INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS GUIDANCE

(ITSG)

(Part 5 of 14 parts)

DATA INTERCHANGE SERVICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version 3.1 - April 7, 1997

 

 

AREA IPSC

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.5 Data interchange services 3.5-

3.5.1 Characters and symbols 3.5-

3.5.1.1 Coded character sets 3.5-

3.5.1.2 Font information interchange 3.5-

3.5.1.3 Date and time representation 3.5-

3.5.1.4 Seven-bit coded character sets 3.5-

3.5.1.5 Eight-bit coded character sets 3.5-

3.5.1.6 Eight-bit single byte character sets 3.5-

3.5.1.7 Control functions 3.5-

3.5.1.8 Character set conversion 3.5-

3.5.1.9 Code extension techniques 3.5-

3.5.1.10 Universal character sets 3.5-

3.5.1.11 External data representation 3.5-

3.5.1.12 Character set registration 3.5-

3.5.1.13 Currency and funds representation 3.5-

3.5.1.14 Country name representation 3.5-

3.5.1.15 Representation of human sexes 3.5-

3.5.1.16 Representation of names of languages 3.5-

3.5.1.17 Numerical value representation 3.5-

3.5.2 Hardware applications 3.5-

3.5.2.1 Printer data interchange 3.5-

3.5.2.2 Bar coding 3.5-

3.5.2.3 Physical interface 3.5-

3.5.3 Optical digital technologies 3.5-

3.5.3.1 Optical digital technology 3.5-

3.5.3.2 Optical character recognition 3.5-

3.5.4 Office automation document interchange 3.5-

3.5.4.1 Document interchange 3.5-

3.5.4.2 Spreadsheet data interchange 3.5-

3.5.4.3 Custom definition of document types 3.5-

3.5.4.4 Bibliographic system text retrieval 3.5-

3.5.4.5 Electronic forms 3.5-

3.5.5 Technical data interchange 3.5-

3.5.5.1 Product data interchange 3.5-

3.5.5.2 Business data interchange 3.5-

3.5.5.3 Computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool data interchange 3.5-

3.5.5.4 Circuit design data interchange 3.5-

3.5.5.5 Military logistics and document support 3.5-

3.5.5.6 Geospatial data interchange 3.5-

3.5.5.7 Symbology graphics 3.5-

3.5.5.8 Continuous Acquisition and Life-Cycle Support 3.5-

3.5.6 Graphics data interchange 3.5-

3.5.6.1 Raster data interchange 3.5-

3.5.6.2 Image data interchange 3.5-

3.5.6.3 Vector graphics data interchange 3.5-

3.5.6.4 Color definition 3.5-

3.5.6.5 Color data interchange 3.5-

3.5.6.6 Color matching 3.5-

3.5.7 DOD messaging 3.5-

3.5.7.1 Interchange of formatted military messages 3.5-

3.5.7.2 Tactical communications 3.5-

3.5.8 Compression 3.5-

3.5.8.1 Text and data compression 3.5-

3.5.8.2 Still image compression 3.5-

3.5.8.3 Motion image compression 3.5-

3.5.8.4 Audio compression 3.5-

3.5.9 Data interchange media 3.5-

3.5.9.1 Read-only optical disks 3.5-

3.5.9.2 Write-once optical disks 3.5-

3.5.9.3 Rewritable optical disks 3.5-

3.5.9.4 Support for software distributed on CD-ROM 3.5-

3.5.10 Data interchange security 3.5-

3.5.10.1 Systems confidentiality 3.5-

3.5.10.2 Data encryption security 3.5-

3.5.10.3 Data interchange security labeling 3.5-

3.5.10.4 Systems non-repudiation 3.5-

3.5.10.5 Electronic signature 3.5-

3.5.10.6 Electronic hashing 3.5-

LIST OF TABLES

3.5-1 Coded character sets standards 3.5-

3.5-2 Font information interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-3 Date and time representation standards 3.5-

3.5-4 Seven-bit coded character sets standards 3.5-

3.5-5 Eight-bit coded character sets standards 3.5-

3.5-6 Eight-bit single byte character sets standards 3.5-

3.5-7 Control functions standards 3.5-

3.5-8 Character set conversion standards 3.5-

3.5-9 Code extension techniques standards 3.5-

3.5-10 Universal character sets standards 3.5-

3.5-11 External data representation standards 3.5-

3.5-12 Character set registration standards 3.5-

3.5-13 Currency and funds representation standards 3.5-

3.5-14 Country name representation standards 3.5-

3.5-15 Representation of human sexes standards 3.5-

3.5-16 Representation of names of languages standards 3.5-

3.5-17 Numerical value representation standards 3.5-

3.5-18 Printer data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-19 Bar coding standards 3.5-

3.5-20 Physical interface standards 3.5-

3.5-21 Optical digital technology standards 3.5-

3.5-22 Optical character recognition standards 3.5-

3.5-23 Document interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-24 Spreadsheet data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-25 Custom definition of document types standards 3.5-

3.5-26 Bibliographic system text retrieval standards 3.5-

3.5-27 Electronic forms standards 3.5-

3.5-28 Product data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-29 Business data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-30 Computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool data interchange standards. 3.5-

3.5-31 Circuit design data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-32 Military logistics and document support standards 3.5-

3.5-33 Geospatial data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-34 Symbology graphics standards 3.5-

3.5-35 Continuous Acquisition and Life-Cycle Support standards 3.5-

3.5-36 Raster data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-37 Image data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-38 Vector graphics data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-39 Color definition standards 3.5-

3.5-40 Color data interchange standards 3.5-

3.5-41 Color matching standards 3.5-

3.5-42 Interchange of formatted military messages standards 3.5-

3.5-43 Tactical communications standards 3.5-

3.5-44 Text and data compression standards 3.5-

3.5-45 Still image compression standards 3.5-

3.5-46 Motion image compression standards 3.5-

3.5-47 Audio compression standards 3.5-

3.5-48 Read-only optical disks standards 3.5-

3.5-49 Write-once optical disks standards 3.5-

3.5-50 Rewritable optical disks standards 3.5-

3.5-51 Support for software distributed on CD-ROM standards 3.5-

3.5-52 Systems confidentiality standards 3.5-

3.5-53 Data encryption security standards 3.5-

3.5-54 Data interchange security labeling standards 3.5-

3.5-55 Systems non-repudiation standards 3.5-

3.5-56 Electronic signature standards 3.5-

3.5-57 Electronic hashing standards 3.5-

3.5 Data interchange services. Data interchange services provide specialized support for representing, storing, accessing, and transmitting data (primarily through defining formats).

NOTE: Throughout Part 5, all tables shall have abbreviations listed under the column (Standard Type) as follows:

a. National Public Consensus = NPC
b. International Public Consensus = IPC
c. Government Public Consensus = GPC
d. Consortia Public Consensus = CPC
e. Corporate Private Non-Consensus = CPN-C

3.5.1 Characters and symbols. The characters and symbols (not symbology) midlevel service area includes standards for services such as character sets and typefaces.

3.5.1.1 Coded character sets. (This BSA appears in both part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) A character set is a subset of all letters in different alphabets, numbers, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, and other characters used by computers. These services include the capability to input, store, manipulate, retrieve, communicate, and present data independent of the coding scheme used.

3.5.1.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-1 presents standards for coded character sets.

TABLE 3.5-1 Coded character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Graphic Character Set for Text Communication - Latin Alphabet Second Edition (replaces 6937 pt.1 & pt. 2)

6937:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Graphic Character Set for Use in the Preparation of Documents used in Electrotechnology and for Information Exchange

1286:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Graphic Character Set for Text Communication

6913

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Mathematical coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

6862

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Hebrew alphabet coded character sets for bibliographic information interchange

8957

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Armenian alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

10585

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Georgian alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

10586

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Character Sets for Text Communication, Parts 0, 3, 7, 8

6937-0,3,7,8:1994

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Character Sets for Text Communication, Parts 4, 5, 6

6937-4,5,6

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.1.1.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include Encoded Binary Decimal (EBCDC) and the Macintosh character set.

3.5.1.1.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.5.1.1.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.5.1.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to coded character set standards:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets

b. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Character Code Sets:

(1) SO 1073-1:1976: Alphanumeric character sets for optical recognition- Part 1: Character set OCR-A -- Shapes and dimensions of the printed image

(2) SO 1073-2:1976: Alphanumeric character sets for optical recognition- Part 2: Character set OCR-B -- Shapes and dimensions of the printed image

(3) SO 1831:1980: Printing specifications for optical character recognition

(4) SO 2033:1983: Information processing -- Coding of machine readable characters (MICR and OCR)

c. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Character Sets

(1) SO 2033:1983: Information processing -- Coding of machine readable characters (MICR and OCR)

(2) SO 1004:1995: Information Processing - Magnetic ink character recognition - Print specifications

3.5.1.1.6 Recommendations. ISO 6937 is recommended for ordinary English-only alphabetic applications.

3.5.1.2 Font information interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 12, Multimedia.) Font information interchange standards specify the encoding of font resource information for use in document processing environments. Font interchange deals with the exchange of character fonts, such as Times Roman or Helvetica, and related information as opposed to simple exchange of character encodings, which do not include font information.

3.5.1.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-2 presents standards for font information interchange.

TABLE 3.5-2 Font information interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange, Part 1: Architecture (Corrigendum 1-1992, Corrigendum 2-1994)

9541-1:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange, Part 2: Interchange Format (Corrigendum 1-1993)

9541-2:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange, Part 3: Glyph Shape Representation

9541-3:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange - Procedure for Registration of Glyph and Glyph Collection Identifiers

10036:1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Print Quality (adopts ANSI X3.99-1983)

FIPS PUB 90:1983

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Adobe

PostScript Type I - Outlines

PS Tech. Manuals

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Microsoft

TrueType - Outlines

TT Tech. Manuals

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange, Part 4: Character Collections

9541-4

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange, Part 5: Font Attributes and Character Model

9541-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange, Part 6: Font and Character Attribute Subsets and Application

9541-6

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Font Information Interchange, Part 7: Font Interchange Format

9541-7

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.1.2.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications include TrueType and PostScript.

3.5.1.2.3 Standards deficiencies. There is and will be very little standardization of font names, because of copyright concerns. None of the existing font interchange standards accurately enable font substitution. However, many systems are attempting font substitution, that is, replacing a specified font with one that is similar, such as substituting TrueType Arial for PostScript Helvetica.

No standard exists for three-dimensional font families, although such text is becoming popular in display text applications, such as advertising and presentations.

3.5.1.2.4 Portability caveats. Target presentation systems and viewers may not have the required fonts to construct the called-for text in a presentation system. Font substitution may result in an unexpected text presentation. Outline font geometry also can be represented as two-dimensional graphics geometry, which eliminates the need to support a specific font on a target platform.

3.5.1.2.5 Related standards. Standards related to font information interchange standards are:

a. ISO 8632: Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)

b. X Logical Font Description (see part 3)

c. PostScript Level 2 (starting to be used for colored text)

3.5.1.2.6 Recommendations. If CGM is being used, then ISO 8632-1 DAM 3 also is needed for font information exchange along with ISO 9541. The ISO 9541 specifies the architecture and format for various shape descriptions to be used in document processing environments that recognize Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN).1 or SGML parsing algorithms. ISO 9541 uses Adobe System's PostScript Type-I font technology and file formats. The ISO 9541 is recommended for font information exchange.

For some applications, such as view-only kiosks and presentations, convert text to a graphics format to avoid unknown font resource issues. Use fonts that are in common usage for cross-platform work.

3.5.1.3 Date and time representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Date and time representation and storage require consideration and standardization. Problems include representation of twelve or twenty-four hour time, the order in which the day and month are presented, and dropping of the century digits from the year.

3.5.1.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-3 presents standards for date and time representation.

TABLE 3.5-3 Date and time representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Defense Data Dictionary System (DDDS), Version 3.2, May 1996

DDDS Ver. 3.2

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representation of Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.30-1985/R1991)

FIPS PUB 4-1:1988 Change Notice 3/25/96

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representation of Local Time of the Day for Information Exchange (adopts ANSI X3.43-1986)

FIPS PUB 58-1:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representations of Universal Time, Local Time Differentials, and US Time Zone References for Information Interchange (Adopts ANSI X3.51-1979)

FIPS PUB 59:1979

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Representation of Dates and Times

8601:1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Representation of Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange

X3. 30-1985 (R1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Representation of Local Time of Day for Information Interchange

X3. 43-1986 (R1992)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Representations of Universal Time, Local Time Differentials, and US Time Zone References

X3. 51-1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/EIA

Source and Date Code Marking

476-A:1987

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.1.3.2 Alternative specifications. There are no other available specifications.

3.5.1.3.3 Standards deficiencies. In the early days of computer technology, information storage space was at a premium. Engineers saved space by using only the last two digits of the year rather than using full four-digit year representation since they did not anticipate that existing systems would still be in operation in the year 2000. This is a problem to be kept in mind during data design for information systems and their databases. The internal representation of the year and dates is expected to cause enormous difficulties as the year 2000 arrives.

3.5.1.3.4 Portability caveats. The difference between a little-endian (i.e., 11 May 1995), a big-endian (i.e., 1995 May 11), and mixed mode (i.e., May 11, 1995) date representation can be a portability problem for systems. The stated DoD data element for date format is "YYYYMMDD" where YYYY is the year, MM is the month, and DD is the day. NIST highly recommends that four-digit year elements be used and that two-digit year elements NOT be used for data interchange. On March 25, 1996 NIST published a change notice to FIPS 4-1 that highly recommends four-digit year elements, and states that two-year elements specified in ANSI X3.30:1985 (R1991) should not be used for the purpose of any data interchange among U.S. Government agencies.

The eight-digit date format is required for all system interfaces and data exchanges in DoD. The Defense Data Dictionary System (DDDS) Generic Element Name: Date is mandatory in the design of DoD databases (DoD Directive 8320.1, Sept 26, 1991). The DoD data standard is required to be used in new systems developments, including commercial off-the-shelf replacements; migration systems; and any system receiving major changes.

3.5.1.3.5 Related standards. The following standard is related to date and time representation:

a. NIST FIPS 34, Guide for the Use of International System of Units in FIPS PUBS

3.5.1.3.6 Recommendations. For purposes of data interchange, DoD requires that year, month, and day be represented as 'YYYYMMDD'.

3.5.1.4 Seven-bit coded character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character sets which contain only as many characters as can be uniquely identified using a seven-bit number (i.e., 128 characters numbered 0 to 127).

3.5.1.4.1 Standards. Table 3.5-4 presents standards for seven-bit coded character sets.

TABLE 3.5-4 Seven-bit coded character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Code for Information Interchange, Its Representations, Subsets, and Extensions (ASCII) (adopts ANSI X3.4-1986/R 1992, X3.32-1990, X3.41-1974)

FIPS PUB 1-2:1984

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

ISO 7-Bit Coded Character Set for Information Exchange

646:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Representation of the 7-Bit Coded Character Set on Punched Tape

1113:1979

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Code Extension Techniques for Use with the 7-Bit Coded Character Set of American National Standard Code for Information Interchange

X3. 41-1974

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Arabic 7-Bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

9036:1987

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Parameters and Practices for the Use of the NATO 7-Bit Code

STANAG 5036

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Interoperable Characters for Teleprinters Using NATO 7-Bit Code

STANAG 5045

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 646 describes a set of 128 control, alphabetic, digit, and symbol characters. It includes the use of the control characters and describes the option of national replacement characters. It is the standard that formed the basis for creating additional standards that extend the character set to include many languages. A variant, ISO 646:1991 IRV, left open an additional 128 codes to be used to represent symbols for other languages.

3.5.1.4.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include Encoded Binary Decimal (EBCDC) and the Macintosh character set.

3.5.1.4.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.5.1.4.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets. FIPS 19-2, a catalog of widely used code sets that lists and briefly describes code sets in wide use in the United States and might be used in Federal data systems, may be helpful to consult.

3.5.1.4.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to seven-bit coded character sets:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets

b. Optical Character Recognition Character Code Sets

c. ISO 3275:1974-- Implementation of the 7-bit coded character set and its 7-bit and 8-bit extensions on 3,81 mm magnetic cassette for data interchange

d. ISO 6586:1980 -- Implementation of the ISO 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets on punched cards

e. ISO 1113:1979 -- Representation of the 7-bit coded character set on punched tape

3.5.1.4.6 Recommendations. FIPS 1-2, which adopts the ASCII character set, is recommended for common applications. ISO 646 is also recommended.

3.5.1.5 Eight-bit coded character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character sets which contain only as many characters as can be uniquely identified using an eight-bit number (typically, 256 characters numbered 0 to 255).

3.5.1.5.1 Standards. Table 3.5-5 presents standards for eight-bit coded character sets.

TABLE 3.5-5 Eight-bit coded character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

ISO 8-Bit Code for Information Interchange - Structure and Rules for Implementation (8-Bit ASCII) (Revision and redesignation of ANSI X3.134.1)

4873:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standardized Coded Graphic Character Sets for Use in 8-Bit Codes

10367:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Coded Character Set

6 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Coded Character Set Structure and Rules

43 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.1.5.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include EBCDC and the Macintosh character set.

3.5.1.5.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.5.1.5.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.5.1.5.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to eight-bit coded character sets:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets

b. OCR Character Code Sets

c. ISO 3275:1974-- Implementation of the 7-bit coded character set and its 7-bit and 8-bit extensions on 3,81 mm magnetic cassette for data interchange

d. ISO 6586:1980 -- Implementation of the ISO 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets on punched cards

3.5.1.5.6 Recommendations. ISO 4873 is recommended.

3.5.1.6 Eight-bit single byte character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character sets which contain only as many characters as can be uniquely identified using an eight-bit number in a single byte (typically, but not always, 256 characters numbered 0 to 255).

3.5.1.6.1 Standards. Table 3.5-6 presents standards for eight-bit single byte character sets.

TABLE 3.5-6 Eight-bit single byte character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISO 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets: Parts 1-9

8859-1 to 9:1987-1989

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISO 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets: Part 10: Latin Alphabet Set No. 6

8859-10:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets, Latin Alphabets No. 1 to No. 4

94 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Cyrillic Alphabet

113 (1988)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Arabic Alphabet

114 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Greek Alphabet

118 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Hebrew Alphabet

121 (1987)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets, Latin Alphabet No. 5

128 (1988)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin Alphabet No. 6

144 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 8859 defines a set of 191 graphic characters with a single 8-bit byte. It uses the characters 0x20 through 0x7F to represent those used in the US-ASCII (ISO 646) set.

3.5.1.6.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include EBCDC and the Macintosh character set.

3.5.1.6.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.5.1.6.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.5.1.6.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to eight-bit single byte character sets:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets
b. Optical Character Recognition Character Code Sets

3.5.1.6.6 Recommendations. ISO 8859, parts 1-9, is recommended.

3.5.1.7 Control functions. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange and part 14, Internationalization.) This service area is for definition and coding of control functions for inclusion in character sets.

3.5.1.7.1 Standards. Table 3.5-7 presents standards for control functions.

TABLE 3.5-7 Control functions standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Control Functions for ISO 7-Bit and 8-Bit Coded Character Sets

6429:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Additional Controls for Use with American National Standard Code for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.64-1979/R1990)

FIPS PUB 86:1981

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Graphical Representations for the Control Characters of the 7-Bit Coded Character Set

2047:1975

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Bibliographic control characters

6630:1986

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Control Functions for Coded Character Sets

48 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Graphic Representation of the Control Characters of the ECMA 7-Bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

17 (1968)

Informational

(Canceled)

ISO 6429 defines a 7-bit, 7-bit extended, 8-bit, and an 8-bit extended character set control.

3.5.1.7.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.1.7.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.7.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.7.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.5.1.7.6 Recommendations. ISO 6429 is recommended.

3.5.1.8 Character set conversion. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character set conversion deals with the problem of translating from one character set to another.

3.5.1.8.1 Standards. Table 3.5-8 presents standards for character set conversion.

TABLE 3.5-8 Character set conversion standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Conversion Between the Two Coded Character Sets of ISO 646 and ISO 6937-2 and the CCITT International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2)

6936:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Conversion Between the Two Coded Character Sets of ISO 646 and ISO 6937-2 and the CCITT International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2): Revisions

6936 Revisions

Informational

(Formative)

ISO 6936 specifies conversion between the 58 character ITA2 set and the 128 character ISO 646 set.

3.5.1.8.2 Alternative specifications. There are alternative specifications that are sometimes necessary:

a. Mac to ASCII
b. EBCDC to ASCII

3.5.1.8.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.5.1.8.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.5.1.8.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to character sets conversion:

a. Transliteration standards.

3.5.1.8.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations. Character set conversion standards depend on which sets are involved.

3.5.1.9 Code extension techniques. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) There is also a need to define standard techniques for expanding the number of characters represented by a character set. Switching between character sets in mid-string is done by escape sequences.

3.5.1.9.1 Standards. Table 3.5-9 presents standards for code extension techniques.

TABLE 3.5-9 Code extension techniques standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques

2022:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Implementation of the 7-Bit Coded Character Set and Its 7-Bit and 8-Bit Extensions on 3,81 mm Magnetic Tape Cassette for Data Interchange

3275:1974

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Latin Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

5426:1983

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Cyrillic Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

5427:1984

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Greek Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

5428:1984

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Documentation - African Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

6438:1983

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Code Extension Techniques

35 (1994)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Cyrillic alphabet coded character set for non-Slavonic languages for bibliographic information interchange

10754

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISP for Code Structures Based on ISO/IEC 2022 Part 1: FCS111-2022 Option 1

12070-1:1995

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Latin Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange: part 2: Latin characters used in minor European languages and obsolete typography

5426-2

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Extensions of the Arabic alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

11822

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISO 7-Bit and 8-Bit Coded Character Sets - Code Extension Techniques

2022:1986

Informational

(Superseded)

3.5.1.9.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications would include other, larger, forms of character sets (8-bit instead of 7-bit, or multiple-octet sets instead of 8-bit).

3.5.1.9.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.9.4 Portability caveats. Few systems support the ISO 2022 encoding architecture because escape sequences present difficulties to processing.

3.5.1.9.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.5.1.9.6 Recommendations. ISO 2022 is recommended.

