3-41 Personal authentication standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

OSF

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Security Services

DCE 1.1 Security Services: 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Password Usage

FIPS PUB 112: 1985

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Rev. 1.2.2

DCE Rev. 1.2.2:1996

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guidelines on Evaluation of Techniques for Automated Personal Identification

FIPS PUB 48:1977

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Authentication Framework edition 2 (Same as ITU-T X.509:1993)

9594-8.2:1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guideline for Use of Advanced Authentication Technology Alternatives

FIPS PUB 190:1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

A One-Time Password System

RFC 1938: 1996

Emerging

(Draft)

IPC

CCEB

Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, (CC) Version 1.0

CC Version 1.0: 1996

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)

RFC 1510:1993

Informational

(Draft)

3.3.8.2.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.3.8.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.3.8.2.4 Portability caveats. OSF DCE Version 1.1's authentication service is based on Kerberos Version 5 (RFC 1510), but is not totally compatible with RFC 1510. DCE 1.2.2 adds testing and official support for Kerberos Version 5.

3.3.8.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to personal authentication standards (particularly TCSEC):

a. DOD 5200.28-STD, DOD Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

b. NCSC-TG-017, Version 1, "A Guide to Understanding Identification and Authentication in Trusted Systems

c. CSC-STD-002-85, "Password Management Guideline"

d. NCSC-WA-002-85, "Personal Computer Security Considerations"

e. ITU-T X.509 (1993) (same as ISO 9594-8), The Directory: Authentication Framework

3.3.8.2.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.