3.5.1.10 Universal character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Universal character sets are an approach to defining the broadest possible character set. This involves using more than an 8-bit code. Use of a 16-bit code allows for a character set of 32,768 characters, which is sufficient to cover several complete alphabets, including accented letters. The object of UCS is to represent the written form of world languages unambiguously to facilitate information interchange

3.5.1.10.1 Standards. Table 3.5-10 presents standards for universal character sets.

TABLE 3.5-10 Universal character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS), Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane (with Technical Corrigendum 1: 1996)

10646-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set Coexistence and Migration

E401 (3/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

Unicode Consortium

Unicode version 1.1

UCS-2

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set, Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane, Amend 1: Transform Format for 16 Planes of Group 00 (UTF-16), Amend 2: UCS Transform Format 8 (UTF-8), Amend 3: control characters, Amend 4: remove UTF-1 to a

10646-1, Am 1-4:1993

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set, Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane, Amend 5: Korean Hangul, Amend 6: Tibetan additions, Amend 7, Amend 8: Han unification

10646-1: DAM 5-8

Informational

(Draft)

ISO 10646 is an extension of ISO 8859. A separate part of 8859 is defined for a variety of character sets. The 10646 is multiple-octet character set that can be encoded using 8-, 16-, or 32-bit character sizes. All existing character sets in 8859 are included as pages in the 10646 encoding, along with virtually all known characters on the planet. The 10646 is effectively the dictionary of coded character sets.

3.5.1.10.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternatives for a universal character set.

3.5.1.10.3 Standards deficiencies. Only a small number of modern languages are unrepresentable by these standards, but are expected to be supported soon.

3.5.1.10.4 Portability caveats. The portability problems with universal character sets involve their multi-byte nature. Translation to and from single-byte sets is full of chances for errors.

3.5.1.10.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.5.1.10.6 Recommendations. If multiple-octet representations (16- or 32-bit) of characters are required, ISO 10646 is recommended.

3.5.1.11 External data representation. External data representation standards specify the encoding for common, low-level data types to resolve the differences in data type representation between platforms and applications.

3.5.1.11.1 Standards. Table 3.5-11 presents standards for external data representation.

TABLE 3.5-11 External data representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

External Data Representation (XDR) for use with X.400

X.409

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Abstract Data Manipulation - Application Program Interface (API) (Language Independent)

1224:1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Test Methods for Measuring Conformance to Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Abstract Data Manipulation - Application Program Interface (API) (Language Independent)

1326:1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Abstract Data Manipulation C Language Interfaces - Binding for Application Program Interface (API)

1327:1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Test Methods for Measuring Conformance to Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Abstract Data Manipulation C Language Interfaces - Binding for Application Program Interface (API)

1328:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Specification for a Data Descriptive File for Information Interchange (DDF)

8211:1985

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)

8824:1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of Basic Notation

8824-1:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Information Object Specification

8824-2:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Constraint Specification

8824-3:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Parameterization of ASN.1 Specifications

8824-4:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER) for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)

8825:1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI -- ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)

8825-1:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI -- ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Packed Encoding Rules (PER)

8825-2:1996

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Protocols for X/Open PC Internetworking: (PC)NFS

D030 (8/90)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

External Data Representation (XDR) (For use with DCE's RPC)

DCE XDR

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets

FIPS PUB 19-2:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Specification for a Data Descriptive File for Information Interchange (DDF) (adopts ANSI/ISO 8211:1985/R1992)

FIPS PUB 123:1986

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

XDR: External Data Representation Standard (same as X/Open XDR)

RFC 1014:1987

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnections - Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1)

STANAG 4258 1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection - Encoding Rules for ASN.1

STANAG 4259

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation one (ASN.1) - OSI Model and Notation, Service Definition

X.208 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Specification of Basic Encoding Rules for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) - Data Communication Networks - Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model and Notation, Service Definition

X.209 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Open Systems Interconnection - Conformance Test Suite for the Presentation Layer - Part 2: Test Suite Structure and Test Purposes for the ASN.1 Basic Encodings

10729-2:1993

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Abstract Syntax Notation one (ASN.1) Revision: Part 5: Character Sets

8824-5

Informational

(Formative)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Specification of ASN.1 Basic Encoding Rules Revision: Part 4: Light Weight Encoding Rules (LWER)

8825-4

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.1.11.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.5.1.11.3 Standards deficiencies. ASN.1 is a highly complex, difficult-to-use language for describing Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) objects, with a complicated set of Basic Encoding Rules. Neither the ASN.1 nor the X.409 standards are suitable for use with generic remote procedure calls used in application development. The 1987 Basic Encoding Rules (BER) international standard, which is specified by the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP), provides a lengthy, verbose representation, compared to the more compact representation achieved by the Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) (8824 Revision: Part 2). It encodes and decodes data slower than the Light Weight Encoding Rules (LWER) (8825 Revision: Part 4). Request for Comment (RFC) 1014, developed originally by Sun Microsystems for use with the Network File System (NFS), is an external data representation specification to describe C language data types only.

3.5.1.11.4 Portability caveats. ISO 8824 ASN.1 specifications are compatible with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) X.208 ASN.1, except for a few ISO extensions that are not backward compatible with X.208.

X/Open's External Data Representation (XDR) specification, developed initially by Sun Microsystems for use with NFS, is not compatible with the Open Software Foundation's (OSF's) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Remote Procedure Call (RPC) XDR (developed initially by Apollo Computer).

3.5.1.11.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to external data representation or external data representation standards:

a. X/Open C180: OSI-Abstract-Data-Manipulation API (XOM), which provides an easier-to-use canonical representation and tools for manipulating ASN.1 objects

b. RPC: ISO DIS 11578, Parts 1-4, which will need a standardized external data representation for use in open-client server computing and cooperative processing

3.5.1.11.6 Recommendations. Specification of the 1987 versions of ASN.1 and BER (ISO IS 8824/8825) is not advisable. These standards have been revised. The earlier standards are specified in GOSIP 2 because nothing else was available when GOSIP 2 was defined. X.409 is recommended. OSF DCE XDR is recommended for use in distributed computing environments.

3.5.1.12 Character set registration. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character set registration provides a mechanism for identifying and defining graphic character sets

3.5.1.12.1 Standards. Table 3.5-12 presents standards for character set registration.

TABLE 3.5-12 Character set registration standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Registration of Repertoires of Graphic Characters from ISO/IEC 10367

7350:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Procedure for registration of escape sequences

2375:1985

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 7350 specifies procedures for preparing, registering, publishing, and maintaining the register of graphic character sets and procedures for assigning identifiers to the sets.

3.5.1.12.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.1.12.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.12.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.12.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to character set registration:

a. Character set standards

b. Localization standards

c. Symbols for use with data such as currency, date, time, numerical values

3.5.1.12.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations.

3.5.1.13 Currency and funds representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Covers characters for and the representation of currency and monetary values.

3.5.1.13.1 Standards. Table 3.5-13 presents standards for currency and funds representation.

TABLE 3.5-13 Currency and funds representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Codes for the Representation of Currencies and Funds

4217:1990

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.1.13.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.1.13.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standard are unknown.

3.5.1.13.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the standard are unknown.

3.5.1.13.5 Related standards. Numerical value representation standards and internationalization locale specifications are related.

3.5.1.13.6 Recommendations. ISO 4217 is recommended.

3.5.1.14 Country name representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) These standards provide for a short character combination that can be used to represent the names of countries.

3.5.1.14.1 Standards. Table 3.5-14 presents standards for country name representation.

TABLE 3.5-14 Country name representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty and their Principal Administrative Divisions

FIPS PUB 10-4

April 1995

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

American National Standard codes for Representation of Names of Counties, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty and their Principal Administrative Divisions

FIPS PUB 104-1

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Codes for Representation of Names of Countries

3166:1993

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 3166 defines a 2-letter, a 3-letter, and a numeric code for each country. The 2-letter names are well-known and accepted as internet domain names. The 3-letter codes are often used in international sports.

3.5.1.14.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications would include the international codes to designate the country of registration of automobiles.

3.5.1.14.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.14.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.14.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.5.1.14.6 Recommendations. There is no recommendation.

3.5.1.15 Representation of human sexes. This BSA concerns the uniform representation of human sexes for the interchange of information.

3.5.1.15.1 Standards. Table 3.5-15 presents standards for representation of human sexes.

TABLE 3.5-15 Representation of human sexes standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Representation of Human Sexes

5218:1977

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.1.15.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.1.15.3 Standards deficiencies. ISO 5218 does not meet the requirements of specific medical or scientific applications.

3.5.1.15.4 Portability caveats. ISO 5218 does not prescribe file sequences, storage, media, programming languages, or other features of information processing to be used in its implementation.

3.5.1.15.5 Related standards. No related standards have been identified.

3.5.1.15.6 Recommendations. ISO 5218 is recommended for use.

3.5.1.16 Representation of names of languages. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) This BSA presents standards for code to represent the names of languages.

3.5.1.16.1 Standards. Table 3.5-16 presents standards for representation of names of languages.

TABLE 3.5-16 Representation of names of languages standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Code for the Representation of Names of Languages

639:1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/NISO

Codes for Representation of Languages for Information Interchange

Z39.53

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.1.16.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications may include abbreviations in common use in entomology.

3.5.1.16.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.16.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.16.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to representation of names of languages:

a. ISO 9:1995: Transliteration of Cyrillic Characters into Latin Characters - Slavic and Non-Slavic Languages

b. ISO 233-2:1993: Information and documentation - Transliteration of Arabic Characters into Latin Characters - Part 2: Arabic Language - Simplified Transliteration

c. ISO 3602:1989: Documentation - Romanization of Japanese (kana script)

d. ISO DIS 14962: ASCII encoded English

3.5.1.16.6 Recommendations. ISO 639 is recommended.

3.5.1.17 Numerical value representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Numerical value representation deals with the presentation of numerical values as character strings in machine- and human- readable form.

3.5.1.17.1 Standards. Table 3.5-17 presents standards for numerical value representation.

TABLE 3.5-17 Numerical value representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Representation of Numerical Values in Character Strings for Information Interchange

6093:1985

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 6093 specifies three presentations of numerical values as character strings in machine-readable form for data interchange.

3.5.1.17.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.1.17.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.17.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.1.17.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to numerical value representation:

a. Representation of currency

b. Representation of date/time

c. Localization

d. ANSI X3.50 1986/R1992: Representation for U.S. Customary, SI, and other Units to be used in Systems with limited character sets

e. ISO 2955:1993 - Representation of SI and other Units in Systems with limited Character Sets

3.5.1.17.6 Recommendations. ISO 6093 is recommended.

3.5.2 Hardware applications. The following base service areas deal with hardware-based data interchange, data storage issues, and hardware design support.

3.5.2.1 Printer data interchange. Printer data interchange is performed by using page description languages to describe a page to be printed so the printer processor can convert the representation directly into a page image for any printer.

3.5.2.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-18 presents standards for printer data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-18 Printer data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard Page Description Language (SPDL)

10180:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 46: Integrated Generic Resources: Visual Presentation

10303-46:1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Adobe

Encapsulated PostScript Format (EPSF)

EPSF Level 1

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Adobe

Portable Document Format (PDF)

PDF

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Text and office systems - Document Printing Application (DPA) - Part 2: Protocol specification

10175-2:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Text and office systems - Document Printing Application (DPA), Part 1: Abstract service definition and procedures

10175-1:1996

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.2.1.2 Alternative specifications. The following de facto specifications are available:

a. Adobe: PostScript and Display PostScript

b. Hewlett-Packard: Hewlett-Packard Page Description Language (HPDL)

c. Xerox: Interpress

3.5.2.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.2.1.4 Portability caveats. ISO 10180, SPDL, combines the best of Adobe PostScript and Xerox Interpress, along with enhancements and extensions developed by ISO. However, it is not a superset of the PostScript and Interpress page description languages. The inclusion of parts of each vendor's page description, as well as the ISO extensions, render it incompatible with either PostScript or Interpress.

Although it is a proprietary standard, EPSF is widely supported for importation of display text. However, care should be taken to ensure that tools used to deliver titles support importation of EPSF. Many raster image formats are candidates for this purpose.

3.5.2.1.5 Related standards. No standards are related to page description exchange standards.

3.5.2.1.6 Recommendations. If specifying SPDL in a procurement, the specification of a converter box that converts formats such as PostScript, Interpress, or HPDL to SPDL is recommended. SPDL is a standard with no commercial following. The proprietary specifications, such as PostScript and PDF, are dominant. If used, EPSF or PDF should be considered as an interim solution only until a public standard is available. Adobe PDF is being used frequently in DOD for formatting documents where revisions are not required. However, PDF suffers by the fact that it has not been endorsed by an open consensus standards body.

3.5.2.2 Bar coding. Bar code is an array of parallel lines of varying width used to represent data. The bar code is designed to be read optically by a data capturing device. Traditional one-dimensional bar codes use the bar's width as the code, and typically encode just an identification or account number. Two-dimensional systems hold 1,800 characters in an area the size of a postage stamp.

3.5.2.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-19 presents standards for bar coding.

TABLE 3.5-19 Bar coding standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Standard DOD Bar Code Symbology (Code 39 Adapted for the DOD)

MIL-STD-1189B of 8/10/1989

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

UCC

Serial Shipping Container Code Based on Code 128 algorithm

UCC/EAN-128:1989

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Standard Bar Code Symbology Printing and Applying Bar Code Labels (R) Recommended Practice for Bar-Coded Vehicle Emission Configuration Label, Recommended Practice; October 1993

STANAG 4329 1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Bar Code Print Quality-Guideline

X3.182-1990

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

AIM

Uniform Symbology Specification (USS)-I-2/5 (Interleaved 2 of 5)

X5-1:1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

AIM

Uniform Symbology Specification (USS)-39 Code 39

X5-2:1993

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.2.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.5.2.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.2.2.4 Portability caveats. Various bar code standards were developed by one industry organization and adopted by other industry organizations who modified them slightly for specific application areas or market segments. This has led to many different specifications that have incompatibilities.

3.5.2.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to bar coding or bar coding standards:

a. ISO 9735:1988-1992, Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and Transport (EDIFACT)

b. ANSI X.12-1986, Parts 1-22: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI )

c. ITU-T Recommendation X.435, and F.435

3.5.2.2.6 Recommendations. The recommended bar coding standard varies with the market sector and the amount of information to be squeezed into the code. For example, Codabar is used extensively in retail price-labeling. Intermec Corp.'s Code 49 is a stacked code of bars and spaces in horizontal rows. One information-squeezing code is Symbol Technologies Inc.'s PDF 417 which is a matrix-style code that compresses up to 1,750 characters per symbol. For code 39 bar coding, MIL-STD-1189B is recommended.

3.5.2.3 Physical interface. Physical interface standards deal with physical I/O connections and storage systems.

3.5.2.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-20 presents standards for physical interface.

TABLE 3.5-20 Physical interface standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Interface between DTE and DCE for Operations with PSDN, or between Two DTEs by Dedicated Circuit (adopts ANSI X3.100-1989)

FIPS PUB 100-1:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

4800 and 9600 Bits per Second Two-Wire Duplex Modems for Data Communications Use on Telephone-Type Circuits (adopts CCITT V.32, Supersedes FIPS 134-1)

FIPS PUB 166:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

9600 bps Four-Wire Duplex Modems for Data Communications Use on Telephone-Type Circuits (adopts CCITT V.29, Supersedes FIPS 135)

FIPS PUB 167:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

12000 and 14400 bps Four-Wire Duplex Modems for Data Communications Use on Telephone-Type Circuits

FIPS PUB 168:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Error Correction in Modems Employing Asynchronous-to-Synchronous Conversion

FIPS PUB 169:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Data Compression in Modems Employing CCITT Recommendation V.42 Error Correction

FIPS PUB 170:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Synchronous Signaling Rates Between Data Terminal and Data Communication Equipment (adopts ANSI X3.1-1976)

FIPS PUB 22-1:1977

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

PCMCIA

Personal Computer Memory Card Industry Association (PCMCIA) PC Card Standard

PCMCIA Release 2.1 July 1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Facsimile Modem Speed Reductions and Transaction Time - Telephone Network and ISDN - Quality of Service, Network Management and Traffic Engineering

E.452 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/IEEE

Standard Multivalue Logic System for VHDL Model Interoperability

1164:1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

2400 Bits per Second Two-Wire Duplex Modems for Data Communications Use on Telephone-Type Circuits (Supersedes FIPS 133/Fed-Std-1005A)

FIPS PUB 163:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

1200 bps 2-Wire Duplex Modems for Data Communications use on Telephone-Type Circuits (adopts CCITT V.22, Supersedes FIPS 136)

FIPS PUB 162:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

2400 Bits per Second Four-Wire Duplex and Two-Wire Half-Duplex Modems for Data Communications Use on Telephone-Type Circuits (adopts CCITT V.22 bis)

FIPS PUB 164:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

4800 Bits per Second Four-Wire Duplex and Two-Wire Half-Duplex Modems for Data Communications Use on Telephone-Type Circuits (Supersedes FIPS 134-1)

FIPS PUB 165:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Telegraph Modem for Subscriber Lines - Telegraph Transmission

R.20 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

2-Wire Modem for Facsimile Applications with Rates up to 14 400 bit/s

V.17 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

300 Bits per Second Duplex Modem Standardized for Use in the General Switched Telephone Network - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.21 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

1200 Bits per Second Duplex Modem Standardized for Use in the General Switched Telephone Network and on Point-to-Point 2-Wire Leased Telephone-Type Circuits - Data Communication Over the Telephone Network

V.22 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

2400 Bits per Second Duplex Modem Using the Frequency Division Technique Standardized for Use on the General Switched Telephone Network and on Point-to-Point 2-Wire Leased Telephone-Type Circuits - Data Communication Over the Telephone Network

V.22 BIS (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

600/1200-Baud Modem Standardized for Use in the General Switched Telephone Network - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.23 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

2400 Bits per Second Modem Standardized for Use on 4-Wire Leased Telephone-Type Circuits - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.26 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

2400/1200 Bits per Second Modem Standardized for Use in the General Switched Telephone Network - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.26 BIS (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

2400 Bits per Second Duplex Modem Using the Echo Cancellation Technique Standardized for Use on the General Switched Telephone Network and on Point-to-Point 2-Wire Leased Telephone-Type Circuits - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.26 TER (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

4800 Bits per Second Modem with Manual Equalizer Standardized for Use on Leased Telephone-Type Circuits - Data Communication over the Telephone

V.27 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

4800/2400 Bits per Second Modem with Automatic Equalizer Standardized for Use on Leased Telephone-Type Circuits - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.27 BIS (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

4800/2400 Bits per Second Modem Standardized for Use in the General Switched Telephone Network - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.27 TER (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

9600 Bits per Second Modem Standardized for Use on Point-to-Point 4-Wire Leased Telephone - Type Circuits - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.29 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Duplex Modem Operating at Data Signaling Rates of up to 14400 bps for Use on the General Switched Telephone Network and on Leased Point-to-Point 2-Wire Telephone-Type Circuits

V.32 BIS (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

14400 Bits per Second Modem Standardized for Use on Point-to-Point 4-Wire Leased Telephone - Type Circuits - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.33 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Error-Correcting Procedures for DCEs Using Asynchronous-to-Synchronous Conversion - Data Communication over the Telephone Network

V.42 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Data Compression Procedures for Data Circuit Terminating Equipment (DCE) Using Error Correction Procedures

V.42 BIS (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Duplex Modem Operating at Data Signaling Rates of up to 14400 bps for Use on the General Switched Telephone Network and on Leased Point-to-Point 2-Wire Telephone-Type Circuits

V.32 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Error-Correcting Procedures for DCEs Using Asynchronous-to-Synchronous Conversion

V.42, Rev. 1 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Supreme High Frequency (SHF) Military Satellite (MILSATCOM) Jam-Resistant Modem

STANAG 4376

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.2.3.2 Alternative specifications. No alternative specifications are applicable.

3.5.2.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are not known.

3.5.2.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are not known.

3.5.2.3.5 Related standards. Magnetic tape storage standards are related to physical interface standards.

3.5.2.3.6 Recommendations. For their individual areas of applicability, the adopted FIPS for physical interface are recommended. DOD policy requires all personal computers to include at least one PC Card (formerly Personal Computer Memory Card Industries Association (PCMCIA)) slot to allow the use of security devices.

3.5.3 Optical digital technologies. Optical Digital Technology (ODT) represents technologies that use the reflective properties of light and an optical recording surface to capture, encode, decode, and store data. ODT predominantly encompasses optical media, optical drives, and scanners.

3.5.3.1 Optical digital technology. This optical digital technology base service area concentrates on optical scanning and image quality, excluding optical character recognition.

3.5.3.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-21 presents standards for optical digital technology.

TABLE 3.5-21 Optical digital technology standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice for Quality Control of Image Scanners

MS44-1988 (R1993)

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice for Monitoring Image Quality of Roll Microfilm and Microfiche Scanners

MS49-1993

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice for Monitoring Image Quality of Aperture Card Film Image Scanners with Scanner Test Target Set

MS50-1994

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice for the Requirements and Characteristics of Original Documents Intended for Optical Scanning

MS52-1991

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guideline for Quality Control of Image Scanners, IEEE Std 167A-1987

FIPS PUB 157:1989

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

IEEE Standard Facsimile Test Chart

167A:1987

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Application Programming Interface (API) for Scanners in Document Imaging Systems

MS61

Informational

(Draft)

MS44 is used with the IEEE Scanner Test Chart, IEEE 167A.
FIPS 157 adopts MS44.
IEEE 167A is also known as AIIM Scanner Test Chart #2.

3.5.3.1.2 Alternative specifications. No alternative specifications are known.

3.5.3.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.3.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems of the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.3.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to optical digital technology:

a. ISO/IEC 9316:1995 - Information Technology - Small Computer Systems Interface 2

b. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.131-1994: Small Computer System Interface-2 (SCSI-2)

c. NIST FIPS 131, Change Notice 2: 1990 - Information Systems - Small Computer System Interface-2 (ANSI X3.131-1986), 1987

d. ISO/IEC 12087 Information Technology -- Computer graphics and image processing -- Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) -- Functional Specification -- Part 1:1995: Common Architecture for Imaging; Part 2:1994: Programmer's imaging kernel system application programming interface; Part 3:1995: Image Interchange Facility (IIF)

e. ISO/IEC 13346:1995, Information Technology - Volume and File Structure of Write-Once and Rewritable Media Using Non-Sequential Recording for Information Interchange, Part 1: General, Part 2: Volume and Boot Block Recognition, Part 3: Volume Structure, Part 4: File Structure, Part 5: Record Structure. (ECMA 167-1992)

f. ISO/IEC DIS 12089:1994, Information Technology -- Computer graphics and image processing -- Encoding for the Image Processing and Interchange Standard (IPI) -- Encoding for the IIF

g. ANSI/Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) MS53-1993: Standard Recommended Practice - File Format for Storage and Exchange of Images - Bi-Level Image File Format: Part 1. (NIST FIPS PUB 194:1995, MIL-STD-188-196)

h. ISO/ANSI 9318-3:1990, Information Technology - Intelligent Peripheral Interface - Part 3: Device Generic Command Set for Magnetic and Optical Disk Drives (Revision and Redesignation of X3.132:1987)

i. ANSI X3.201-1992, Information Systems - Intelligent Peripheral Interface - Enhanced Physical Level

j. MIL-STD-1189A: Standard Department of Defense Bar Code Symbology, 1989

k. ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 (Amendments 1-5), Information Technology - Universal Multiple Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) - Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Place. Standard adopted by The Frankfurt Group to enhance the Orange Book Compact Disc specifications. ISO/IEC 10646 is a standard for using the many character sets of the world

l. ANSI/National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Z39.2-1994: Information Interchange Format

m. ANSI/NISO Z39.18-1995, Scientific and Technical Reports - Elements, Organization, and Design

n. ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1995: Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Open Systems Interconnection

o. ANSI/NISO Z39.58-1992: Common Command Language for Online Interactive Information Retrieval

p. AIIM TR2-1992, Glossary of Imaging Technology

q. ANSI/AIIM TR15, Planning Considerations, Including Preparation of Documents for Image Capture Systems

r. ANSI/AIIM MS59-1996, Media Error Monitoring and Reporting Techniques for Verification of the Stored Data on Optical Digital Data Disks.

s. ANSI/AIIM TR41-Proposed, Technical Report on Optical Storage Standards.

3.5.3.1.6 Recommendations. Evaluate and select the adopted standards appropriate for the organization's application.

3.5.3.2 Optical character recognition. Optical character recognition (OCR) standards define optically scanning a document to identify the text it contains and convert it from bitmaps to characters.

3.5.3.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-22 presents standards for optical character recognition.

TABLE 3.5-22 Optical character recognition standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Character Sets for Optical Character Recognition (OCR) (adopts ANSI X3.2-1970/R1976, X3.17-1981/R1989, X3.49-1975/R1982, 1989)

FIPS PUB 32-1:1982

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Character Set for Handprinting (adopts ANSI X3.45-1982

FIPS PUB 33-1:1984

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Forms

FIPS PUB 40:1976

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Inks (adopts ANSI X3.86-1980)

FIPS PUB 85:1980

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Character Positioning (adopts ANSI X3.93M-1981)

FIPS PUB 89:1981

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Print Quality (adopts ANSI X3.99-1983)

FIPS PUB 90:1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) - Dot Matrix Character Sets for OCR-MA (adopts ANSI X3.111-1986)

FIPS PUB 129:1987

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Alphanumeric Character Sets for Optical Recognition - Part 1: Character Set OCR-A - Shapes and Dimensions of the Printed Image; (Amendment Slip-1978)

1073-1:1976

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Alphanumeric Character Sets for Optical Recognition, Part II: Character Set OCR-B-Shapes and Dimensions of the Printed Image (Amended 1978)

1073-2:1976

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Coding Machine Readable Characters (MICR and OCR)

2033:1983

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Character Set for Optical Character Recognition (OCR-A)

X3. 17-1981 (R1989)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Character Set for Optical Character Recognition (OCR-B)

X3. 49-1975 (R1989)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Inks

X3. 86-1980 (R1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Character Positioning

X3. 93M-1981 (R1989)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) - Guidelines for OCR Print Quality

X3. 99-1983 (R1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) - Matrix Character Sets for OCR-MA

X3.111-1986 (R1992)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) - Matrix Character Sets for OCR-MB

X3.209

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Alphanumeric Character Set OCR-B for Optical Recognition

11 (1976)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Nominal Character Dimensions of the Numeric OCR-A Font

8 (1977)

Informational

(Canceled)

IPC

ECMA

Character Positioning on OCR Journal Tape

21 (1969)

Informational

(Canceled)

IPC

ECMA

OCR-B Subsets for Numeric Applications

30 (1976)

Informational

(Canceled)

IPC

ECMA

Implementation of the Numeric OCR-A Font with 9 X 9 Matrix Printers

51 (1977)

Informational

(Canceled)

3.5.3.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other specifications are available.

3.5.3.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.3.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems are unknown at this time.

3.5.3.2.5 Related standards. ODT is most beneficial in application of mass storage which is usually necessary with scanned documents. Raster data interchange standards, imaging standards, and compression standards are related to ODT.

3.5.3.2.6 Recommendations. The FIPS for OCR are preferred.

3.5.4 Office automation document interchange. The following base service areas deal with data formatting and exchange standards for different types of documents in an office automation environment.

3.5.4.1 Document interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 12, Multimedia.) Document interchange standards allow the transfer of formatted documents across a network so they can be reproduced exactly and worked on at their destinations.

3.5.4.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-23 presents standards for document interchange.

TABLE 3.5-23 Document interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) (Amendment 1 - 1988) (Adopted by FIPS PUB 152:1989)

8879:1986

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) v.2.0

RFC 1866:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Markup Requirements and Generic Style Specification for Electronic Printed Output and Exchange of text (based on ISO 8879)

MIL-PRF-28001

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Distributed Office Applications Model (DOAM), Part 1: General Model

10031-1:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Distributed Office Applications Model (DOAM), Part 2: Distinguished Object Reference and Associated Procedures

10031-2:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Document Filing and Retrieval (DFR), Part 1: Abstract Service Definition and Procedures (corrigendum 1-1994, corrigendum 2- 1994, corrigendum 3-1994)

10166-1:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Document Filing and Retrieval (DFR), Part 2: Protocol Specification (corrigendum 1-1994)

10166-2:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Text and Office Systems - Referenced Data Transfer - Part 1: Abstract Service Definition

10740-1

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Test and Office Systems - Referenced Data Transfer - Part 2: Protocol Specification

10740-2

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Transfer and Manipulation (DTAM) - Services and Protocols- Introduction and General Principles

T.431 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Transfer and Manipulation (DTAM) - Service Definition

T.432 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Transfer and Manipulation (DTAM) - Protocol Specification

T.433 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Transfer and Manipulation (DTAM) - Operational Structure

T.441 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Text Information Interchange in Page Image Format (PIF)

X3. 98-1983

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Document Interchange Format Support Facilities (SDIF)

9069:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Documentation Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL)

10179:1995

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

AT&T

TROFF - Markup Language

Unix BSD 4.3

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Microsoft

Rich Text Format (RTF)

RTF Tech. Manuals

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Adobe

PostScript Type I - Outlines

PS Tech. Manuals

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Adobe

Portable Document Format (PDF)

PDF

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

HTML v.3.2

Emerging

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Markup Requirements and Generic Style Specification for Electronic Printed Output and Exchange of text (based on ISO 8879)

MIL-M-28001B of 6/26/1993

Informational

(Superseded (CALS))

3.5.4.1.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988 (to represent the logical structure of books and articles)

b. The Association of American Publishers (AAP), the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), and the DOD Continuous Acquisition and Life Cycle Support (CALS) program have designed alternate nonproprietary architectures with SGML encodings

c. Microsoft's Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)

d. Microsoft's Dynamic Link Libraries

e. ANSI/NISO Z39.2-1994: Information Interchange Format

f. ANSI/NISO Z39.18-1995: Scientific and Technical Reports - Elements, Organization, and Design

g. ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992: Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Open Systems Interconnection

h. ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1992: Common Command Language for Online Interactive Information Retrieval

3.5.4.1.3 Standards deficiencies. There is very little standardization of font names when handling fonts represented by tagged-text data types. However, many systems are attempting font substitution, that is, replacing a specified font with one that is similar, such as substituting TrueType Arial for PostScript Helvetica. Not all tagged text systems are able to specify colored text.

The following are recognized gaps in the Office Document Architecture (ODA)/ Office Document Interchange Format (ODIF) standards:

a. Revision collection, status, rationale, and author information

b. Document annotations

c. Automatic content generation of listings such as table of contents, lists of figures, indexes, glossaries, and cross-references

d. Business charting, including the ability to derive business graphics from tabular, spreadsheet, or other data in the document or referenced by the document; the ability to derive part of a document from external business graphics, and the ability to include a business graphic in a document in such a way that the processing specific to business graphics can be performed by the recipient of a document

e. Data in documents, such as spreadsheets

f. Exchange of documents based on hypertext

g. Exchange of documents that include voice and audio information (Hyper ODA)

3.5.4.1.4 Portability caveats. At present, portability using ODA/ODIF is limited, because it is not in widespread use or widely available, although SGML is widely available.

3.5.4.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to document exchange:

a. ISO 8824:1987 and ISO 8825:1987 - ASN.1/BER

b. SGML for documents that are not predefined

c. TeX by Donald Knuth of MIT and LaTeX macros are widely used for typesetting, especially for documents that include mathematics

3.5.4.1.6 Recommendations. In keeping with the ongoing shift from literal page appearance to electronic transfer of document content (as exemplified by the electronic commerce and CALS programs) we recommend the use of SGML for document interchange. Alternative standards -Adherence to CALS specifications and standards should be maintained to the maximum extent possible, as use of CALS provides maximum interoperability. In the event that a CALS standard cannot convey the technical information of a particular application, only then is the use of a non-CALS standard justified. On March 25-26, 1993, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) convened a Document Interchange Symposium. The symposium featured a panel of ODA and SGML experts to deliberate on SGML/ODA issues. The panel reached the following conclusions:

a. SGML has been adopted by a wide range of government and private industry initiatives for document interchange.

b. Few commercially viable ODA products are found in the U.S. marketplace.

c. Distinctions between office and publishing documents are diminishing (making the need for unique office document architectures less acute).

d. SGML has been adopted by the publishing community.

In addition to the panel's conclusions, it should be noted that NIST has decided not to develop a FIPS for ODA. The DOD SGML standard (MIL-PRF-28001) is based on ISO 8879. MIL-HDBK-28001 for SGML is being developed.

For documents intended for distribution on the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web, HTML should be used. HTML is a document type definition (DTD) of SGML for Internet documents.

Adobe PDF is being used frequently in DOD for formatting documents where revisions are not required. However, PDF suffers by the fact that it has not yet been endorsed by an open consensus standards body. Efforts need to be taken to move PDF from the de facto, proprietary, realm to be an open standard.

3.5.4.2 Spreadsheet data interchange. Spreadsheet data interchange is the exchange of tabular alphanumeric data (i.e., data found in spreadsheets).

3.5.4.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-24 presents standards for spreadsheet data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-24 Spreadsheet data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Open Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format: Tabular Structures and Tabular Layout

8613-11:1996

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.4.2.2 Alternative specifications. The follow de facto specifications are also available:

a. SoftArts, Data Interchange Format (DIF) for exchanging data between tables

b. Microsoft, XLS spreadsheet format

c. Lotus Development, WK4, WK3, WK1, and WKS spreadsheet formats

3.5.4.2.3 Standards deficiencies. The de facto DIF and the WK3, WK1, and WKS formats mostly allow the contents of spreadsheet cells to be imported into a document, separated by tabs. Most major spreadsheet products allow the import and export of XLS and WKx data values and common formulas. Unless the vendor of a document creation product has made a specific custom interface to the spreadsheet package whose data is to be imported, all lines, shading, graphics, and many other spreadsheet features are lost. No standards, de facto or otherwise, exist for arranging, interpreting, or otherwise processing the spreadsheet after it has been imported into a new document.

3.5.4.2.4 Portability caveats. The de facto DIF standard and WK3, WK1, and WKS formats provide limited portability and interoperability. Although they allow a spreadsheet's cell contents to be interchanged and imported into another spreadsheet separated by tabs, depending on the packages or the cell contents, the data may be interchanged as a stream of numbers or strings, without clear beginnings or endings.

3.5.4.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to spreadsheet data exchange or spreadsheet data exchange standards:

a. ISO 8613: ODA/ODIF.
b. ISO 8879: SGML.

3.5.4.2.6 Recommendations. If a particular agency has many existing spreadsheet packages, the quest for portability, interoperability, and data interchange will make it advisable to require an open interface to access each of these existing systems, rather than having a common format such as "DIF."

3.5.4.3 Custom definition of document types. These standards provide the ability to custom-define a document type when predefined document types are not applicable.

3.5.4.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-25 presents standards for custom definition of document types.

TABLE 3.5-25 Custom definition of document types standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) (Amendment 1 - 1988) (Adopted by FIPS PUB 152:1989)

8879:1986

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Document Interchange Format Support Facilities (SDIF)

9069:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Support Facilities: Registration Procedures for Public Text Owner Identifiers

9070:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

SGML Support Facilities - Techniques for Using SGML

TR 9573:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

SGML Support Facilities - Techniques for Using SGML - Part 13: Public Entity Sets for Mathematics and Science (Replaces ISO 8879 Annex D (in part))

TR 9573-13:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

SGML and Text-Entry Systems - Guidelines for SGML Syntax-Directed Editing Systems

TR 10037:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Hypermedia/Time-Based Structuring Language (HyTime)

10744:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/NISO

Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup

Z39.59:1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Conformance Testing for Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Systems

X3.190-1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Markup Requirements and Generic Style Specification for Electronic Printed Output and Exchange of text (based on ISO 8879)

MIL-PRF-28001

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Documentation Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL)

10179:1995

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Markup Requirements and Generic Style Specification for Electronic Printed Output and Exchange of text (based on ISO 8879)

MIL-M-28001B of 6/26/1993

Informational

(Superseded (CALS))

IPC

ISO/IEC

Text and Office Systems - Conformance Testing for Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Systems

13673:1993

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.4.3.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. ISO 8824:1987: ASN.1

b. The AAP, the TEI, and the DOD CALS program have designed alternate, nonproprietary architectures with SGML encodings.

3.5.4.3.3 Standards deficiencies. SGML does not deal with the meaning of the markup, so additional standards are needed. Markup consists of the common sets of document formatting codes used in classes of document types.

Technical manuals may use a different markup from management guideline documents to accommodate the audience, content, and publishing layout styles commonly used for each document type. Since SGML does not deal with the markup's meaning, it does not specify what to do after the document has been processed by a program that recognizes SGML.

SGML does not deal with hypermedia/time-based document interchange, although standards in that area are being developed.

SGML does not use object-oriented methods, although such work is underway in the Multimedia/Hypermedia Experts Group (MHEG).

3.5.4.3.4 Portability caveats. A lot of disagreement still exists on the particular markup to be employed in document types. This can result in incompatible and misinterpreted markups.

Use SGML in conjunction with selected, stable, draft specifications from the MHEG to handle multimedia objects, as well as other objects.

3.5.4.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to custom definition of document types and definition standards:

a. ISO 8613: ODA/ODIF Parts 1-10 and amendments and addenda. ODA Part 5 specifies a method of representation and interchange using the Office Document Language and SDIF. ODL may be used to represent a document structure in accordance with ODA in SGML.

b. ISO DIS 10180: SPDL

c. ISO DIS 10179: DSSSL, an application of SGML; includes a document architecture for typographic presentation style.

d. ISO 10744/ANSI X3V1.8M (Project 749-D): Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language (HyTime). HyTime, a notation to describe hypermedia, is an extension of SGML to deal with hypermedia/time-based document interchange.

e. ISO 10031:1990: Distributed Office Applications Model (DOAM), Parts 1-2. ISO 10031 provides guidelines for defining Distributed Office Application objects, such as documents, object attributes, and abstract operations, for use in a client-server environment.

f. MIL-STD-1840B (11/3/1992): Automated Interchange of Technical Information (Life cycle logistics support for weapon systems)

3.5.4.3.6 Recommendations. The following two ISO technical reports include supportive SGML tips and guidelines. Their use in learning about SGML and to achieve portability is valuable.

Use specifications, such as Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup (EMPM) or ODA, to determine the markup's meaning in order to decide what to do after the document has been processed by a program that recognizes SGML.

a. ISO Technical Report (TR) 9573: SGML Support Facilities: Techniques for Using SGML

b. ISO TR 10037: SGML and Text-Entry Systems-Guidelines for SGML Syntax-Directed Editing Systems


SGML contains multiple languages and applications, each of which must be specified explicitly in a procurement.

SGML has several advantages. It is used by CALS, more commercial products are available for it than for ODA/ODIF/ODL, it is human-readable, preserves user file divisions, and is extensible to other architectures. Moreover, it transcends ordinary office documents and supports graphics and multimedia now.

However, CALS uses the more restrictive SGML standard (MIL-PRF-28001), minimizes markup, and uses fewer SGML features to provide a "DOD profile" of SGML. MIL-HDBK-28001 for SGML is being developed to aid users of the standard.

3.5.4.4 Bibliographic system text retrieval. Bibliographic system text retrieval standards specify the representation of the logical structure of books, articles, and serial publications and a common command language for managing bibliographic systems.

3.5.4.4.1 Standards. Table 3.5-26 presents standards for bibliographic system text retrieval.

TABLE 3.5-26 Bibliographic system text retrieval standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI/NISO

Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Open Systems Interconnection

Z39.50:1995

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/NISO

Common Command Language for On-Line Interactive Information Retrieval

Z39.58:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Search and Retrieve Application Service Definition

10162:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Search and Retrieve Application Protocol Specification Part 1: Protocol Specification

10163-1:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Commands for Interactive Text Searching

8777:1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

Commerce

CD-RDx (A query standard for computer-based retrieval of CD-ROM publication)

CD-RDx

Informational

(TBD)

NPC

ANSI

Structured File Query Language (SFQL) (A query language, based on SQL, with extensions to support full text, and using SGML Document Type Definitions to define metainformation about a table or document)

X3H2-Designated number to be assigned

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

ATA

Structured File Query Language (SFQL) (A query language, based on SQL, with extensions to support full text, and using SGML Document Type Definitions to define metainformation about a table or document)

SFQL

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.4.4.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. Thinking Machines, Inc.'s, Wide-Area Information Server (WAIS), a protocol for transmitting query and retrieval information, which has been adopted by a number of major vendors and runs on a wide variety of platforms and networks. (NOTE: WAIS is an extension to the Z39.50 standard to allow discrete portions of documents to be retrieved. WAIS is currently running in about 80 sites.)

b. Information Dimensions Inc.'s OpenAPI, a callable API, which is a low level toolkit interface for developers to use in building Graphical User Interface (GUI)-based text retrieval applications that run on MS Windows, MAC, VMS, and UNIX desktops and connect to servers, over a variety of transports.

3.5.4.4.3 Standards deficiencies. The CD-RDx is considered by many in the government to be less robust and reliable than the Structured File Query Language (SFQL), which is more accepted and will become an IEEE standard.

3.5.4.4.4 Portability caveats. The standards developed by NISO are in widespread use in libraries and bibliographic systems, but are not compatible with the more widely accepted DFR and DTAM standards in the general office and document world.

3.5.4.4.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to bibliographic system text retrieval or retrieval standards:

a. ISO 10166: Document File and Retrieval (DFR)

b. ITU-T T.431, T.432, T.433, and T.441: Document Transfer and Manipulation (DTAM)

3.5.4.4.6 Recommendations. The ISO text/data retrieval protocol is recommended for OSI applications. For library applications in client-server environments ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1988 is recommended in conjunction with the command language in ANSI/NISO Z39.58-1992.

3.5.4.5 Electronic forms. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, part 4, Data Management, and part 5, Data Interchange.) These standards specify the functional interface requirements, transfer of various fields and the interface between programming languages and form filling applications for use on a terminal display.

3.5.4.5.1 Standards. Table 3.5-27 presents standards for electronic forms.

TABLE 3.5-27 Electronic forms standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

DOD Standardized Electronic Forms Requirements

JIEO-E-2300

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Forms Interface Management System (FIMS)

11730:1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP 2): Virtual Terminal Forms Class Profile

FIPS PUB 146-1:1991

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single UNIX Specification (Spec. 1170) Commands and Utilities, Issue 4, Version 2 (part of XPG4)

C436 (9/94)

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification: X/Open Curses, Issue 4 (part of XPG4)

C437 (2/95)

Emerging

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Forms Management Program Procedures Manual

DOD 7750.7-M

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Numerous vendors

Query by Forms

Query by Forms

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Virtual Terminal Basic Class Service, Amendment 2: Additional Functional Units (forms capability)

9040:1990 DAM 2

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Virtual Terminal (VT) Basic Class Protocol, Part 1, Amendment 2: Additional Functional Units (Forms Capability)

9041-1:1990 DAM 2

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalized Terminal Interfaces (XCURSES), Issue 4

S422 (4/94)

Informational

(Superseded)

3.5.4.5.2 Alternative specifications. The Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) 4.2/4.3 UUNIX Curses are also available.

3.5.4.5.3 Standards deficiencies. The X/Open Portability Guide 4 (XPG4) Curses is based on the System V Interface Definition (SVID) Issue 2 Curses version, which does not include the SVID's forms and menu libraries.

Forms Class Virtual Terminal has bindings in C only.

DOD has developed a specification for electronic forms (Joint Interoperability and Engineering Organization (JIEO)-E-2300). It defines the minimum operational requirements for electronic forms software and mandates an interchange file format based on Forms Interface Management System (FIMS).

3.5.4.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.5.4.5.5 Related standards. The Forms Class Virtual Terminal requires the Synchronous mode (S-mode) of operation and specifies simple delivery control. The following standards are related to forms query and management:

a. ISO 9075: SQL
b. ANSI X3.135-1992: SQL2
c. NIST FIPS 127-2: SQL
d. NIST FIPS 193: SQL Environments

3.5.4.5.6 Recommendations. The recommended standard is JIEO-E-2300. For User Interface, FIMS should be considered. For Data Management, make sure the forms management systems are compatible with FIPS 127-2 SQL. Database forms management systems should be integrated with the SQL database language and formats set forth in FIPS PUB 127-2.

3.5.5 Technical data interchange. The technical data interchange mid-level service area includes vector graphics, product data, and electronic commerce standards areas.

3.5.5.1 Product data interchange. These standards establish data formats for interchanging product description data. These data include not only a graphical depiction, but also manufacturing process information such as materials and surface finishing.

3.5.5.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-28 presents standards for product data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-28 Product data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI/US PRO

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data (revision and redesignation of ANSI/ASME Y14.26M-1989) (Formerly IGES)

ANSI/US PRO/ IPO 100-1996

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (adopts ASME/ANSI Y14.26M-1989) (IGES ver. 4)

FIPS PUB 177:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles (formerly Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES))

10303-1:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 11: The EXPRESS Language Reference Manual (formerly PDES)

10303-11:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 21: Implementation Methods: Clear Text Encoding of the Exchange Structure

10303-21:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 31: Conformance Testing Methodology/Framework: General Concepts

10303-31:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 41: Integrated Generic Resources: Fundamentals of Product Description and Support

10303-41:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 42: Integrated Generic Resources: Geometric and Topological Representation

10303-42:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 43: Integrated Generic Resources: Representation Structures

10303-43:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 44: Integrated Generic Resources: Product Structure Configuration

10303-44:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 101: Integrated Application Resources: Draughting

10303-101:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 201: Application Protocol: Explicit Draughting

10303-201:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 203: Application Protocol: Configuration Controlled Design

10303-203:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Automated Interchange of Technical Information (Life cycle logistic support of weapon systems)

MIL-STD-1840B of 11/3/1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/US PRO

IGES 5.2, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (Replaces ANSI/ASME Y14.26M-1989)

US PRO/IPO-100 (Nov 1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Part Libraries, About 10 Parts in Progress

13584-XX work in TC184/SC04

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

NIST

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES): v. 5.2 OR 6.0

FIPS PUB 177-1 (future)

Informational

(Formative)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

NPC

ANSI/ASME

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data

Y14.26M:1989

Informational

(Superseded)

3.5.5.1.2 Alternative specifications. Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is being developed as an advanced alternative to Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES).

3.5.5.1.3 Standards deficiencies. IGES does not cover the complete life cycle of manufactured products. It addresses only the specification of products and not the manufacturing process relationships. The DOD/CALS IGES standard is preferred for engineering drawings, electronics, and numerical control. The standard is optional for technical manual illustrations. Version 5.0 of the NISTIR 4412 does not contain B-rep solids. However, B-Rep solids are contained in Version 5.2.

3.5.5.1.4 Portability caveats. STEP is an international standard that has been a core set of Application Protocols that have been implemented. However, interoperability between these Aps cannot alway be assured. The emerging standard is still unstable and liable to be revised at any time, thereby creating incompatibilities that limit portability and interoperability.

3.5.5.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to product data exchange or product data exchange standards:

a. ISO 7942: Graphical Kernel System (GKS)

b. ISO 9592: Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS)

c. STEP is related to IGES, but was extended to cover the full life cycle of products from requirements and design through production and installation.

d. MIL-HDBK-1300A, NITFS.

e. MIL-STD-2500A, NITF, Version 2.0 for the NITFS.

f. EIAs Special Report CALS: Harmonizing CALS Product Data Description Standards

3.5.5.1.6 Recommendations. ANSI/US PRO/IPO 100-1996 (Formerly IGES) is Year 2000 compliant and is recommended except for cases where STEP provides additional capabilities that are lacking in IGES and are critical to the accomplishment of the system. STEP includes IGES's functionality, but is more comprehensive. Moreover, CALS specifies five classes of IGES files: Technical Illustration (I), Electrical/Electronic (II), Engineering (III), Numerical Control Manufacturing (IV), and 3D Piping (V).

IGES products are implemented widely and are likely to be proposed by vendors whether or not a procurement specifies it. In contrast, STEP products must be specified explicitly. If STEP is specified in a procurement, then it should conform to the requirements in the ISO 10303 STEP.

The DOD/CALS IGES standard is preferred for engineering drawings, electronics drawings, and numerical control. The standard is optional for technical manual illustrations. It defines subsets for technical illustrations, engineering drawings, electrical/electronic applications, and numerical control manufacturing, and includes an application protocol for three dimensional piping information.

The ISO 10303 STEP standard is a set of interrelated standards that define a vocabulary and syntax for the exchange of product data. The scope of ISO 10303 encompasses all aspects of product data that may be collected and exchanged for any product throughout the life cycle. In its current state, ISO 10303 primarily addresses the exchange of material and shape data. ISO 10303 is a standard designed for expansion. As such, a large part of its initial content lays in the conceptual framework from which any topic area of product data may be standardized to exchange data.

Two specific applications to be included in the initial version of STEP concern the exchange of 2-D drafting data and the exchange of configuration controlled 3-D design data.

3.5.5.2 Business data interchange. Business data interchange, also known as EDI, refers to a family of national and international standards that support the intercompany, computer-to-computer exchange of business documents in standard formats. Examples of common business documents exchanged using EDI are invoices, bills of lading, purchase orders, technical drawings, business graphics, compound documents, catalogs, price lists, electronic funds transfer information, and promotional announcements. EDI is gaining prominence for technical data.

3.5.5.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-29 presents standards for business data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-29 Business data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (adopts families of standards known as ANSI X12 and EDIFACT)

FIPS PUB 161-1:1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Trade Data Elements Dictionary (TDED)

7372:1986

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, & Transport (EDIFACT) Application Level Syntax Rules

9735:1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)-Many Transaction Sets

X12.1-3, 5-10, 12-16, 20, 22-all 1989

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Message Handling Systems: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Messaging System (EDI over X.400-1988 with P.edi)

X.435 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

UN Econ. Comm. For Europe

United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory (UNTDID)

TBD-United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory (UNTDID)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Reconciliation of IEEE 1175 (CDIF) and STEP

JTC1/SC21/WG3

Informational

(TBD)

IPC

ISO/IEC

EDIFACT+ (Merged ANSI X.12 & CCITT X.435)

9735 (future)

Informational

(Formative)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Proposed EDIFACT/FTAM Document Type

JTC1/SC21, WG5, N6224

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.5.2.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. EDI II: EDI functionality that surrounds applications, rather than having to be buried within the applications.

b Imaging Technologies that electronically digitize an image of a paper document, such as an invoice or a purchase order, along with subsequent retrieval and document processing capabilities.

3.5.5.2.3 Standards deficiencies. EDI for Administration, Commerce, and Transport (EDIFACT) specifies only an EDI message architecture. X12 specifies transaction sets for several business applications, but does not cover all transaction sets needed by government agencies. Applicable transaction sets need to be developed. EDIFACT does not currently support the transmission of binary files or technical data. Adoption of a solution is imminent and should be included in version 4 of ISO 9735 in the spring of 1995.

ISO 9735 EDI does not provide security. The 1984 version of X.400 is not adequate for EDI. The 1988 X.400/X.435 version is needed to handle EDI messages. P.edi works only with the 1988 version of X.400. X12 supports the transmission of technical data through transmission set 841.

Up to 85 percent of EDI documents still have to be rekeyed several times by senders and recipients, largely defeating the purpose of EDI, unless users substantially restructure their business processes.

3.5.5.2.4 Portability caveats. The ISO EDIFACT standard is not aligned with ANSI X12, although work is underway to align the two standards. An estimate of when this alignment is likely to take place is difficult to make. EDIFACT and X12 differ in syntax control segments, data segments, and data elements.

3.5.5.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to business data interchange or business data interchange standards:

a. ISO 646:1991: 7-Bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

b. ISO 8571: FTAM

c. ISO 8632:1987: CGM

d. ISO 8824: ASN.1

e. ISO 8825: BER

f. ISO 8879:1988: SDIF

g. ISO 9069:1988: SGML Support Facilities for SDIF

h. ISO Draft Proposed Standard (DP) 10303: STEP

i. Various ISO standards for coded character sets and graphic characters

j. ITU-T X.400: MHS

k. ITU-T X.435: Messaging protocols used to send EDI messages through an X.400 network

l. ISO/IEC DIS 13208: Electronic data interchange messaging system

m. ISO/IEC DIS 13209: Electronic data interchange messaging service

n. ANSI/ASME Y14.26M-1989: IGES v.4.0

3.5.5.2.6 Recommendations. FIPS PUB 161 recommends the use of X12 standards for domestic applications, and X12 or EDIFACT for international interchanges. Both families of standards may be employed to meet organizational needs.

DOD components that implemented EDI systems after September 30, 1991, are required to conform to FIPS PUB 161. DOD components that implemented EDI systems before September 30, 1991, using industry-specific standards, have until September 30, 1996, to convert to the standards specified in FIPS PUB 161.

Migration to X.435 is recommended as soon as possible, especially for international operations because EDI over X.400 is already in production in Europe.

When specifying EDI services, include compliance CCITT Recommendation X.435 and applicable portions of NIST Special Publication 500-183 (Stable Implementation Agreements).

To maximize portability and interoperability, procurements must specify the ITU-T 1988 X.400 MHS Recommendations or later and avoid the use of products that conform to the 1984 Recommendation. For partially existing systems, FIPS PUB 161 encourages the "interim" use of message handling system implementations built in conformance with the ITU-T 1984 X.400 Recommendation.

3.5.5.3 Computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool data interchange. These standards provide formats for the exchange of data between CASE tools.

3.5.5.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-30 presents standards for CASE tool data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-30 Computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

IEEE

Standard Reference Model for Computing System Engineering Tool Interconnections

1175:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Trial-Use Standard Reference Model for Computing System Tool Interconnections

TR 1175:1992

Informational

(Approved (Trial-Use))

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for the Evaluation and Selection of CASE Tools

1209:1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

CASE Data Interchange Format (CDIF), Framework for Modeling and Extensibility; Transfer Format Definition; CASE Interchange Meta-model

IS-81, IS-82, IS-83 of July, 1991

Informational

(Approved (Interim Std.) (ANSI/EIA Std. Is imminent)

IPC

ISO

Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE) - Part 2: C Programming Language Binding

13719-2:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE) - Part 3: Ada Programming Language Binding

13719-3:1995

Informational

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO

Information Resources Dictionary System 2 (IRDS2) (Repository standard revision will include an interface with CASE tools)

JTC1/21.06.04,5; ANSI X3H4 Project 0754-D (or DT?)

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.5.3.2 Alternative specifications. No consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.5.5.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown. This is a fledgling standardization area, but it is advancing rapidly.

3.5.5.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.5.5.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to case tool data exchange or exchange standards:

a. ECMA 149 PCTE (Portable Common Tools Environment)

b. ECMA, European regional standards organizations, and the European Defense Community: PCTE+

c. DOD-STD-1838A: Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS-A)

d. ECMA TR 55 CASE Reference Model

e. ISO Draft International Standardized Profile (DISP) 10609-23:International Standardized Profile TB, TC, TD and TE - Connection-Mode Transport Service over Connection-Mode Network Service - Part 23: Subnetwork-Type Dependent Requirements for Network Layer and Data Link Layer for Data Transfer Concerning a Packet Switched Mode Integrate

f. ISO DISP 10609-24: International Standardized Profile TB, TC, TD and TE - Connection-Mode Transport Service over Connection-Mode Network Service - Part 24: Subnetwork-Type Dependent Requirements for Network Layer and Data Link Layer for Data Transfer Concerning a Packet Switched Mode Integrate

g. ISO DISP 10609-26: International Standardized Profile TB, TC, TD and TE - Connection-Mode Transport Service over Connection-Mode Network Service - Part 26: Subnetwork-Type Dependent Requirements for Network Layer for Call Control Procedures Concerning the Outgoing Call of a Packet Switched Mode

h. ISO DISP 10609-27: International Standardized Profile TB, TC, TD and TE - Connection-Mode Transport Service over Connection-Mode Network Service - Part 27: Subnetwork-Type Dependent Requirements for Network Layer for Call Control Procedures Concerning the Incoming Call of a Packet Switched Mode

3.5.5.3.6 Recommendations. It is recommended that, for those procurements requiring CASE tools and exchange of the associated data, systems migrate to IEEE 1175, CDIF, Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES) or the STEP for CASE tool data exchange.

3.5.5.4 Circuit design data interchange. Circuit data interchange standards provide a format for the interchange of hardware circuit design data.

3.5.5.4.1 Standards. Table 3.5-31 presents standards for circuit design data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-31 Circuit design data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) (adopts ANSI/IEEE 1076-1987)

FIPS PUB 172:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Standard VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) Ref Manual Interpretations

1076/INT-91

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/IEEE

Standard VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) Reference Manual

1076:1987 (R1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/IEEE

Standard Multivalue Logic System for VHDL Model Interoperability

1164:1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/EIA

Commercial Component Model Specification

5670000:1991

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

Introduction to Electronic Design Interchange Format (EDIF), Monograph Series Volume 1

EDIF-1 of Sept. 1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

Electronic Design Interchange Format (EDIF) Connectivity Monograph Series Volume 2

EDIF-2 of June, 1989

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/EIA

Electronic Design Interchange Format (EDIF), Version 2n0n0n

548:1988

Informational

(Approved (May be superseded))

NPC

EIA

Application Guide Using Electronic Data Interchange Format (EDIF), Version 2n0n0n for Schematic Transfer

EDIF/AG-1 of July 1989

Informational

(Approved (May be superseded))

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

CAD Framework Initiative

Procedure Interface (PI) (for circuit connectivity data)

PI

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Open Verilog Intl.

Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL) (IEEE P1364 working on VHDL based Verilog HDL)

Verilog HDL

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Vendors

Graphic Design System II (GDSII): CAD Exchange Format

GDSII

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

CPC

CAD Framework Initiative

CAD Design Tool Interchange Format (for circuit design) (Planned to be submitted to ANSI)

None assigned yet

Informational

(Formative)

NPC

IEEE

Design Management

P1077

Informational

(Canceled)

NPC

IEEE

Information Model for Design Language

P1078

Informational

(Canceled)

NPC

IEEE

Interface for IEEE VHSIC Hardware Description Language (IEEE Standard 1076-1987) to CAD/CAM Tools

P1163

Informational

(Canceled)

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for the Interrelationships between IEEE 1076 and EIA Standard RS-44 EDIF

P1165

Informational

(Canceled)

NPC

IEEE

Standard Delay File Format (SDF)

TBD-Standard Delay File Format (SDF)

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.5.4.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. Cadence Design Systems' Standard Delay File format (SDF), developed for the Verilog Hardware Design Language (HDL), which has been introduced as the strawman candidate for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard delay file format.

b. Institute for Interconnecting and Packing Electronic Circuits (IPC): IPC-D-350, IPC-D-356.

3.5.5.4.3 Standards deficiencies. VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) lacks analog design capabilities, high-level predefined types (e.g., queues), and explicit notations for finite state machines. VHDL lacks interfaces with other design and programming languages, such as the Verilog HDL and C. This issue is addressed in the 1992 revision of the standard. VHDL does not support hierarchical path names. This issue is addressed in the 1992 revision of the standard.

No formal standard or industry-accepted standard practice exists for representing timing data (e.g., delay values) in VHDL models and libraries. For VHDL to work effectively with ASIC models, a neutral format for technology-specific data is needed so that data, such as delay information, can be transmitted independent of the simulator. The IEEE has formed a working group to develop a methodology for accomplishing this goal.

3.5.5.4.4 Portability caveats. Specialized synthesis tools based on VHDL are emerging, each requiring a different variation of the input VHDL language. Each tool has its own idiosyncrasies and limitations, some of which stem from these variations.

Although tools based on the Electronic Data Interchange Format (EDIF) are offered by many vendors as a way to import or export design data, the EDIF standard is being supplanted by the Electronic Industries Association's (EIA) CASE Data Interchange Format (CDIF), which is not totally compatible with the original EDIF specifications.

Tools based on VHDL (the formal standard) and tools based on Verilog HDL (the widespread de facto standard) do not interoperate. The use of VHDL and Verilog will require users to maintain incompatible tools for two standards.

3.5.5.4.5 Related standards. The MIT X Consortium's X Window System is related to hardware data exchange.

3.5.5.4.6 Recommendations. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) FIPS 172, VHDL, is recommended. Disregard claims about the level of integration among tools. Focus instead on using VHDL to generate a design at the highest level to gain the benefits of top-down design. Probably, you will have to modify some code for each tool.

In any procurement specifying EDIF, require an upgrade path from EDIF to CDIF. In any procurement specifying the VHDL, specify the full VHDL (e.g., a full VHDL simulator) rather than any subset or superset. This is the only way to be certain that the VHDL will synthesize correctly.

Vendors delivering VHDL most likely will deliver the 1987 version of the standard. This version lacks several important capabilities that are addressed in the standard's revision. Therefore, in any procurement specifying VHDL, require vendors to explain their upgrade paths to the revised VHDL standard.

VHDL synthesis can produce a high productivity level, only if the designers know how to drive it and how to write out VHDL files to get that productivity. Since VHDL is relatively new, in any procurement specifying VHDL, it is advisable to require training from the vendor.

3.5.5.5 Military logistics and document support. These are standards for creating documentation of military systems in support of life cycle logistics support.

3.5.5.5.1 Standards. Table 3.5-32 presents standards for military logistics and document support.

TABLE 3.5-32 Military logistics and document support standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) Record

MIL-STD-1388-2B

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Automated Interchange of Technical Information (Life cycle logistic support of weapon systems)

MIL-STD-1840B of 11/3/1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Software Development and Documentation

MIL-STD-498

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Manuals, Technical: General Style and Format Requirements

MIL-M-38784C(3) of 12/9/1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Manuals, Interactive Electronic Technical: General Content, Style, Format and User Interaction Requirements

MIL-M-87268 of 11/20/1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Database Revisable:Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals for the Support of

MIL-D-87269 of 11/20/1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Quality Assurance Program Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM) and Associated Technical Information, Requirements for

MIL-Q-87270 of 11/20/1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Defense System Software Development

DOD-STD-2167A

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

DOD Automated Information Systems (AIS) Documentation Standards

DOD-STD-7935A

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

DOD Requirements for a Logistic Support Analysis Record (LSAR)

MIL-STD-1388-2B of 3/28/1991

Informational

(Canceled)

3.5.5.5.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. Association European des Constructeurs de Material Aerospatial (AECMA) 1000D: Specification for Production of Technical Publications, Utilizing a Common Source Data Base.

b. AECMA 2000M: Specification for Material Management, and Integrated Data Processing for Military Equipment.

3.5.5.5.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.5.5.4 Portability caveats. Europe has its own versions of military logistics support document interchange, and has stated that it will adapt the CALS versions of the logistics support standards (MIL-STD-1388), rather than adopt them without change. Although Europe will seek compatibility, its failure to seek compliance can lead to incompatible areas. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is looking into harmonizing DOD and AECMA logistics standards.

If hard copies of documents are required, it should be noted that the ISO A4 paper size commonly used in Europe for international communication on text and facsimile equipment is longer and narrower than that used in the United States, and does not necessarily work with standard office equipment.

MIL-STDs and DOD-STDs 2167A, 7935A, and 1703 have been revised and consolidated (aka MIL-STD-498, Software Development and Documentation). In light of DOD's new policy on MIL-STDs, the project has been moved into the IEEE standardization process.

3.5.5.5.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to military logistics and document support or support standards:

a. ISO 8571: FTAM
b. ISO 8649: Association Control Service Element (ACSE)
c. ISO 9066: Reliable Transfer Service Element (RTSE)
d. ISO 9072: ROSE

3.5.5.5.6 Recommendations. The adopted standards are recommended.

3.5.5.6 Geospatial data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) These standards provide formats and facilities for machine-readable graphics-based mapping, charting, and geodesy data.

3.5.5.6.1 Standards. Table 3.5-33 presents standards for geospatial data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-33 Geospatial data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

World Geodetic System (WGS 84)

MIL-STD-2401 of 21 March 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Raster Product Format (RPF)

MIL-STD-2411:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Interface Standard for Vector Product Format (VPF)

MIL-STD-2407

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST) Part 1 - Generic Standard Part 2 - Minimum Standards Specifications Part 3 - Matrix (Exchange of elevation of data) Part 4 - Spaghetti Vector

STANAG 7074

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

FIPS PUB 173-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Digital Terrain Elevation Data, (DTED)

STANAG 3809

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representation of Geographic Point Locations for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.61-1986)

FIPS PUB 70-1:1986

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Codes for Identification of Hydrologic Units in the United States and the Caribbean Outlying Areas (adopts USGS Circular 878-A and ANSI X3.145-1986)

FIPS PUB 103:1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

NIMA GGI&S List of Products and Services

NIMAL 805-1A, Jan 1997

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Arc Digitized Raster Graphics Worldwide Map Images on CD-ROM, 1:5,000 through 1:2,000,000

MIL-A-89007 of 2/22/1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

DTED (Machine readable terrain/elevation data for the U.S., the former USSR, Europe, Central Asia, Mideast, Parts of Southern Asia, Northern Canada, 3-Arc-Sec)

MIL-D-89000 of 2/26/90 MIL-D-89001 of 2/26/90 MIL-D-89020 of 5/28/93

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Digital Chart of the World (DCW) (A comprehensive 1:1,000,000-scale digital base map of the world)

MIL-D-89009 of 4/13/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Digital Cities Data Base (DCDB)

MIL-D-89011 of 7/2/90

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Firefinder Elevation Data (FED)

MIL-D-89018 of 10/1/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Digital Landmass Blanking (DLMB)

MIL-D-89021 of 6/15/91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Interim Terrain Data/Planning Interim Terrain Data (ITD/PITD)

MIL-I-89014 of 11/30/90

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Video Disc for Mapping, Charting and Geodesy (Worldwide Map Images on 12 inch Video Disk, 1:50,000 through 1:1,000,000)

MIL-V-89300(1) of 11/30/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

World Vector Shoreline (showing Worldwide Coastlines and International Boundaries, 1:250,000 scale)

MIL-W-89012(2) of 11/30/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

World Magnetic Model (WMM)

MIL-W-89500 of 6/18/93

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DARPA

SIMNET Geographic Data Model and Database Interchange Specification

BBN DARPA Report 7108:July 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NGDC

Worldwide Coverage for 5 Mini Grid maps: Bathymetric/Elevation Data

ETOPO 5

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

LANDSAT: Worldwide Coverage for 1:1,000,000 Scale Maps: Feature/Terrain Data

LANDSAT

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Scope and Presentation of Military Geographic Information and Documentation

STANAG 2251

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Roads and Road Structures

STANAG 2253

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

MGD-Ports

STANAG 2255

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Indexes to series of Land Maps and Aeronautical Charts and Indexes to Military Geographic Information and Documentation (MGID)

STANAG 3672

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Preferred Magnetic Tape Standards for the Exchange of Digital Geographic Information

STANAG 3985

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Digital Data File Transmittal Form for Geographic Information

STANAG 3986

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Specification for Representation of Geographic Point Locations for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.61-1986)

USGS Circular 878-B of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Digital Elevation Models

USGS Circular 895-B of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Digital Line Graphs from 1:24,000 Scale Maps

USGS Circular 895-C of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Digital Line Graphs from 1:2,000,000 Scale Maps

USGS Circular 895-D of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Land Use and Land Cover Digital Data

USGS Circular 895-E of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Geographic Names Information System

USGS Circular 895-F of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

CIA

World Data Bank II: Worldwide Coverage for 1:2,000,000 Scale Maps (Lines of Communication, Coastlines, Waterways, International/Political Boundaries)

World Data Bank II

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (USAF)

Arc Digital Raster Imagery (ADRI) Format

MIL-STD-2406

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Standard Linear Format (SLF) Digital Cartographic Feature

MIL-HDBK-854

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (AFMC)

Registered Data Values for Raster/Gridded Product Format

MIL-HDBK-856

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Text Product Form (TPF)

MIL-STD-2400

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Mapping Charting and Geodesy Symbology Graphics

MIL-STD-600002

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

NATO

Header Record Format for Exchange of Digital Geographic Information

STANAG 3984

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

NATO

Digital Geographic Information Data Sets Series Numbering

STANAG 7070

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

DFAD (Machine-readable feature data of the U.S., Europe, the former Western USSR, Limited Areas of Far East and Western Asia, 1:250,000 scale)

MIL-D-89005

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Tactical Terrain Data: Digital Database for 1:50,000 Scale Maps

TBD-Tactical Terrain Data: Digital Database for 1:50,000 Scale Maps

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.5.6.2 Alternative specifications. Many existing proprietary map graphics applications vary in complexity to meet users' needs. These applications serve as the cornerstone of the mapping, charting, and geodesy areas requiring further investigation for standardization consideration.

3.5.5.6.3 Standards deficiencies. Many of the standards listed in the table accompanying this section are old. They do not accommodate new sophisticated computerized techniques, and probably will be replaced in the next several years. The standards available pertain almost exclusively to the data rather than the functionality of an application.

3.5.5.6.4 Portability caveats. Portability will be reduced if a Geographic Information System (GIS) does not allow users to associate their cartographic data independently with relational database management systems based on SQL.

The use of different file formats by a GIS reduces portability. However, in the production world several file formats specified by vendors are used so widely that they are considered neutral file formats (e.g., Intergraph's Standard Interchange Format (SIF), Autodesk's Drawing Exchange Format (DXF), and Map Overlay Statistical System (MOSS)).

Traditionally, standards governing exchanges among field systems have been the responsibility of the military system development organization. This leads to substantial interoperability problems, particularly international. To maximize interoperability, Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST) and other map producing data should be exchanged between map-producing agencies, such as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and not between operational units, and the systems development organizations should use the standards set by such agencies as the NIMA.

Portability difficulties may exist between the Vector Product Format (VPF) and the Spatial Transfer Specification (SDTS).

Because too many standards exist, the situation is equivalent to having no standards.

3.5.5.6.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to map graphics exchange or exchange standards:

a. ISO 646: 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

b. ISO 1001: File Structure and Labeling of Magnetic Tapes for Information Interchange

c. ISO 2375: Non-Latin Alphabets

d. ISO 6937: Supplementary Characters (for accents to the text)

e. ISO 8211:1985 Specification for a Data Descriptive File for Information Exchange

f. ISO 8824/8825: ASN.1

g. ISO 9292: Picture Coding

h. ISO 9660:1988 Volume and File Structure of CD ROM for Information Exchange

i. ANSI/ASME Y14.26M-1989: IGES (Neutral file format)

j. Intergraph Corporation, Huntsville, AL: SIF

k. Autodesk, Inc., Sausalito, CA: DXF

l. Autometric, Inc., Lakewood, CO: MOSS

m. The various data compression standards listed earlier in the section on data compression

3.5.5.6.6 Recommendations. GIS specifications in a procurement should require SQL compatibility so that cartographic data can be associated independently with relational database management systems based on SQL. In each case, consideration of the scale of data and geographic region needed will be a primary determinant in selection. The standards in the table above labeled mandated are recommended. The VPF is preferred.

If a packaged GIS is to be purchased, if possible, it should be standardized around a single GIS file format. If a GIS is to be used on workstations and PCs, this may not be possible. Then the agency's focus will have to be on the use of interoperability protocols and designing applications for portability. GIS specifications should require SQL compatibility so that cartographic data can be associated independently with relational database management systems based on SQL.

3.5.5.7 Symbology graphics. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) These are standards for the symbology to be used in geospatial applications such as hardcopy mapping products and computer-generated displays. DoD standards provide definitions for the representation of military and intelligence information.

3.5.5.7.1 Standards. Table 3.5-34 presents standards for symbology graphics.

TABLE 3.5-34 Symbology graphics standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Human Factors Engineering Design Criteria for Helicopter Cockpit Electro-Optical Display Symbology

MIL-STD-1295A of 6/26/1984

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (USAF)

Aircraft Display Symbology

MIL-STD-1787B of 6/93

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Mapping, Charting and Geodesy (MC&G) Symbology for Graphic Products

MIL-STD-2402 of 2/95

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (DISA)

Common Warfighting Symbology, Version 1

MIL-STD-2525

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

WMO

Technical Regulation Vol II, Meteorological Services for International Air Navigation

WMO Document #49 of 1988

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Symbols

Q-STAG 509 of 3/5/1979

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/SAE

Human Interface Design Methodology for Integrated Display Symbology

ARP 4155 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Symbols for Army Air Defense System Displays

MIL-STD-1477B of 2/1/1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (DISA)

Common Warfighting Symbology, Version 2

MIL-STD-2525A

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Army Field Manual (FM): Operational Terms and Symbols

FM 101-5-1 SMIGS (Symbols of Oct. 1985)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/ISA

Instrumentation Symbols and Identification

S5.1-1984 (R1992)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/ISA

Graphic Symbols for Process Displays

S5.5-1985

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Experimental Tactics and Amplifying Tactical Instructions - AXP-5(B) (Navy/Air)

STANAG 1125

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Military Symbols for Land Based Systems (APP-6, Ed 3)

STANAG 2019(1) of 11/26/1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Electronically and/or Optically Generated Aircraft Displays for Fixed Wing Aircraft

STANAG 3648 of 6/29/1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Symbols on Land Maps, Aeronautical Charts and Special Naval Charts

STANAG 3675

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Symbols for Use on Maps of Training Areas for Land Forces

STANAG 3833

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

CJCS

Joint Symbols and Graphics

Joint Pub 1-06

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Army Field Manual (FM): Operational Terms and Symbols

FM 101-5-1A SMIGS

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Vector Product Format Symbology

MIL-PRF-89045

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (ASPO)

Symbol Automation

MIL-STD-2526

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DIA

Standard Military Graphics Symbols (SMIGS)

DIAM 65-xx

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

NATO

Display Symbology and Colors for NATO Maritime Units

STANAG 4420

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.5.7.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.5.5.7.3 Standards deficiencies. Draft MIL-STD-2525A does not currently contain weather, geospatial (mapping/charting), cockpit display, and engineering design symbology. Therefore NIMA MIL-STD-2402, 2412 should be used for geospatial symbology until such time as a decision is made to modify MIL-STD-2525A to accomodate these symbols.

3.5.5.7.4 Portability caveats. Portability will be reduced if a GIS does not allow users to associate their cartographic data independently with relational database management systems based on SQL. Only government standards are available. Most commercial products will not comply with these standards.

3.5.5.7.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to symbology graphics or symbology graphics standards:

a. ISO 6937: Supplementary Characters (for accents to the text)
b. ISO 9292: Picture Coding
c. Autometric, Inc., Lakewood, CO: MOSS
d. Map graphics standards.

3.5.5.7.6 Recommendations. The adopted symbology standards are recommended, as applicable; MIL-STD 2525 is the recommended standard for warrior symbology.

3.5.5.8 Continuous Acquisition and Life-Cycle Support. Continuous Acquisition and Life-Cycle Support (CALS) standards specify the digital exchange of documents. CALS is one part of a broad Electronic Commerce (EC) initiative within the DOD that has the potential for converging CALS standards and enabling technologies within the Open Systems Environment (OSE). CALS has begun to emerge from its legacy as support for weapon systems technical documents. Current and projected CALS standards will rationalize their native standards and emphasize the use of external Open Systems standards for their products, permitting format conversion and extensions to deal with complex documents.

3.5.5.8.1 Standards. Table 3.5-35 presents standards for continuous acquisition and life-cycle support.

TABLE 3.5-35 Continuous Acquisition and Life-Cycle Support standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Automated Interchange of Technical Information (Life cycle logistic support of weapon systems)

MIL-STD-1840B of 11/3/1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Contractor Integrated Technical Information Service (CITIS)

MIL-STD-974

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Department of Defense Continuous Acquisition and Life-Cycle Support (CALS) Program Implementation Guide

MIL-HDBK-59B

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Manuals, Interactive Electronic Technical: General Content, Style, Format and User Interaction Requirements

MIL-M-87268 11/20/1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Database Revisable:Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals for the Support of

MIL-D-87269 of 11/20/1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Quality Assurance Program Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM) and Associated Technical Information, Requirements for

MIL-Q-87270 of 11/20/1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Markup Requirements and Generic Style Specification for Electronic Printed Output and Exchange of text (based on ISO 8879)

MIL-PRF-28001

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-PRF-28003

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Handbook for use of MIL-M-28001B

MIL-HDBK-28001

Informational

(Formative)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Markup Requirements and Generic Style Specification for Electronic Printed Output and Exchange of text (based on ISO 8879)

MIL-M-28001B of 6/26/1993

Informational

(Superseded (CALS))

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B of 12/14/1992

Informational

(Superseded (CALS))

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-D-28003A(1) of 8/14/1992

Informational

(Superseded)

3.5.5.8.2 Alternative specifications. The AAP TEI has designed an alternative nonproprietary architecture with SGML encodings.

3.5.5.8.3 Standards deficiencies. Markup consists of the common sets of document formatting codes used in classes of document types. Each document type commonly uses a particular publishing style. Technical manuals may use a different makeup from management guideline documents to accommodate the audience, content, and publishing layout styles. Since SGML does not deal with the markup's meaning, it does not specify what to do after the document has been processed by a program that recognizes SGML.

SGML does not use object-oriented methods or deal with hypermedia/time-based document interchange. Standards in both areas are under development.

MIL-PRF-28001 uses relatively few SGML features and, therefore, restricts and minimizes the effectiveness of the markup. However, the standards can be used to transfer revisable documents. However, the DOD/CALS standard mainly is used for weapon system technical support documents, with limited application to business office environments.

3.5.5.8.4 Portability caveats. The DOD CALS have limited functionality when compared with ODA/ODIF and other standards used in support of business operations. Users should treat complex and/or compound documents with care to ensure upward compatibility with evolving standards.

European decisions to adapt rather than fully adopt CALS standards may lead to incompatibilities.

3.5.5.8.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to CALS standards:

a. ISO 8879: SGML

b. ISO 8632: CGM

c. IGES Version 4.0, 5.2

d. ISO 8879:1988: SDIF

e. ISO 9069:1988: SGML Support Facilities for SDIF

f. MIL-STD 974: Contractor Integrated Technical Information Service (CITIS)

g. MIL-HDBK-59: CALS Program Implementation Guide

3.5.5.8.6 Recommendations. The CALS standards are recommended where they apply. The DOD SGML standard (MIL-PRF-28001) is based on ISO 8879. In the meantime, use DOD SGML in conjunction with other specifications that determine the markup's meaning (such as the EMPM of the ODA (ISO 8613). Refer to the document exchange BSA for further SGML recommendations.

IGES is recommended when multivendor product data exchange capabilities are needed. The DOD/CALS IGES standard is preferred for engineering drawings, electronics, and numerical control. The standard is optional for technical manual illustration, and the CGM standard is more appropriate. The more comprehensive STEP will provide more comprehensive functionality than IGES.

3.5.6 Graphics data interchange. Graphics data interchange is a collection of service areas that form the basis for creating graphics. Special graphics applications such as found in Technical Data Interchange are not included.

3.5.6.1 Raster data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 3, part 5, and part 6.) Raster data interchange MIL SPEC identifies the requirements to be met when raster graphics data represented in digital, binary format are delivered to the government. Raster graphics standards are standards for pixel-by-pixel representation of images. (See still image compression, section 3.5.8.2, for more facsimile standards suitable for raster data interchange.)

3.5.6.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-36 presents standards for raster data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-36 Raster data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 6: Raster

9636-6:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Raster Product Format (RPF)

MIL-STD-2411:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles (formerly Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES))

10303-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

X Window System File Formats and Application Conventions (Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF))

C170 (7/91)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

General Aspects of Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA-536-1988)

FIPS PUB 149:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Facsimile Coding Schemes and Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA 538-1988)

FIPS PUB 150:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (adopts ASME/ANSI Y14.26M-1989) (IGES ver. 4)

FIPS PUB 177:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-PRF-28003

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice; File Format for Storage and Exchange of Images; Bi-Level Image File Format: Part 1

MS53-1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Standard for the Interchange of Large Format Tiled Documents

NISTIR 88-4017

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Analogue Video Standard for Aircraft System Applications

STANAG 3350

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Exchange Specifications for ARC Standardized Raster Graphics (ASRG)

STANAG 4387:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Specifications for UTM/UPS Standardized Raster Products (USRP)

STANAG 7077

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Application Profile for the Interchange of Formatted Mixed Mode Document - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.501 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Application Profile for the Interchange of Group 4 Facsimile Documents

T.503 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

AIIM

Interchange of Tiled Raster Documents

TR14:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Exchange Specifications for ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG)

STANAG 7108

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

3.5.6.1.2 Alternative specifications. Currently IGES is the most mature and widely implemented standard for conveying product data information. Other bitmap formats include proprietary formats such as GIF, PCX, TIFF, RLE, and TGA. Except for support of legacy products, these formats are not recommended.

3.5.6.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Raster graphics files require enormous amounts of storage and must be supplemented by compression standards.

3.5.6.1.4 Portability caveats. A standard technique for raster data interchange should be selected for use throughout the DOD and applied wherever possible.

3.5.6.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to raster data interchange or raster data interchange standards:

a. ASME/ANSI Y14.28M-1989, which describes product design and manufacturing information.

b. ITU-T, facsimile transmission standards.

c. Raster compression standards.

3.5.6.1.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended for raster data interchange.

MIL PRF-28002 (Raster) can be used in a Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) environment, and, when needed, supplemented by National Institute of Standards and Technology Interim Report (NISTIR) 88-4017 (tiling). FIPS Pub 150 can also be used. With only the CALS Raster standard available, no real tailoring guidance is possible. This version (MIL-PRF-28002) supports engineering drawings and technical manual illustrations. The previous CALS Raster standard (MIL-R-28002B) can be used for in-place and unrevised legacy data. Tiling (as in NISTIR 88-4017) and compression are desirable for very large raster graphics files. (See the Still image compression BSA, part 3.5.8.2 of the ITSG.) MIL-PRF-28003 (CGM) offers the capability for having raster and vector graphics in the same file. The approved BDF provides conventions for font conversion/interchange between external and internal X Windows fonts and can be used in procurements using a client-server computing architecture with a graphical user interface in a networked environment. BDF can be compiled in Server Normal Format to be optimized for a particular server.

3.5.6.2 Image data interchange. Image data interchange is the exchange of imagery data, metadata, and attachments to the images. (See still image compression and raster data interchange for more standards suitable for image data interchange.)

3.5.6.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-37 presents standards for image data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-37 Image data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Metafile for Storage/Transfer of Pictorial Description Information (CGM) (as profiled by FIPS PUB 128-1 and MIL-STD-2301)

8632-1,2,3,4:1992 (w/Amd 1&2)

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous - Tone Still Images, Part 1: Requirements and Guidelines (as profiled by MIL-STD-188-198A - JPEG)

10918-1:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Bi-Level Image Compression

MIL-STD-188-196

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Vector Quantization (VQ) Decompression for the NITFS

MIL-STD-188-199 of 6/27/1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

National Imagery Transmission Format version 2.0

MIL-STD-2500A

Mandated

(Approved)

TBD

TBD

JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF), Version 1.02, C-Cube Microsystems for raster graphics data

JFIF

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

National Imagery Transmission Format Standard

MIL-HDBK-1300A

Informational

(Approved)

3.5.6.2.2 Alternative specifications. No alternative specifications exist.

3.5.6.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.6.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are not known.

3.5.6.2.5 Related standards. The remaining National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (NITFS) documents are related.

3.5.6.2.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

3.5.6.3 Vector graphics data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) These standards provide file formats for the storage, exchange, and import/export of raster or vector graphical drawings and images.

3.5.6.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-38 presents standards for vector graphics data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-38 Vector graphics data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Metafile for Storage/Transfer of Pictorial Description Information (CGM) (as profiled by FIPS PUB 128-1 and MIL-STD-2301)

8632-1,2,3,4:1992 (w/Amd 1&2)

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Programmers' Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS and PHIGS PLUS) (as profiled by FIPS PUB 153-1)

9592-1,2,3,4:1989 with AMD1:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (adopts ASME/ANSI Y14.26M-1989) (IGES ver. 4)

FIPS PUB 177:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/US PRO

IGES 5.2, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (Replaces ANSI/ASME Y14.26M-1989)

US PRO/IPO-100 (Nov 1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ANSI/NPESA

Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Tag Image File Format for Image Technology (TIFF/IT)

IT8.8

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-PRF-28003

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) Implementation Standard for National Imagery Transfer Format Standard (NITFS) (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-STD-2301A

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice; File Format for Storage and Exchange of Images; Bi-Level Image File Format: Part 1

MS53-1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-D-28003A(1) of 8/14/1992

Informational

(Superseded)

NPC

ANSI/ASME

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data

Y14.26M:1989

Informational

(Superseded)

3.5.6.3.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. BMP (Windows Bitmap) - Proprietary.

b. CGI (Computer Graphics Interface)

c. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) (Used by CompuServe)

d. NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax)

e. PDL (Page Description Language) - Proprietary

f. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) - Proprietary

g. VDM (Virtual Device Metafile)

h. VDI (Virtual Device Interface)

3.5.6.3.3 Standards deficiencies. The CGM standards have limited capabilities for handling 3-D geometries, providing fine control over line drawing details, and using font resource references enabling reasonably accurate font substitution (the latter is an understatement), and describing color. Several addenda and amendments are being developed. The addenda would add a global symbol capability, 3-dimensional geometry extensions, and improved engineering drawing capabilities (such as better control over fine details of line drawings). The amendments listed in table 3.5-20 are concerned with fonts and color. These CGM changes are intended to be upwardly compatible with existing versions of the specification.

3.5.6.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems for existing versions of the CGM standard are unknown. Potential portability problems exist for the CGM addenda and amendments, as with any new version of a specification or product, even though the standards groups are developing their specifications with upward compatibility in mind.

3.5.6.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to graphics data exchange or graphics data exchange standards:

a. ISO 9281: Identification of Picture Coding Methods.

b. ISO 10918-1: Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous Tone Still Images, Part 1: Requirements and Guidelines.

c. ISO 10918-2: Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous Tone Still Images, Part 2: Compliance Testing.

d. ISO CD 11172: Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio.

e. ISO SC21/WG5, N4192: Proposed FTAM Document Type to Support CGM.

f. ISO SC21/WG5, N5165: FTAM Constraint Set and Document Types for CGM.

g. MIL-HDBK-1300A, NITFS

h. MIL-STD-2500A, National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) Version 2.0 for the NITFS.

3.5.6.3.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

The following wording from the APP is recommended for specifying data interchange standards:

"All computer graphics metafiles acquired to describe, store, and/or communicate graphical (pictorial) information in vector format among different devices, systems, and installations should comply with the requirements set forth in FIPS PUB 128-1, Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)."

The use of CGM is widespread, and many (most) off-the-shelf products for graphics data interchange are compatible with it.

It is important to consider the specification of CGM conformance in procurements because CGM is important to the integration of PC applications with the enterprise. Most PC graphics, word processing and desktop publishing programs support the importing and exporting of pictures, bidirectionally to other PC programs and between PC and server/minicomputer/ workstation applications.

3.5.6.4 Color definition. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, part 12, Multimedia, and part 13, Human Factors.) Color definition deals with establishing a reference base for identifying colors to aid in the matching and exchange of color. Color definition standards apply to defining color in general, and not only to color definition for information technology systems.

3.5.6.4.1 Standards. Table 3.5-39 presents standards for color definition.

TABLE 3.5-39 Color definition standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ASTM

Standard Test Method for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System

E308 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

1976 CIE-UCS Chromaticity Diagram with Color Boundaries

TEB26 (1988)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

CIE Standard Colorimetric Illuminants

CIE 10526 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

CIE Standard Colorimetric Observers

CIE 10527 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

CIE

Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color-Difference Equations, and Psychrometric Color Terms

CIE Pub. 15, Suppl. 2 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Technology - Input Data for Characterization of 4-Color Process Printing

IT8.7/3 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Arts Prepress Definition of Default RGB Data for Use in the Graphic Arts Industry

IT8.7/4

Informational

(Approved)

N/A

SMPTE/EIA/VESA/ISO

Unreferenced 24-bit RGB

Technical Reports

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Text and Office Systems Colour Architecture (TOSCA)

JTC1/SC18/WG5

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

ICC

Definition of Named Color

TBD

Informational

(Formative)

NPC

ANSI IT8 and CGATS

Specifications for Web Offset Publications (SWOP)

TBD

Informational

(Formative)

The CIE (International Commission on Illumination) is the principal international standards writing body for agreements for color, vision, and illumination. Under ANSI, four bodies work on color-related standards. ANSI X3 works on office document automation and information systems. ANSI IT8/CGATS is concerned with graphic arts. ASTM deals with color metrology and standard practices, and SMPTE handles standards for color television and color monitors.

ANSI's Committee for Graphic Arts Technology Standards (CGATS) has eight subcommittees working on topics such as materials handling, process control, and color data definition. NPESA is the National Printing Equipment and Supply Association.

3.5.6.4.2 Alternative specifications. The following alternative specifications are also available:

a. Pantone Matching System

b. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) - the method directly used by color video display terminals

c. CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) - used in four color printing

d. HSV (Hue, Saturation, V.)

e. HSL (Hue, Saturation, Luminescence)

f. HVC

g. SWOP (Specifications for Web Offset Publications)

h. HSB (Hue, Saturation, Brightness)

i. TIFF (Tag Image File Format)

3.5.6.4.3 Standards deficiencies. Comparison of color defined by the existing standards assumes identical viewing conditions. There are no standards directly addressing comparisons across viewing environments, although models are being worked on. Strict adherence to correct presentation and output standards will require color calibration equipment.

3.5.6.4.4 Portability caveats. Translation of color from one color definition system to another can be difficult and is only an approximation at best. There are three different color definitions from the CIE. They are the CIEXYZ tristimulus values, and the CIELAB and CIELUV color spaces. These standards have existed for a long time and are seen as the common basis for any future unifying definitions. There are also the problems of color matching. For example, of 1012 Pantone colors for coated paper, 70 cannot be reproduced in the CMYK definition. CIEXYZ is useful in comparing colors under identical viewing conditions. CIEXYZ has a rigorous definition and by itself does not necessarily constitute a complete color specification. CIEXYZ is a standardized set of primaries which are not physically realizable but can match all possible colors with entirely positive tristimulus values. A new form of color definition is emerging, known as high-fidelity color. The idea behind high-fidelity color is the use of five to seven different colors in the printing process to widen the range of colors that can be printed. Two such models that have appeared are the Kupper set which increases the number of printed colors in the blue region by 80%, and the VSF model which provides better performance in deep red and green colors. These processes are very non-standard and should be avoided at present.

Common systems typically do not support colorimetric calibration.

3.5.6.4.5 Related standards. The following types of standards are related to standards for the definition of color:

a. color matching standards
b. color data exchange standards
c. color use standards
d. style guide standards

3.5.6.4.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable. Maintain original copies of source material so that revisions can be produced for next generation systems that will allow the inclusion of calibration information.

3.5.6.5 Color data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 13, Human Factors.) This BSA deals with the specific problems of interchanging data about color in computer graphics.

3.5.6.5.1 Standards. Table 3.5-40 presents standards for color data interchange.

TABLE 3.5-40 Color data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Colour Picture Data on Magnetic Tape (ANSI IT8.1-1988)

10755:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Colour Line Art Data on Magnetic Tape

10756:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Online Transfer from Electronic Prepress Systems to Colour Hardcopy Devices

10758:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Technology - Input Data for Characterization of 4-Color Process Printing

IT8.7/3 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Arts Prepress Definition of Default RGB Data for Use in the Graphic Arts Industry

IT8.7/4

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Architecture for Colour Data Interchange (GACDI)

JTC1/SC18/WG5

Informational

(Draft)

The Generic Architecture for Colour Data Interchange (GACDI) standard is a color architecture standard that will provide a consistent color framework across document-related standards. This standard will enable users to interchange color information in an open systems environment through the use of color data and transform representations.

3.5.6.5.2 Alternative specifications. No alternative specifications are available.

3.5.6.5.3 Standards deficiencies. There are no standards directly addressing comparison across viewing environments, although models are being worked on.

3.5.6.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.6.5.5 Related standards. Data interchange standards are related to standards for color data exchange.

3.5.6.5.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable.

3.5.6.6 Color matching. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 13, Human Factors.) This BSA deals with the problem of matching displayed and printed colors in computer systems.

3.5.6.6.1 Standards. Table 3.5-41 presents standards for color matching.

TABLE 3.5-41 Color matching standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Online Transfer from Electronic Prepress Systems to Colour Hardcopy Devices

10758:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ASTM

Standard Test Method for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System

E308 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

CIE

Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color-Difference Equations, and Psychrometric Color Terms

CIE Pub. 15, Suppl. 2 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Technology - Input Data for Characterization of 4-Color Process Printing

IT8.7/3 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Arts Prepress Definition of Default RGB Data for Use in the Graphic Arts Industry

IT8.7/4

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

ICC

ICC Profile Format

ICC Profile Format ver. 3, 1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Text and Office Systems Colour Architecture (TOSCA)

JTC1/SC18/WG5

Informational

(Draft)

The ICC was formed in March, 1994, by Apple, Adobe, Silicon Graphics, Taligent, Agfa, Kodak, Microsoft, and Sun for the purpose of defining profiles for color handling. The ICC Profile format has no preferred color space, and provides for more than four input colors.

ColorSync Profile Consortium has adopted the CGATS.5 specification as its definition of colorimetry and color measurement.

The Open System Color Association (OSCA) has taken on the role of providing industry with a centralized, stable, reliable, and common source of certified color-calibration data. OSCA consists of Agfa, DuPont, Fujifilm, Kodak, Radius, 3M, and 24 other non-founding member companies. OSCA's work is in harmony with the ICC Profile format.

3.5.6.6.2 Alternative specifications. The following alternative specifications are also available:

a. Pantone Matching System (PMS)

b. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) - the method directly used by color video display terminals

c. CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) - used in four color printing

d. Apple ColorSync 2.0 (supports ICC and CMYK)

e. Kodak Precision Color Management System (CMS)

f. Electronics for Imaging (EFI) Inc., EFIColor

g. Hewlett-Packard ColorSmart

h. Microsoft Independent Color Matching (ICM) in future versions of WindowsNT and Windows 95. (accepts ICC Profile Format).

i. Pantone Open Color Environment (POCE) (overshadowed by CMS and ColorSync)

j. Pantone ColorDrive (to standardize color palettes)

k. Trumatch SwatchPrinter

l. Tektronix TekColor

m. Agfa-Gevaert FotoFlow

3.5.6.6.3 Standards deficiencies. Comparison of color defined by the existing standards assumes identical viewing conditions. There are no standards directly addressing comparisons across viewing environments, although models are being worked on. the issue of where and how to correct color remains unresolved.

3.5.6.6.4 Portability caveats. Translation of color from one color definition system to another can be difficult and is only an approximation at best. There are three different color definitions from the CIE. They are CIEXYZ, CIELAB, and CIELUV. These standards have existed for a long time and are seen as the common basis for any future unifying definitions.

Because of their display orientation, all standards that are defining computer generated graphics color, use RGB models. Most programmers assume that the RGB values they are using are linear with display intensity and that may be approximately true depending on the response of the graphics system. The actual colors produced vary according to the graphics system used.

3.5.6.6.5 Related standards. Color definition standards are related to human factors standards for color matching.

3.5.6.6.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable.

3.5.7 DOD messaging. The following base service areas deal with specialized topics of message exchange in real time tactical systems.

3.5.7.1 Interchange of formatted military messages. These standards specify military fixed and variable format messages used in the exchange of tactical information. Most of the standards for formatted military messages are not open systems standards and, therefore, do not conform to the design requirements for open systems.

3.5.7.1.1 Standards. The following table presents the major DOD joint standards for the exchange of preformatted tactical military messages. Not all the standards listed below are open systems compliant and, therefore, fall outside the purview of this document. They have been included for completeness.

Table 3.5-42 presents standards for interchange of formatted military messages.

TABLE 3.5-42 Interchange of formatted military messages standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Message Text Formats (MTF) (NOTE 1)

Interim MIL-STD-6040 and CJCSM 6120.05

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Technical Interface Design Plan - Test Edition (TIDP-TE) (TADIL J Message Standard)

JIEO (TIDP-TE)

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

National Imagery Transmission Format version 2.0

MIL-STD-2500A

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Interoperability Standards and Allied Operating Procedures for NATO Link 16

STANAG 5516 & ADATP-16

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) Message Standards (TADIL A, B, and C) (NOTES 3 and 4)

MIL-STD-6011

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Interim Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Message Specification (IJMS)

IJMS Decision Paper 4 and 5

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Interim Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Message Specification (IJMS) Standing Operating Procedures (SOP)

IJMS Decision Paper 6

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (JIEO)

Multi-TADIL Data Extraction and Reduction Guide (DERG)

JIEO DERG-Guide

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

CJCS

Joint Multi-TADIL Operating Procedures (NOTE 8)

Joint Pub 3-56.20 thru 23

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Army Tactical DATA Link-1 (ATDL-1) Message Standard (Note 6)

MIL-STD-6013

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

NATO Performance Standards and Allied Operating Procedures for Ship-Shore-Ship Buffer

STANAG 5601 & ADATP-12

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

NATO Message Text Format (MTF) and Allied Operating Procedures

STANAG 5500 & ADATP-3

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Interoperability Standards and Allied Operating Procedures for NATO Link 11

STANAG 5501 & ADATP-31

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Interoperability Standards and Allied Operating Procedures for NATO Link 4

STANAG 5504 & ADATP-4

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Interoperability Standards and Allied Operating Procedures for NATO Link 11 and 11B

STANAG 5511 & ADATP-11

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Data Forwarding Standards for NATO Data Link

STANAG 5616

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

NATO ADSIA

Interoperability Standards for NATO Link 22

STANAG 5522

Emerging

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Variable Message Format (VMF) Interface Operating Procedures (IOP)

VMF (IOP)

Emerging

(Partial Draft)

GPC

DOD

Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL C) Message Standard (NOTE 5)

Interim MIL-STD-6004

Informational

(Draft)

Notes:

(1) United States Message Text Formats (USMTF) provide a structured format for use by the military services and other government agencies. It is a character-oriented message (COM) and can be transmitted in record or voice formats. It is used to transmit down-channel, lateral, and up-channel information.

(2) Variable Message Format (VMF) messages are bit-oriented messages (BOM) that are used to exchange information that is time sensitive (but not real-time), requires a response or action, and are machine readable. The structure of VMF messages are designed to provide specific information consisting of specific fields. The VMF standard continues to expand under configuration control. This expansion is expected to continue through FY96.

(3) Tactical Data Information Link (TADIL) A is a secure, netted data link using parallel transmission frame characteristics and standard message formats at either 2250 or 1364 bits per second. TADIL A operates in the high frequency (HF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) frequency range. TADIL A is interoperable with NATO Link 11.

(4) TADIL B is a secure point-to-point data link utilizing serial transmission frame characteristics and standard message formats at a basic speed of 600 or 1200 bits per second. This data link interconnects tactical air defense and air control units. Message formats are the same for TADIL B and TADIL A. TADIL B is interoperable with NATO Link 11B.

(5) TADIL C is a time division data link between control station and controlled aircraft. It provides the capability for automatic transmission of orders, status, and other information. Data exchange is accomplished on a fully automatic link at 5000 bits per second, using serial transmission. TADIL C uses the UHF frequency range. TADIL C will be updated and republished in a separate MIL STD in FY96. TADIL C is interoperable with NATO Link 4.

(6) The Army Tactical Data Link (ATDL-1) is a point-to-point digital data link using serial transmission frame characteristics and standard message formats at a basic speed of 600 or 1200 bits per second. This data link connects tactical air control and defense-oriented systems.

(7) TADIL J is a high capacity, secure, jam-resistant, nodeless broadcast-type RF data link that uses a time division multiple access (TDMA) protocol. It provides information distribution, position location, and identification capabilities in an integrated form for tactical military operations. TADIL J uses the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), and the protocols, conventions, and fixed word message formats defined by the JTIDS Technical Interface Design Plan - Test Edition (TIDP-TE). JTIDS operates in the upper ultrahigh frequency Lx band. TADIL J is interoperable with NATO Link 16.

(8) Joint Multi TADIL Operating Procedures are currently undergoing a rewrite. The existing four Joint Publications will be replaced by CJCSM 6120.01 with anticipated distribution in late FY96.

3.5.7.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other specifications are available.

3.5.7.1.3 Standards deficiencies. These standards have no known deficiencies. Since these standards are configuration managed, any desired or required changes to them must be approved through a formal configuration process and approved by a configuration control board (CCB).

3.5.7.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability caveats are not applicable to these systems.

3.5.7.1.5 Related standards. No standards are related to these tactical, preformatted military messages.

3.5.7.1.6 Recommendations. Any program manager considering using one of the above standards should contact JIEO, Code JEBC, for additional information. These standards are not subject to tailoring.

3.5.7.2 Tactical communications. Tactical communication is a method or means of conveying information of any kind, especially orders and decisions from one command, person, or place to another within the tactical forces, normally by means of electronic equipment (including communications security equipment).

A tactical communication system is a system configured by various types of fixed-size, self-contained assemblages; switching, transmission, and terminal equipment; and interconnect and control facilities used within or in support of tactical military forces. The system provides securable voice and data communications among mobile users to facilitate command and control.

3.5.7.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-43 presents standards for tactical communications.

TABLE 3.5-43 Tactical communications standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Tactical Communication Protocol 2 (TACO2) for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (NITFS)

MIL-STD-2045-44500 of 6/18/1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standard for Digital Message Transfer Device (DMTD) Subsystems, July 27, 1995

MIL-STD-188-220A

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) C (NOTE 5)

MIL-STD-188-203-3 of 10/5/88

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) A (NOTE 3)

MIL-STD-188-203A-1 of 1/8/1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) B (NOTE 4)

MIL-STD-188-212 of 10/17/1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Transport Profile: Reliable End System Transport for DOD Communications

MIL-STD-2045-14500 Part 1:March 1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

SIMPLEX Transport Profile: CLTS over CLNS

MIL-STD-2045-14501

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Common Messaging

MIL-STD-2045-17501

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Messaging

MIL-STD-2045-17502

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DoD Standardized Profiles - File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM) - Parts 1,4, and 5 (References ISO 8571 parts 1-5)

MIL-STD-2045-17508 - Parts 1,4, and 5: 7/94

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (NITFS)

NITFS V.1.1

Informational

(Superseded)

NITF standards are mandatory for secondary imagery systems.

3.5.7.2.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. ISO 8802/3 (same as IEEE 802.3)

b. ITU-T I.441: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) User Network Interface, LAP-D Data Link Layer specification

3.5.7.2.3 Standards deficiencies. The Tactical Communication Protocol-2 (TACO2) protocols perform well in half-duplex mode using low-speed and/or dedicated resources and circuits that have long turnaround times. This limits them to tactical environments that often have these features. But the TACO2 protocols are not a substitute for high-level packet switching protocols typically found in networked environments. FED-STD-1037B defines point-to-point transmission (i.e., transmission between two designated stations). X.25 also supports point-to-point transmission.

3.5.7.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.5.7.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to tactical communications or tactical communications standards:

a. ISO/IEC International Standardized Profile (ISP) 10607: Information Technology - ISP - FTAM Protocol

b. ISO 8571-5: FTAM Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS)

c. ISO/IEC ISP 10611 (Draft): Information Technology ISP - Message Handling System Comm Messaging

d. MIL-HDBK-1300A, NITFS

e. MIL-STD-2500A, NITF Version 2.0 for the NITFS

3.5.7.2.6 Recommendations. MIL-STD-2045-44500 is recommended. When specifying communication products to be used in the tactical environment, procurements should require products that support a commercially available communication protocol that performs file transfers and/or message transfers with a variety of systems, rather than developing a unique capability specific to a site.

3.5.8 Compression. These standards specify algorithms for compressing data for storage and exchange over a network. Data compression can reduce communications loading by as much as 80 percent without affecting the form of transmitted data. Compression requires application of the same algorithms at the sending and receiving locations. Compression algorithms for data must be "lossless" so that the expanded output exactly matches the original input. Compression algorithms for images and audio may be "lossy," where some data may be lost, but the expanded output is not noticeably different from the original input.

3.5.8.1 Text and data compression. This service supports general purpose compression of any data, including text files, data files, and executable programs. For these applications, the compression must be "lossless."

3.5.8.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-44 presents standards for text and data compression.

TABLE 3.5-44 Text and data compression standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

X/Open

Single UNIX Specification (Spec. 1170) Commands and Utilities, Issue 4, Version 2 (part of XPG4)

C436 (9/94)

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Adaptive Coding with Embedded Dictionary - DCLZ Algorithm

11558:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Procedure for the Registration of Algorithms for the Lossless Compression of Data

11576:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Binary Arithmetic Coding Algorithm

12042:1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Compaction Algorithm - Binary Arithmetic Coding

X3.225

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Adaptive Coding with Embedded Dictionary - DCLZ Algorithm

151 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Binary Arithmetic Coding Algorithm

159 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Adaptive Lossless Data Compression Algorithm

222 (1995)

Informational

(Approved)

Huffman coding is a statistical data compression technique that substitutes bit strings for character strings based on the frequency distribution of their occurrence. Strings that occur more frequently are replaced by shorter strings. Huffman coding is optimal when all symbol probabilities are an integral power of 1/2, which rarely occurs.

Arithmetic coding uses a similar technique for coding character strings based on their frequency of occurrence, and can achieve very close to the theoretical maximum reduction in message size. However, it can consume large amounts of computing resources in terms of CPU power and memory.

Substitutional compressors replace an occurrence of a particular phrase or group of bytes in a piece of data with a reference to a previous occurrence of that phrase. There are two main classes of schemes, named after Jakob Ziv and Abraham Lempel, who first proposed them in 1977 and 1978. The LZ78 based schemes work by entering phrases into a dictionary, and replacing repeat occurrences with an index into the dictionary. The most well known of the Lempel-Ziv algorithms is Terry Welch's LZW scheme, which he designed in 1984.

A second Lempel-Ziv compression scheme, called LZ77, keeps track of the last N bytes of data seen, and when a repeated phrase is encountered they output a pair of values corresponding to the position of the phrase in the buffer and the length of the phrase. In effect, the compressor moves a fixed-size "window" over the data.

(Note: Much of the material in this section was derived form the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) in the Usenet newsgroup comp.compression. This file can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/compression-faq/top.html.)

ISO 11558 describes an LZ78 algorithm, while ISO 12042 and ANSI X3.225 describe arithmetic coding algorithms. The "compress" utility uses the LZW algorithm. The "pack" utility uses static Huffman coding. The "zip" utility and the compatible MS-DOS product PKZIP use LZ77 compression followed by static Huffman coding of the result. The "gzip" utility uses a similar scheme. In addition, the "gunzip" utility can uncompress files created by "gzip", "zip" "compress", or "pack."

3.5.8.1.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. Utah Run Length Encoding (RLE): University of Utah.
b. IFF : Electronic Arts.
c. Sun Rasterfile: Sun Microsystems.
d. Other proprietary specifications such as ARC, AR7, ARJ, LZH, PAK, and ZOO.
e. GNU data compression utilities: (gzip) Free Software Foundation.
f. ZIP, version 2.0.1

3.5.8.1.3 Standards deficiencies. None of the ISO standards have been implemented in products.

The Arithmetic algorithms use excessive amounts of computer resources, and therefore have not been implemented in any widely-used products or utilities.

The LZ78 schemes can require more memory than LZ77 schemes, which require only a fixed buffer.

Huffman coding schemes, such as used in "pack," are not as efficient as Lempel-Ziv coding. Huffman coding requires that a substitution table be transferred before the compressed data so that the receiving end can do the decompression. This adds overhead, particularly for short files. An alternative is to use a fixed substitution table, perhaps based on the frequency of English letters, but this is inefficient for non-text files. In contrast, the Lempel-Ziv substitution algorithms allow the receiver to decompress the output without receiving any advance overhead tables. The dictionary, if used, can be constructed "on the fly" from the received data stream.

Several Arithmetic and Lempel-Ziv schemes are covered by multiple, overlapping patents. Of note, the LZW scheme, used in UNIX "compress," CompuServe GIF graphics compression, and the V.42bis modem standard, is covered by patents owned by IBM and Unisys. The developer of the PKZIP product owns the patent for one LZ77 scheme. Several Arithmetic schemes are covered by IBM patents, including the scheme used in JPEG image compression. Most of these patents cover algorithm implementations rather than the output format.

3.5.8.1.4 Portability caveats. Although many compression utilities use the same basic algorithms, individual manufacturers, software developers, and computer services have adopted their own options and internal storage formats. This has led to many different specifications that have incompatibilities. A unifying standard is needed.

3.5.8.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to text and data compression:

a. ITU-T T.81, Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) standard

b. FIPS 170:1992, Data Compression in Modems Employing CCITT Recommendation V.42 Error Correction.

3.5.8.1.6 Recommendations. X/Open C436 "compress" and "uncompress" are recommended. These utilities are provided with almost all UNIX implementations, and are readily available for other platforms. The "pack" and "unpack" utilities were recommended, and are still included in the X/Open C436 specification, but X/Open plans to remove them in a future version. Systems using "pack" should migrate to "compress."

The Free Software Foundation "gzip" is also recommended. It is widely available without charge for a variety of platforms. It has been specified for use as a standard for software distribution by several DOD software programs.

The zip file format is widely used, especially in MS-DOS environments. Only properly licensed copies of the PKZIP utility or the compatible "zip" utility should be used. Creators of compressed files to be exchanged between MS-DOS systems are encouraged to create "self-extracting" files that can be distributed and automatically decompressed on other MS-DOS systems without license restrictions.

3.5.8.2 Still image compression. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) Still image compression standards provide the capability of reducing storage needed for raster graphics files. This compression can be either exact (loss-less) or approximate (lossy) upon reversal, depending upon the algorithm. The JPEG is interested in developing standards covering compression and decompression of still-frame, continuous tone, photographic (gray scale or color) digitized images by facsimile.

3.5.8.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-45 presents standards for still image compression.

TABLE 3.5-45 Still image compression standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous - Tone Still Images, Part 1: Requirements and Guidelines (as profiled by MIL-STD-188-198A - JPEG)

10918-1:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Bi-Level Image Compression for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standards (NITFS)

MIL-STD-188-196 of 6/18/1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Vector Quantization (VQ) Decompression for the NITFS

MIL-STD-188-199 of 6/27/1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Group 3 Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission

FIPS PUB 147:1981

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Procedures for Document Facsimile Transmission (Adopts EIA-RS-466)

FIPS PUB 148:1982

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

General Aspects of Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA-536-1988)

FIPS PUB 149:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Facsimile Coding Schemes and Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA 538-1988)

FIPS PUB 150:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Standardization of Group 3 Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission: Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.4 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Fax Coding Schemes & Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Fax Apparatus - Terminal Equipment & Protocols for Telematic Services

T.6 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous - Tone Still Images - Requirements and Guidelines - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.81 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images - Part 2: Compliance Testing

10918-2:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Progressive Bi-Level Image Compression (JBIG) Compression Algorithm for Black-and-White Images

11544 (Corrigendum 1):1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Adaptive Coding with Embedded Dictionary - DCLZ Algorithm

11558:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Procedure for the Registration of Algorithms for the Lossless Compression of Data

11576:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Binary Arithmetic Coding Algorithm

12042:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Common Components for Image Compression and Communication - Basic Principles - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.80 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Coded Representation of Picture and Audio Information - Progressive Bi-Level Image Compression - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.82 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Adaptive Recursive Interpolated Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ARIDPCM) for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standards (NITFS)

MIL-STD-188-197A of 10/12/1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Compaction Algorithm - Binary Arithmetic Coding

X3.225

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images - Part 3: Extensions

10918-3:1995

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images - Registration Procedures for JPEG profile, APPn marker, and SPIFF profile ID marker

10918-4:1996

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media up to about 1.5 Mbit/sec (MPEG 1), Part 5: Technical Report on Software for ISO/IEC 11172:1993

11172-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Moding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG2) Part 4: Compliance Testing

13818-4

Emerging

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

NITF standards are mandatory for Secondary Imaging Systems.

3.5.8.2.2 Alternative specifications. The following compression methods are also available:

a. LZW compression algorithm.
b. Fractal transforms.

3.5.8.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.8.2.4 Portability caveats. The DOD NITFS Adaptive Recursive Interpolated Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ARIDPCM) compression scheme for eight-bit gray scale images eventually will be replaced by the ISO/JPEG standard in the broader community, thereby providing the potential for incompatibilities with existing ARIDPCM-based systems. Fractal transforms are still in a preliminary stage and continue to present many problems.

Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) is a joint development project of ISO and ITU-T. The same organization is responsible for the JPEG standard. Coordination of the standards in this area, ITU-T H.261, JPEG, and MPEG will depend on ISO and ITU-T.

3.5.8.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to non-text data compression standards:

a. MIL-HDBK-1300A, NITFS
b. MIL-STD-2500A, NITF Version 2.0 for the NITFS
c. Various multimedia standards
d. Raster graphics standards
e. ISO/IEC 11172, MPEG1
f. ISO/IEC 13818, MPEG2

3.5.8.2.6 Recommendations. The standards listed as mandated are recommended. If the DOD ARIDPCM compression scheme defined in the NITFS is specified in a procurement, a migration strategy to the ISO/ITU-T/JPEG standard also should be required. NITFS only supports ITU-T Group III compression, while CALS only supports Group IV.

Use the NITFS compression standards or CALS compression standard, as applicable. The MPEG and Joint Bi-Level Imaging Group (JBIG) standards should be considered for their specialized areas of use. The NIST and ITU-T standards for facsimile are recommended also. Lossless versus lossy compression: Group 4 facsimile is compatible with Group 3, but Group 3 facsimile is not necessarily compatible with Group 4. NITFS supports group 3, and CALS MIL-PRF-28002 supports group 4. If a file is compressed using group 4 facsimile, it will not be readable by a group 3 facsimile system, but a file compressed using group 3 facsimile will be readable by a group 4 facsimile system.

The JPEG standard can be implemented in hardware or software, and is already available in commercial products. However, sites purchasing JPEG products based on the draft versions of the standard should require vendor assurance that the products will comply with the international standard.

ITU-T H.261 is recommended for applications that require a 64-Kbit/second line rate. JPEG is recommended for still image applications when its data loss does not impact on the system function. MPEG is recommended for moving image applications when its elimination of redundant information between frames does not impact on the system function.

3.5.8.3 Motion image compression. Motion image compression standards deal with moving pictures coding and associated audio for digital storage media.

3.5.8.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-46 presents standards for motion image compression.

TABLE 3.5-46 Motion image compression standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media up to about 1.5 Mbit/sec (MPEG 1), Part 1: Systems, Part 2: Video, Part 3: Audio (with Technical Corrigendum 1:1996)

11172-1,2,3:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG2), Part 1: Systems

13818-1:1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG2), Part 2: Video

13818-2:1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media up to about 1.5 Mbit/sec (MPEG 1), Part 4: Conformance Testing

11172-4: 1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Progressive Bi-Level Image Compression (JBIG) Compression Algorithm for Black-and-White Images

11544 (Corrigendum 1):1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Adaptive Coding with Embedded Dictionary - DCLZ Algorithm

11558:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Procedure for the Registration of Algorithms for the Lossless Compression of Data

11576:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Binary Arithmetic Coding Algorithm

12042:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG 2), Part 9: Extension for Real Time Interface for Systems Decoders

13818-9:1996

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Video Teleconferencing Services at 56 to 1, 920 KB/s (adopts CCITT H.221, H.230, H.242, H.261, and H.320 (all 1990))

FIPS PUB 178:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Frame Structure for a 64 to 1920 kbit/s Channel in Audiovisual Teleservices - Line Transmission of Non-Telephone Signals

H.221 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Frame-Synchronous Control and Indication Services for Audiovisual Systems - Line Transmission of Non-Telephone Signals

H.230, Rev. 1 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

System for Establishing Communication between Audiovisual Terminals Using Digital Channels up to 2 Mbit/s

H.242 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Video Codec for Audiovisual Services at p x 64 kbit/s - Line Transmission on Non-Telephone Signals (known as PX64)

H.261 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Narrow-Band Visual Telephone Systems and Terminal Equipment - Line Transmission of Non-Telephone Signals

H.320 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Common Components for Image Compression and Communication - Basic Principles - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.80 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous - Tone Still Images - Requirements and Guidelines - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.81 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Coded Representation of Picture and Audio Information - Progressive Bi-Level Image Compression - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.82 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Compaction Algorithm - Binary Arithmetic Coding

X3.225

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Representation of Multimedia and Hypermedia Information Objects (MHEG), Multimedia Synchronized and Hypermedia Objects

JTC1/Projects 29.06.01, 29.06.02 & 29.07 (SC29/WG12)

Informational

(Formative)

NPC

ANSI

Digital Processing of Video Signals - Video Coder/Decoder for Audiovisual Services at 56 to 1,536 kbits

T1. 64

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media up to about 1.5 Mbit/sec (MPEG 1), Part 5: Technical Report on Software for ISO/IEC 11172:1993

11172-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Moding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG2) Part 4: Compliance Testing

13818-4

Emerging

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG 2), Part 5: Software Simulation

13818-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG 2), Part 6: Extensions for DSM-CC

13818-6

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG 2), Part 7: Audio Extensions

13818-7:1993

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.8.3.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. Microsoft and Aldus: TIFF.
b. Apple: PICT Version 2.
c. Truevision, Inc.: TGA.
d. Sun Microsystems: Sun Rasterfile.
e. Intel, IBM, and AT&T: Digital Video Interactive (DVI).

3.5.8.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.8.3.4 Portability caveats. MPEG is a joint development project of ISO and ITU-T. The same organization is responsible for the JPEG standard. Coordination of the standards in this area, ITU-T H.261, JPEG, and MPEG will depend on ISO and ITU-T.

ISO/IEC 11172-1 addresses synchronization and multiplexing of multiple compressed audio and video bit streams. ISO/IEC 11172-2 addresses compression of video signals at 1.5 Mbits. ISO/IEC 11172-3 addresses compression of digital audio signals at rates of 64, 128, and 192 kbit/s per channel.

3.5.8.3.5 Related standards. The following specifications are related to motion image compression standards:

a. Other compression and graphics format standards.

3.5.8.3.6 Recommendations. MPEG is recommended for moving image applications when its elimination of redundant information between frames does not impact on the system function. Selection of the standard will depend on the type of video-still frames or full motion and the line rate for transmission. ITU-T H.261 is the international standard for video encoding and decoding at a 64-Kbit/second line rate. It is designed primarily for use in the ISDN and can operate over existing digital networks. MPEG compresses video using a process called intraframe encoding, and it loses some of the video during the encode-decode cycle. Compression ratios of up to 25 to 1 can be used without a noticeable loss of image quality. MPEG is designed specifically for video and takes an asymmetrical approach to compression, dividing the world of compressed videos into publishers-producers and consumers-viewers. MPEG uses interframe encoding to eliminate redundant information between frames. ITU-T H.261 is recommended for applications that a require a 64-Kbit/second line rate.

3.5.8.4 Audio compression. Audio compression standards deal with the special needs of audio data in compression.

3.5.8.4.1 Standards. Table 3.5-47 presents standards for audio compression.

TABLE 3.5-47 Audio compression standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Encoding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbits/s -- Part3:Audio

11172-3:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Encoding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbits/s -- Part 3: Audio Technical Corrigendum

11172-3:1993/Cor.1:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG 2), Part 3: Audio

13818-3:1995 with Amd 1

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Progressive Bi-Level Image Compression (JBIG) Compression Algorithm for Black-and-White Images

11544 (Corrigendum 1):1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Characteristics of Compandors for Telephony - General Characteristics of International Telephone Connections and Circuits

G.162 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Characteristics of Syllabic Compandors for Telephony on High Capacity Long Distance Systems - General Characteristics of International Telephone Connections and Circuits

G.166 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Moding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG2) Part 4: Compliance Testing

13818-4

Emerging

(Draft)

3.5.8.4.2 Alternative specifications. Refer to other compression BSAs for alternatives.

3.5.8.4.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.8.4.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.8.4.5 Related standards. Other compression standards are related.

3.5.8.4.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

3.5.9 Data interchange media. Data interchange media is a collection of service areas for physical media used for data interchange.

3.5.9.1 Read-only optical disks. These standards are for optical disks used for read-only data storage. Read-only disks are a growing means of distributing software.

3.5.9.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-48 presents standards for read-only optical disks.

TABLE 3.5-48 Read-only optical disks standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Volume and File structure of CD-ROM for Information Interchange (same as ECMA 119)

9660:1988

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

90 mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Rewritable and Read Only, for Data Interchange (128MB) (see ECMA 154-1994)

10090:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Interchange on Read-Only 120mm Optical Data Disks (CD-ROM) (see ECMA 130-1988)

10149:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data interchange on 130 mm optical disk cartridges - capacity 1.3 Gbytes per cartridge, CC Servo Format. (ECMA-184 and X3B11 Project 1001-L)

13549:1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology 130 mm Optical Disk Cartridges Capacity: 2 Gbytes per Cartridge For Information Interchange. (ECMA 195-1993)

13842:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Volume and File Structure of CD-ROM for Information Interchange

119 (1987)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on Read-Only 120 mm Optical Data Disks (CD-ROM)

130 (1988)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 90 mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Read Only and Rewritable, M.O.

154 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Volume and File Structure of Read-Only and Write-Once Compact Disk Media for Information Interchange

168 (1994)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 130 mm Optical Disk Cartridges - Capacity: 1,3 Gigabytes per Cartridge

184 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 130mm Optical Disk Cartridges - Capacity: 2 GigaBytes per Cartridge

195 (1995)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 90mm Optical Disk Cartridge - HS-1 Format - Capacity: 650 Megabytes per Cartridge (ISO/IEC DIS 15498)

239 (1996)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 120mm Optical Disk Cartridges using Phase Change PD Format - Capacity:650 Mbytes per Cartridge

240 (1996)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

86mm, 90mm case, Rewritable and Read Only Optical Disk Cartridge Using the Discrete Block Format (DBF) Method for Digital Information Interchange (113MB)

X3.213-1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Test Methods for Media Characteristics of 90mm (3.5") Rewritable/Read-Only Optical Digital Data Disks with Continuous Composite Servo (CCS)

X3.244-1995

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Test Methods for Media Characteristics of 90 mm Read Only and Rewritable M.O. Optical Disk Data Storage Cartridges with Discrete Block Format (DBF)

X3.246-1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

Various

Digital Video Disk (DVD)

DVD

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Volume and File Structure of Read-Only and Write-Once Compact Disc Media for Information Interchange (This is ECMA-168.)

13490:1995

Informational

(Draft (DIS))

IPC

ISO/IEC

Procedures for the Registration of Identifiers and Attributes for Volume and File Structure

13800:1994

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Interchange for 130mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Capacity: 2.6 Gigabytes Per Cartridge, Rewritable and Read-Only, MO, 1,7 Modulation ZCAV (mixed mode media)

14517

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Interchange on 90 mm Optical Disk Cartridges (640 MB, MO, includes DOW)

15041

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Interchange on 90mm Overwritable and Read Only Optical Disk Cartridges Using Phase Change, Capacity:1,3 Gbytes per Cartridge (ANSI X3B11 Project 1159-I)

14760

Informational

(Formative)

NPC

ANSI

130mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Rewritable and WORM Using Phase Change Technology and Embossed Read-Only for Information Interchange (2GB)

X3.281

Informational

(Draft (Work Suspended))

3.5.9.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.5.9.1.3 Standards deficiencies. It is doubtful there will be support for discrete Block Format (ANSI X3.213-1994 and ANSI X3.246-1994) in the future. Other deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.9.1.4 Portability caveats. The following portability problems have been identified:

a. ISO/IEC 9660 covers the logical format that makes a Compact Disc readable (see also the "Yellow Book"). ISO/IEC 9660 is being revised by Japan's National Body. ISO/IEC 10149 covers the physical characteristics of a Compact Disc (see also the "Red Book").

b. ISO/IEC DIS 13490 (also known as The Frankfurt Proposal) removes many ISO/IEC 9660 restrictions, but is compatible with ISO/IEC 9660 at the directory and file structure level. DIS 13490 includes directory information required to support Unix, supports ISO 10646 (a new standard supporting all the character sets of the world), and is extendible to support future file systems, like Windows NT. It also addresses the logical structure of data on a Compact Disc - Write Once (CD-WO, Orange Book - Part 2) disc, and is designed to support both the CD-ROM (Yellow Book) and CD-WO conforming media. DIS 13490 has been accepted by ECMA, under ECMA 168 CD-WO. (Note: ECMA 168 will be used for the future CD-E (Compact Disc-Erasable)).

c. ISO/IEC 13549:1993 introduced the concept of "mixed mode" media; i.e., can combine read-only, write once, and rewrite functionality on the same disk.

d. ISO/IEC 13842:1994 allows for a reverse spiral on Side B; allowing for both sides to be read or written to simultaneously.

e. ISO/IEC DIS 13800 is being designed to be used with ISO DIS 13490.

f. ANSI is recommending cancellation of X3.281. There is little or no industry interest in continuing work on this standard. Products conforming to an approved 2GB Magneto-optic cartridge already exist in the marketplace, and the active work being done by X3B11 is for higher capacity.

g. Trends in read-only optical disk standards are for higher capacities and performance, and alternate technologies. The read-only version of high density CDs (Digital Video Disc-Read Only (DVD-RO)) have a capacity of 4.7 GB. DVDs store information in data sectors, instead of along a spiral as in the original Red Book audio. All versions of DVD (read-only, rewrite, erasable, video and games) will share a common file format, a subset of the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) Universal Disk Format (UDF).

3.5.9.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to read-only optical disks:

a. Red Book - The standards for CD-Digital Audio, developed by Philips and Sony, are defined in the "Red Book."

b. Yellow Book - The standards for CD-ROM, developed by Philips and Sony and the standards for CD-ROM/ Extended Architecture (XA) developed by Sony, Philips, and Microsoft are defined in the "Yellow Book." This document defines the physical properties of the disc, how data is stored and indexed, and how errors are corrected.

c. Orange Book - The standards for CD-Recordable (CD-R), developed by Philips and Sony, are defined in the "Orange Book." This document standardizes the physical media into two modes: Part 1 describes CD-Magneto-Optical (MO) and part 2 describes CD-WO. The Orange Book specifications refer to the physical standard, while ISO/IEC DIS 13490 refers to the logical structure of data on a CD-WO disk.

d. Green Book - The standards for CD-Interactive (CD-I), developed by Philips and Sony, are defined in the "Green Book." The Green Book not only covers the CD-I disc format, it also defines the hardware specifics of the player as well, including the CPU memory, operating system (CD-RTOS-Compact Disc Real-Time Operating System, based on OS-9, the official disk operating system of the Tandy Color Computer). The CD-I format synchronizes sound, video, graphics, and text so that they play together in a smooth, realistic way.

e. ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 (amendments 1-5), Information Technology - Universal Multiple Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) - Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane. Standard adopted by The Frankfurt Group to enhance the Orange Book specifications. ISO/IEC 10646 is a standard for using the many character sets of the world.

3.5.9.1.6 Recommendations. ISO 9660 (Volume and file structure of CD-ROM) is the standard recommended for compact disc.

3.5.9.2 Write-once optical disks. These standards are for optical disks that a user uses to write data to disks, and allows read-only access to the recorded data.

3.5.9.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-49 presents standards for write-once optical disks.

TABLE 3.5-49 Write-once optical disks standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

130mm (5.25') Optical Disk Cartridge - Write-Once, for Information Interchange - Part 1: Unrecorded Optical Disk Cartridge

9171-1:1990

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

130mm Optical Disk Cartridge, Write Once, for Information Interchange - Part 2: Recording format. Format A - Continuous Composite (CC) (ISO/IEC version of ANSI X3.211) Format B - Sampled Servo (SS) (ISO/IEC version of ANSI X3.214)

9171-2:1990

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

356mm Optical Disk Cartridge for information interchange - Write Once (ISO/IEC version of ANSI X3.200-1992.)

10885:1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Information Interchange on 130mm Optical Disk Cartridges of the Write Once, Read Multiple (WORM) Type, Using the Magneto-Optical Effect. (ECMA-153 JUN 1991, ISO/IEC version of ANSI X3.220.)

11560:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Volume and File Structure of Write-Once and Rewritable Media Using Non-Sequential Recording for Information Interchange. (ECMA 167)

13346:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Information Interchange on 300 mm Optical Disk Cartridges of the Write Once, Read Multiple (WORM) Type using the CCS Method. (ECMA 190)

13403:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data interchange on 130 mm optical disk cartridges - capacity 1 Gbytes per cartridge, CC Servo Format. (ECMA-183 and X3B11 Project 1000-L.)

13481:1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data interchange on 130 mm optical disk cartridges - capacity 1.3 Gbytes per cartridge, CC Servo Format. (ECMA-184 and X3B11 Project 1001-L)

13549:1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Information Interchange on 300 mm Optical Disk Cartridges of the Write Once, Read Multiple (WORM) Type using the SSF Method. (ECMA 189)

13614:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

356mm (14.00 inch) WORM Optical Disk Cartridge, Parts 1 and 2

X3.200-1992

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

130mm (5.25') Write-Once Optical Disk Cartridge Using Continuous Servo RLL 2,7 Encoding and LCD

X3.211-1992

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

130mm Write-Once Optical Disk Cartridge Using Sampled Servo and 4/15 Encoding

X3.214-1992

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

130mm Optical Disk Cartridge of the Write-Once Read Multiple (WORM) type Using the Magneto-Optical Effect

X3.220-1992

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Recorded Optical Media Unit for Digital Information Interchange -130mm (5.25') Write Once Sampled Servo RZ Selectable Pitch Optical Disk Cartridge

X3.191-1991

Informational

(Approved (Declining))

NPC

ANSI

356 mm (14") Optical Disk Cartridge (Write-Once) Test Methods for Media Characteristics

X3.199-1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Volume and File Structure of Read-Only and Write-Once Compact Disk Media for Information Interchange

168 (1994)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 130mm Optical Disk Cartridges of Type WORM (Write Once Read Many) using irreversible effects - Capacity: 2,6 Gbytes per cartridge (ISO/IEC DIS 15486)

238 (1996)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 120mm Optical Disk Cartridges using Phase Change PD Format - Capacity:650 Mbytes per Cartridge

240 (1996)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Volume and File Structure of Read-Only and Write-Once Compact Disc Media for Information Interchange (This is ECMA-168.)

13490:1995

Informational

(Draft (DIS))

IPC

ISO/IEC

Procedures for the Registration of Identifiers and Attributes for Volume and File Structure

13800:1994

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Interchange for 130mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Capacity: 2.6 Gigabytes Per Cartridge, Rewritable and Read-Only, MO, 1,7 Modulation ZCAV (mixed mode media)

14517

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI

130mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Rewritable and WORM Using Phase Change Technology and Embossed Read-Only for Information Interchange (2GB)

X3.281

Informational

(Draft (Work Suspended))

NPC

ANSI

356 mm Optical Disk Cartridge, Extended Capacity, Using Phase Change Technology, For Information Interchange (Phase Change - Write Once Read Many, PC-WORM)

X3B11 Project 1029-D

Informational

(Formative)

CPN-C

Toshiba

Digital Video Disk-Recordable (DVD-R) (3.9GB)

DVD-R

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.9.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.5.9.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Data interchange through physical distribution of optical disks cannot be assured with write-once technology. ISO/IEC 9171 (130mm) allows for two incompatible format types, continuous composite servo (CCS-Format A), and sampled servo format (SS or SSF-Format B). A CCS disk cannot be exchanged with an SS disk nor can it be read by an SS optical drive. Because of this ANSI established two separate standards; X3.211 for Format A, and X3.214 for Format B. If system requirements demand the interchangeability of the physical disk, specify the appropriate ANSI standard. There are currently no commercial manufacturers producing 300mm (12") write-once optical disks that conform to either of the two newly ISO adopted standards, ISO 13403:1995 or ISO 13614:1995.

ANSI X3B11 recommended reaffirmation of X3.199:1991 during its five-year review; however, drives are no longer being manufactured, and this standard should be considered declining.

3.5.9.2.4 Portability caveats. The following portability problems have been identified:

a. A standard technique for write-once optical disks should be selected for use throughout the DOD and applied wherever possible.

b. ISO/IEC 13346:1995 is a new file system standard developed through ANSI, ECMA, and ISO. It supports both write-once and rewritable functionality and allows for unlimited file and volume sizes. It is also operating system independent.

c. ISO/IEC 13403:1995 and ISO/IEC 13614:1995 (300mm, 12") both have the potential for a 12GB total capacity.

d. Standards for 130mm optical cartridges, ANSI X3.211, ANSI X3.214, ISO/IEC 9171, and ISO/IEC 11560, all specify a storage capacity of 325MB per side (650MB total).

e. A new ANSI project has been approved (Project 1158-D) to develop the standards for 130mm Rewritable and Read-Only Optical Disk Cartridge, Capacity: 5.2 GB per Cartridge (8X), for Information Interchange. An "I" status (International) is being requested so that ANSI and ISO efforts will work in parallel. The new standard will likely provide backward read and write compatibility with ISO/IEC DIS 14517 (2.6GB), and read compatibility (at a minimum) with ISO/IEC 13549 (1.3GB), and ISO/IEC 10089 (650MB). Backward compatibility to ISO/IEC 13842 (2GB) is not expected to be included in the proposed standard. Project 1158-D also allows for three sector sizes, 512, 1024, and 2048 bytes per sector.

f. ANSI X3.191 specifies a storage capacity of 1.28GB for a double sided disk. The cartridge dimensions of ANSI X3.191 are different from those of other 130mm Write-Once Read Many (WORM) standards, and optical drives are no longer being produced. Although this standard has been reaffirmed during its five-year review, optical drives are no longer being produced, and it should be considered declining.

g. ANSI X3B11 Project 1029-D, second generation 356mm (14") media standard, will include both 14.8 and 25GB capacities and will include backward read compatibility to ISO/IEC 10885 (6.8GB). ISO 10885 is expected to be reaffirmed at its upcoming five-year review.

h. ANSI X3.281 (X3B11 Project 985-D) uses zone bit recording (ZBR) to achieve its capacity of 2.0GB per double sided cartridge. Due to lack of industry interest, ANSI is recommending cancellation of this standard.

i. There are two ISO write-once standards for the 12" (300mm) optical disk; ISO 13403:1995 specifies the CCS format method and ISO 13614:1995 specifies the SS.

j. ECMA has approved its own version of a 130mm write-once media type based on that described in ISO/IEC DIS 14517 (ECMA 238 (1996)) and has submitted it through the Fast Track procedures as ISO/IEC DIS 15486.

3.5.9.2.5 Related standards. The following standards, proposed standards, and technical reports are related to write-once optical disk standards:

a. ISO/IEC TR 13841:1995 - Information Technology - Guidance on Measurement Techniques for 90mm Optical Disk Cartridges.

b. ISO/IEC TR 10091: Information Technology - Technical aspects of 130mm Optical disk cartridges - Write-once Recording Formats. (Technical Report, complement to ISO/IEC 9171-2 for the Type A and B formats.)

c. AIIM TR 21-1991 - Recommendations for the Identifying Information to be Placed on Write-Once-Read-Many (WORM) and Rewritable Optical Disk (OD) Cartridge Label(s) and Optical Disk Cartridge Packaging (Shipping Containers)

d. AIIM TR 28-1991 - Expungement of Information Recorded on Optical WORM Systems.

e. A new ANSI project has been approved (Project 1158-D) to develop the standards for 130mm Rewritable and Read-Only Optical Disk Cartridge, Capacity: 5.2 GB per Cartridge (8X), for Information Interchange. An "I" status (International) is being requested so that ANSI and ISO efforts will work in parallel. This standard will likely provide backward read and write compatibility with ISO/IEC DIS 14517 (2.6GB), and read compatibility (at a minimum) with ISO/IEC 13549 (1.3GB), and ISO/IEC 10089 (650MB). Backward compatibility to ISO/IEC 13842 (2GB) is not expected to be included in the proposed standard.

3.5.9.2.6 Recommendations. The recommendation is to apply the standards shown above as "adopted" that may suit to the circumstances of data communication in the system.

3.5.9.3 Rewritable optical disks. These standards are for optical disks that allow the user to read, write, and change data.

3.5.9.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-50 presents standards for rewritable optical disks.

TABLE 3.5-50 Rewritable optical disks standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

130mm Rewritable Optical Disk Cartridge for Information Interchange. (ISO/IEC version of ANSI X3.212)

10089:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

90mm optical disk cartridges, rewritable and read only, for data interchange. (Same as ECMA-154)

10090:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Volume and File Structure of Write-Once and Rewritable Media Using Non-Sequential Recording for Information Interchange. (ECMA 167)

13346:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data interchange on 130 mm optical disk cartridges - capacity 1 Gbytes per cartridge, CC Servo Format. (ECMA-183 and X3B11 Project 1000-L.)

13481:1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data interchange on 130 mm optical disk cartridges - capacity 1.3 Gbytes per cartridge, CC Servo Format. (ECMA-184 and X3B11 Project 1001-L)

13549:1993

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology 130 mm Optical Disk Cartridges Capacity: 2 Gbytes per Cartridge For Information Interchange. (ECMA 195-1993)

13842:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Interchange on 90 mm Optical Disk Cartridges - Capacity: 230 MB per cartridge (ECMA 201)

13963:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

130mm Rewritable Optical Disk Cartridge Using Magneto-Optical Effect and Continuous Composite Servo Format

X3.212-1992

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 90 mm Optical Disk Cartridges - Capacity: 385 MBytes per Cartridge

223 (1995)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 90mm Optical Disk Cartridge - HS-1 Format - Capacity: 650 Megabytes per Cartridge (ISO/IEC DIS 15498)

239 (1996)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Data Interchange on 120mm Optical Disk Cartridges using Phase Change PD Format - Capacity:650 Mbytes per Cartridge

240 (1996)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

86mm, 90mm case, Rewritable and Read Only Optical Disk Cartridge Using the Discrete Block Format (DBF) Method for Digital Information Interchange (113MB)

X3.213-1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Test Methods for Media Characteristics of 130 mm Rewritable Optical Disk Data Storage Cartridges with Continuous Composite Servo (CCS)

X3.234-1993

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Test Methods for Media Characteristics of 90mm (3.5") Rewritable/Read-Only Optical Digital Data Disks with Continuous Composite Servo (CCS)

X3.244-1995

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Test Methods for Media Characteristics of 90 mm Read Only and Rewritable M.O. Optical Disk Data Storage Cartridges with Discrete Block Format (DBF)

X3.246-1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Interchange on 90 mm Optical Disk Cartridges (640 MB, MO, includes DOW)

15041

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Interchange for 130mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Capacity: 2.6 Gigabytes Per Cartridge, Rewritable and Read-Only, MO, 1,7 Modulation ZCAV (mixed mode media)

14517

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Interchange on 90mm Overwritable and Read Only Optical Disk Cartridges Using Phase Change, Capacity:1,3 Gbytes per Cartridge (ANSI X3B11 Project 1159-I)

14760

Informational

(Formative)

NPC

ANSI

130mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Rewritable and WORM Using Phase Change Technology and Embossed Read-Only for Information Interchange (2GB)

X3.281

Informational

(Draft (Work Suspended))

CPN-C

Toshiba

Digital Video Disc-Rewritable (DVD-RAM) (2.6GB)

DVD-RAM

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.9.3.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.5.9.3.3 Standards deficiencies. It is doubtful there will be support for Discrete Block Format (X3.246-1994) in the future. ANSI is recommending cancellation of X3.281. There is little or no industry interest in continuing work on this standard. Products conforming to an approved 2GB magneto-optic cartridge already exist in the marketplace, and the active work being done by X3.B11 is for higher capacity.

3.5.9.3.4 Portability caveats. The following portability problems have been identified:

a. Data interchange through physical distribution of rewriteable optical disks is more standardized than with write-once, but still cannot be assured.

b. All single-sided 90mm (3.5 inch) rewritable optical disks use the CCS (Continuous Composite Servo) formatting. However, there are two methods for rewritability, magneto-optic (MO) which requires a separate erase pass before rewriting, and phase-change rewrite (PCR) which allows for direct overwrite. Two draft international standards, ISO/IEC DIS 14517 and ISO/IEC DIS 15041 both allow for Direct Overwrite (DOW).

c. ISO/IEC 10089:1991 has been reaffirmed by ANSI X3B11 technical committee as a valid standard during its five-year review.

d. ISO/IEC 13549:1993 introduced the concept of "mixed mode" media, i.e., read-only, write once, and rewrite functionality can be combined on the same disk.

e. A new ANSI project has been approved (Project 1158-D) to develop the standards for 130mm Rewritable and Read-Only Optical Disk Cartridge, Capacity: 5.2 GB per Cartridge (8X), for Information Interchange. An "I" status (International) is being requested so that ANSI and ISO efforts will work in parallel. This standard will likely provide backward read and write compatibility with ISO/IEC DIS 14517 (2.6GB), and read compatibility (at a minimum) with ISO/IEC 13549 (1.3GB), and ISO/IEC 10089 (650MB). Backward compatibility to ISO/IEC 13842 (2GB) is not expected to be included in the proposed standard.

f. ANSI X3 Project 915-I (ISO/IEC DIS 15041), Extended Capacity 90mm Rewritable Optical Media (640MB, 5X), should be able to read and write to 230MB (2X) disks (ISO/IEC 13963:1995).

g. Japanese manufacturers state they can produce a "bridge drive" which can accommodate both the 230MB 90mm Magneto-Optic and Phase Change Rewrite (PCR) optical disk cartridges; however, the 1.3GB PCR drive will not accommodate 230MB MO disks.

h. A request has been made to make ECMA 195 compatible with ISO/IEC 13842:1995.

i. ANSI X3.213 and ISO/IEC 10090 specify a capacity of 128MB per side. ANSI X3.212,ISO/IEC 10089, and ISO/IEC DIS 15498 specify a capacity of 325 MB per side. ANSI X3B11 Project 915-I will specify a capacity of 640MB per cartridge.

j. A standard for a phase change multifunction dual drive (PD), which combines phase change rewritability (650MB capacity) with quad-speed CD-ROM read funtionality in a single unit has been approved through ECMA (ECMA 240 (1996).

k. Double sided 90mm optical disks are being proposed by industry, which will have capacities of 1.3GB and 2.6GB.

l. ISO/IEC 10089 allows for both CCS and SSF formats, which are incompatible with each other. An organization may have to use ANSI X3.212 to specify CCS only.

3.5.9.3.5 Related standards. The following standards, proposed standards, and technical reports are related to rewritable optical disks:

a. ISO/IEC TR13561:1994 Information Technology - Guidelines for Effective Use of ODCs Conforming to ISO/IEC 10090 First Edition.

b. ISO/IEC TR13841:1995 Information Technology - Guidance on Measurement Techniques for 90mm ODCs.

c. A new ANSI project has been approved (Project 1158-D) to develop the standards for 130mm Rewritable and Read-Only Optical Disk Cartridge, Capacity: 5.2GB per Cartridge (8X), for Information Interchange. An "I" status (International) is being requested so that ANSI and ISO efforts will work in parallel. This standard will likely provide backward read and write compatibility with ISO/IEC DIS 14517 (2.6GB), and read compatibility (at a minimum) with ISO/IEC 13549 (1.3GB), and ISO/IEC 10089 (650MB). Backward compatibility to ISO/IEC 13842 (2GB) is not expected to be included in the proposed standard.

d. X3B11 Paper 95-096. Planning Guide for Third Working Draft for 90mm Phase Change Optical Disk Cartridge, Capacity: 1,3GB per Cartridge. An "I" (International) Project is being requested.

e. AIIM TR 21-1991 - Recommendations for Identifying Information to be Placed on WORM and Rewritable Optical Disk (OD) Cartridge Label(s) and OD Cartridge Packaging (Shipping Containers)

3.5.9.3.6 Recommendations. The recommendation is to apply the standards shown above as "adopted" that may suit the circumstances of the system. ISO/IEC 10090 and 10089 and ANSI X3.212 are recommended for rewritable optical disk cartridges; however, future trends for higher capacity and performance, as well as new technologies, will soon cause lower capacity/performance disks to be outmoded. Reaffirmation of ISO/IEC 10089 has been recommended by ANSI X3B11 technical committee during the standard's five year review.

3.5.9.4 Support for software distributed on CD-ROM. These standards provide the formats for data on CD-ROM and the specifications for drivers to read them. these formats are designed to deliver finished software products to a broad range of platforms.

3.5.9.4.1 Standards. Table 3.5-51 presents standards for support for software distribution on CD-ROM.

TABLE 3.5-51 Support for software distributed on CD-ROM standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Volume and File structure of CD-ROM for Information Interchange (same as ECMA 119)

9660:1988

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Interchange on Read-Only 120mm Optical Data Disks (CD-ROM) (see ECMA 130-1988)

10149:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

CD-ROM (XCDR)

C519 (12/95)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IMA

Recommended Practice for Data Exchange (adopts Bento and an OMFI subset)

IMA-RP, 950701.1

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (DISA)

Department of Defense Handbook, DOD-Produced CD-ROM Products, 1st Revision

MIL-HDBK-9660A (1996)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

Various

UNIPACK (format interface)

P18.01-DO.141 (5/93)

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Apple

Bento (Format and API)

1.0d5, 1992

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Avid

Open Media Framework Interchange (OMFI) format and API

OMFI, V. 1.0, 1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coding of Multimedia and Hypermedia Information - Part 1: MHEG objects representation - base notation (ASN.1), Part 4: Registration procedure for MHEG format identifier

13522-1,4:1995

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Apple

CD-WO (Write Once) (media interface for interchange)

Orange Book, 1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPN-C

Microsoft

CD-XA (Extended Architecture) (media interface for interchange)

CD-XA, 1986

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

Various

CD-Rom standard

Yellow Book, 1984

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

Various

Digital Video Disk (DVD)

DVD

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

CD-ROM Support Component (XCDR)

P120:5/91

Informational

(Superseded)

3.5.9.4.2 Alternative specifications. No other specifications are available.

3.5.9.4.3 Standards deficiencies. ISO 9660 does not support long filenames such as those used on UNIX systems.

3.5.9.4.4 Portability caveats. The IMA's Recommended Practice for Data Exchange has only recently been published. Therefore, it is not broadly supported. It is designed to be a platform and content-neutral recommendation for the exchange of multimedia data for content and title developers.

Digital Video Disc (DVD also known as Digital Versatile Disc) will come in read-only, recordable, and rewritable forms. DVD-RO will have a 4.7GB capacity in the single layer version (a second layer will allow for ISO 9660 files). DVD-R will have 3.9 GB and DVD-RAM will be 2.6GB. DVD will not use the ISO 9660 file format, will support packet writing and will write in sectors instead of a spiral. Transfer rates for DVD will be about 1.4MBps.

3.5.9.4.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to CD-ROM:

a. CD-R is a standard and technology that allows a user to write to and read from a Compact Disc.

b. CD-ROM is a compact disc format used to hold text, graphics, and stereo sound.

c. CD-ROM/XA is a CD-ROM enhancement that allows audio to be interleaved with data. It also functions as a bridge between CD-ROM and CD-I, since CD-ROM/XA discs will play on a CD-I player. CD-ROM/XA uses a standard CD-ROM player, but requires a CD-ROM/XA controller card in the computer. Although it is not a video specification limited video can be included on disc. To use it, you must have a drive that reads the audio portions of the disc and an audio card in your computer that translates the digital data into sound. Not all drives can recognize the extensions.

d. CD-Video (CD-V) is a format for putting five minutes of video on a three-inch disc.

e. CD-WO is a CD-ROM version of the WORM technology. CD-WO discs conform to ISO 9660 standards and can be played in CD-ROM drives.

3.5.9.4.6 Recommendations. ISO 9660 and 10149 should be used for all CD-ROM applications. ISO 9660 describes the logical structure of information on a CD. ISO 10149 describes the physical structure of the CD. In addition, MIL-HDBK-9660A, Department of Defense Handbook, DOD-Produced CD-ROM Products, 1st Revision, 30 September 1996, which gives DOD labeling and security requirements along with other information, should be followed.

MHEG (ISO 13522) will define an interchange format for real-time multimedia information interchange. Its goals are platform independent interchange of interactive multimedia content, robust time-space composition and synchronization, real-time interchange, and incorporation of arbitrary monomedia formats.

3.5.10 Data interchange security. Securing the storage, access, and transmission of data to ensure confidentiality employs a variety of techniques. These techniques encompass encryption, data security labeling, and electronic signatures which provide non-repudiation services.

3.5.10.1 Systems confidentiality. (This BSA appears in part 5 and part 10.) These standards provide the high-level framework with which to view the security service of confidentiality in systems.

3.5.10.1.1 Standards. Table 3.5-52 presents standards for systems confidentiality.

TABLE 3.5-52 Systems confidentiality standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

The DOD Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

DOD 5200.28-STD: 1985

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Basic Reference Model, Part 2: Security Architecture (same as CCITT X.800:1991)

7498-2:1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Computer Security Guidelines for Implementing the Privacy Act of 1974

FIPS PUB 41:1975

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

CCEB

Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, (CC) Version 1.0

CC Version 1.0: 1996

Emerging

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks in Open Systems, Part 5: Confidentiality

10181-5

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.10.1.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.10.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.10.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.10.1.5 Related standards. DOD 5200.1-R, "Information Security Program Regulation," June 1986, establishes DOD policy for security classification, declassification, and marking of DOD information. It also contains DOD policy for safeguarding of classified information, including accountability, storage, transmission, and destruction of the information. DDS-2600-6243-92, Compartmented Mode Workstation Evaluation Criteria, Version 1 (final), defines minimum security requirements for workstations to be accredited in the Compartmented Mode under the policy set forth in DCID 1/16. Public Law (PL) 93-579, Privacy Act of 1974, and PL 100-235, Computer Security Act of 1987, contain confidentiality requirements. FIPS PUB 41 provides guidance for conformance with PL 93-579.

3.5.10.1.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. The DGSA, Volume 6 of the TAFIM, provides security principles and target security capabilities to guide system security architects in creating specific security architectures consistent with the DGSA. The DGSA should be used by system security architects to develop logical and specific security architectures.

3.5.10.2 Data encryption security. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, part 10, and part 11.) Encryption is the cryptographic transformation of data to produce cipher text. Standards for data encryption security services describe services such as definitions/algorithms, modes of operation, and guidelines for use for those systems that require their data to be encrypted using data encryption security services. None of these standards are for systems processing classified information.

3.5.10.2.1 Standards. Table 3.5-53 presents standards for data encryption security.

TABLE 3.5-53 Data encryption security standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES)

FIPS PUB 185: 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Data Encryption Standard (DES) (related to ANSI X3.92-1981/R1987/R1993)

FIPS PUB 46-2:1993 (Reaffirmed until 1998)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guidelines for Implementation and using the NBS Data Encryption Standard

FIPS PUB 74:1981

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Data Encryption Standard (DES) Modes of Operation (related to ANSI X3.106-1983)

FIPS PUB 81:1980

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules

FIPS PUB 140-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Modes of Operation for a 64-Bit Block Cipher Algorithm (Related to ANSI X3.106)

8372:1987

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Data Encryption Algorithm

X3. 92-1981 (R1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Digital Encryption Algorithm - Modes of Operation

X3.106-1983 (R1990)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Advanced Encryption Standard

FIPS PUB JJJ

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.10.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary, for example, RSA.

3.5.10.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.10.2.4 Portability caveats. DES applications are not portable to non-DES systems. Portability problems related to EES are unknown. The U.S. controls export of cryptographic technologies, products, and related technologies as munitions. On October 1, 1996, a new federal policy allowing U.S. vendors to export products using up to 56-bit encryption, provided the vendors sign an agreement to make their 56-bit encryption technologies key-recovery-compliant within 24 months.

3.5.10.2.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 113, Computer Data Authentication, is related to DES security mechanisms and their standards.

3.5.10.2.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. FIPS PUB 185, EES, supports lawful authorized access to the keys required to decipher enciphered information for systems requiring strong encryption protection of sensitive but unclassified information. EES provides stronger protection than DES against unauthorized access. Devices conforming to EES may be used when replacing Type II and Type III (DES) encryption devices owned by the Government. Implementations requiring use of EES should require conformance with FIPS PUB 140-1.

On 2 January 1997, NIST announced plans to develop a FIPS, Advanced Encryption Standard, incorporating an advanced encryption algorithm to replace DES (FIPS PUB 46-2).

3.5.10.3 Data interchange security labeling. (This BSA appears in part 5 and part 10.) Data interchange security labeling provides a security service to define the format and correctly parse a security label into the security attributes used by other security services.

3.5.10.3.1 Standards. Table 3.5-54 presents standards for data interchange security labeling.

TABLE 3.5-54 Data interchange security labeling standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Common Security Label (CSL)

MIL-STD-2045-48501: 1995

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Encoding Format

DDS-2600-6216-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Source Code and User Interface Guidelines, Revision 1

DDS-2600-6243-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) Evaluation Criteria

DDS-2600-6243-92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Standard Security Label (SSL) for Information Transfer

FIPS PUB 188:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Message Handling Systems: Message Transfer System: Abstract Service Definition and Procedures

X.411: 1992

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

TSIG

Trusted Security Information Exchange for Restricted Environments

TSIX (RE) 1.1

Emerging

(Draft)

3.5.10.3.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.10.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.10.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.10.3.5 Related standards. DOD 5200.28-STD is a related standard.

DOD 5200.1-R, "Information Security Program Regulation," June 1986, establishes DOD policy for security classification, declassification, and marking of DOD information. It also contains DOD policy for safeguarding of classified information, including accountability, storage, transmission, and destruction of the information.

3.5.10.3.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. TSIG TSIX(RE) 1.1 includes options compatible with MIL-STD-2045-48501.

3.5.10.4 Systems non-repudiation. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, part 10, and part 11.) These standards provide the security services for non-repudiation in systems.

3.5.10.4.1 Standards. Table 3.5-55 presents standards for open systems non-repudiation.

TABLE 3.5-55 Systems non-repudiation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Digital Signature Standard (DSS)

FIPS PUB 186:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Information Technology - Defense Standardized Profiles AMHXn(D)- Message Handling Systems - Message Security Protocol (MSP) Parts 1-5

MIL-STD-2045-18500: 1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, Rev. 3.0: 1994

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, v. 4.0, Rev. A: 1997

Emerging

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 1: Overview, Models, and Notation

11586-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 4: Protecting Transfer Syntax Specification

11586-4:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Basic Reference Model, Part 2: Security Architecture (same as CCITT X.800:1991)

7498-2:1989

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

IP Authentication Header (AH)

RFC 1826: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

OMG

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security

OMG 95-12-1: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

S/MIME Message Specification: PKCS Security Services for MIME

draft-dussc-mime-msg-spec-00.txt, September 1996

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks in Open Systems, Part 4: Non-Repudiation (same as ITU-TS X.813)

10181-4

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Non-Repudiation Mechanisms Part 1: General Model

13888-1:1992 (SC27 N868 (Project 1.27.06.01))

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Non-Repudiation Mechanisms Part 2: Using Symmetric Encipherment Algorithms

13888-2:1994 (SC27 N864 (Project 1.27.06.02))

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Non-Repudiation Mechanisms Part 3: Using Asymmetric Techniques

13888-3:1992 (SC27 N869 (Project 1.27.06.03))

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

OSI Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) - Draft Amendments to Parts 1 to 3: Transaction Processing Security

WDAMs (SC21 N 5232 to ISO 10026-1,2,3) 1991

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.10.4.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.10.4.3 Standards deficiencies. FIPS 186 is for electronic signatures for unclassified but sensitive information. It cannot be used for classified information.

3.5.10.4.4 Portability caveats. The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) in FIPS 180-1 supersedes the SHA in FIPS 180. SHA-1 and SHA are not interoperable; therefore, implementations of FIPS 186 using SHA-1 and SHA are not interoperable.

3.5.10.4.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 180-1, Secure Hash Standard, must be used with FIPS PUB 186. FIPS PUB 180-1 provides the Secure Hash Algorithm used in generating and verifying electronic signatures.

3.5.10.4.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended for non-repudiation.

MIL-STD-2045-18500 describes the security provided by MSP. It should be used for DOD message systems that are required to exchange classified and sensitive but unclassified information. It is based on Version 3.0 of the MSP documented in SDN.701, "Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Message Security Protocol," Revision 1.5, 1 August 1989. MSP is under revision to Version 4.0 to accommodate, in part, Allied requirements. This DSP standard will be replaced by a portion of the U.S. Supplement to ACP 123 or ACP 120, Common Security Protocol, when the revision to MSP is complete.

MSP provides for signed receipts. S/MIME, an Internet Draft specification, does not provide for signed receipts.

3.5.10.5 Electronic signature. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, and part 10.) Electronic signature is the process that operates on a message to ensure message source authenticity and integrity, and source non-repudiation. Electronic signatures are composed so that the identity of a signatory and integrity of the data can be verified.

3.5.10.5.1 Standards. Table 3.5-56 presents standards for electronic signature.

TABLE 3.5-56 Electronic signature standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Digital Signature Standard (DSS)

FIPS PUB 186:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature Scheme Giving Message Recovery

9796:1991

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail

RFC 1421-1424:1993

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature with Appendix - Part 1: General

SC27/WG2 N294 (Project 1.27.08.01)

Informational

(Formative)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature with Appendix - Part 2: Identity-Based Mechanisms

SC27/WG2 N295 (Project 1.27.08.02)

Informational

(Formative)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature with Appendix - Part 3: Certificate-Based Mechanisms

SC27/WG2 N296 (Project 1.27.08.03)

Informational

(Formative)

3.5.10.5.2 Alternative specifications. Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) Public Key Algorithm RC-5 was developed and published in 1994. It is proprietary, but RSA Data Security is working to have it included in numerous Internet standards. At present, RC-5 is not recommended for DOD use because it is proprietary.

3.5.10.5.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.10.5.4 Portability caveats. DSS applications are not interoperable with non-DSS systems.

3.5.10.5.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 180-1, Secure Hash Standard, must be used with FIPS PUB 186. FIPS PUB 180-1 provides the Secure Hash Algorithm used in generating and verifying electronic signatures.

3.5.10.5.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. FIPS PUB 186 is implemented in the FORTEZZA cryptographic card, a PC card (formerly called a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) standard card) that can be integrated into personal computers and workstations to provide security in commercial applications. FORTEZZA is being used in the Defense Message System. FIPS PUB 186 is the government-wide key cryptographic signature system.

3.5.10.6 Electronic hashing. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, part 8, and part 10.) Electronic hashing services compute a condensed representation of a message or a data file, often used as a measure of data integrity checking.

3.5.10.6.1 Standards. Table 3.5-57 presents standards for electronic hashing.

TABLE 3.5-57 Electronic hashing standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

FIPS PUB 180-1:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 1: General Model

10118-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 2: Hash Functions Using an N-Bit Block Cipher Algorithm

10118-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

FIPS PUB 180:1993

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 3: Dedicated Hash Functions

WD 10118-3, JTC1/SC27 N883 (Project 1.27.09.03)

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 4: Hash Functions Using Modular Arithmetic

WD 10118-4, JTC1/SC27 N884 (Project 1.27.09.04)

Informational

(Draft)

3.5.10.6.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.5.10.6.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.5.10.6.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing specifications are unknown.

3.5.10.6.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 180-1 supersedes FIPS PUB 180 and is required for use with FIPS PUB 186, Digital Signature Standard.

3.5.10.6.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. FIPS PUB 180-1 specifies SHA, which can be used to generate a message digest. SHA is required for use with the DSA as specified in FIPS PUB 186 and whenever an SHA is required for federal applications.