INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS GUIDANCE

(ITSG)

(Part 6 of 14 parts)

GRAPHICS SERVICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version 3.1 - April 7, 1997

 

 

AREA IPSC

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.6 Graphics services 3.6-

3.6.1 Raster graphics 3.6-

3.6.1.1 Raster data interchange 3.6-

3.6.1.2 Still image compression 3.6-

3.6.2 Vector graphics 3.6-

3.6.2.1 Vector graphics APIs 3.6-

3.6.2.2 Vector graphics data interchange 3.6-

3.6.3 Device interfaces 3.6-

3.6.3.1 Device interface API 3.6-

3.6.3.2 Image processing API 3.6-

3.6.4 Geospatial (MC&G) 3.6-

3.6.4.1 Symbology graphics 3.6-

3.6.4.2 Geospatial data interchange 3.6-

3.6.5 Editors 3.6-

3.6.5.1 Graphics editor 3.6-

3.6.5.2 Image processor editor 3.6-

3.6.5.3 Videoprocessor editor 3.6-

3.6.6 Graphics search and sort 3.6-

3.6.6.1 Graphics search 3.6-

3.6.6.2 Image query and search 3.6-

3.6.6.3 Graphical object sorting 3.6-

3.6.7 Graphics security 3.6-

3.6.7.1 Graphics security labeling 3.6-

LIST OF TABLES

 

3.6-1 Raster data interchange standards 3.6-

3.6-2 Still image compression standards 3.6-

3.6-3 Vector graphics APIs standards 3.6-

3.6-4 Vector graphics data interchange standards 3.6-

3.6-5 Device interface API standards 3.6-

3.6-6 Image processing API standards 3.6-

3.6-7 Symbology graphics standards 3.6-

3.6-8 Geospatial data interchange standards 3.6-

3.6-9 Graphics editor standards 3.6-

3.6-10 Image processor editor standards 3.6-

3.6-11 Videoprocessor editor standards 3.6-

3.6-12 Graphics search standards 3.6-

3.6-13 Image query and search standards 3.6-

3.6-14 Graphical object sorting standards 3.6-

3.6-15 Graphics security labeling standards 3.6-

3.6 Graphics services. Graphics services provide functions required for creating pictures and importing them by scanning or photography. These services include definition and management of display element and graphical object attributes. This includes defining multidimensional graphics objects in a form that is independent of output devices and managing database structures, including hierarchical and object-oriented structures containing graphics data.

NOTE: Throughout Part 6, all tables shall have abbreviations listed under the column (Standard Type) as follows:

a. National Public Consensus = NPC
b. International Public Consensus = IPC
c. Government Public Consensus = GPC
d. Consortia Public Consensus = CPC
e. Corporate Private Non-Consensus = CPN-C

3.6.1 Raster graphics. Raster graphics is a technique for representing a picture image as a matrix of dots. Raster graphics images are created by scanners and cameras and are generated by paint packages. The simplest monochrome bitmap uses one bit (on/off) for each dot. Gray scale bitmaps (monochrome shades) represent each dot with a number large enough to hold all the gray levels. Color bitmaps require sufficient storage to hold the intensity of red, green, and blue as would a grey scale equivalent.

3.6.1.1 Raster data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 3, part 5, and part 6.) Raster data interchange MIL SPEC identifies the requirements to be met when raster graphics data represented in digital, binary format are delivered to the government. Raster graphics standards are standards for pixel-by-pixel representation of images. (See still image compression, section 3.5.8.2, for more facsimile standards suitable for raster data interchange.)

3.6.1.1.1 Standards. Table 3.6-1 presents standards for raster data interchange.

TABLE 3.6-1 Raster data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile (Adopts the X Protocol, Xlib Interface, Xt Intrinsics, and Bitmap Distribution Format of X11R5)

FIPS PUB 158-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 6: Raster

9636-6:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Raster Product Format (RPF)

MIL-STD-2411:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles (formerly Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES))

10303-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

X Window System File Formats and Application Conventions (Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF))

C170 (7/91)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

General Aspects of Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA-536-1988)

FIPS PUB 149:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Facsimile Coding Schemes and Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA 538-1988)

FIPS PUB 150:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (adopts ASME/ANSI Y14.26M-1989) (IGES ver. 4)

FIPS PUB 177:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-PRF-28003

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice; File Format for Storage and Exchange of Images; Bi-Level Image File Format: Part 1

MS53-1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Standard for the Interchange of Large Format Tiled Documents

NISTIR 88-4017

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Analogue Video Standard for Aircraft System Applications

STANAG 3350

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Exchange Specifications for ARC Standardized Raster Graphics (ASRG)

STANAG 4387:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Specifications for UTM/UPS Standardized Raster Products (USRP)

STANAG 7077

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Application Profile for the Interchange of Formatted Mixed Mode Document - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.501 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Document Application Profile for the Interchange of Group 4 Facsimile Documents

T.503 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

AIIM

Interchange of Tiled Raster Documents

TR14:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Exchange Specifications for ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG)

STANAG 7108

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

3.6.1.1.2 Alternative specifications. Currently IGES is the most mature and widely implemented standard for conveying product data information. Other bitmap formats include proprietary formats such as GIF, PCX, TIFF, RLE, and TGA. Except for support of legacy products, these formats are not recommended.

3.6.1.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Raster graphics files require enormous amounts of storage and must be supplemented by compression standards.

3.6.1.1.4 Portability caveats. A standard technique for raster data interchange should be selected for use throughout the Department of Defense (DOD) and applied wherever possible.

3.6.1.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to raster data interchange or raster data interchange standards:

a. ASME/ANSI Y14.28M-1989, which describes product design and manufacturing information.

b. ITU-T, facsimile transmission standards.

c. Raster compression standards.

3.6.1.1.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended for raster data interchange.

MIL PRF-28002 (Raster) can be used in a Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) environment, and, when needed, supplemented by National Institute of Standards and Technology Interim Report (NISTIR) 88-4017 (tiling). FIPS Pub 150 can also be used. With only the CALS Raster standard available, no real tailoring guidance is possible. This version (MIL-PRF-28002) supports engineering drawings and technical manual illustrations. The previous CALS Raster standard (MIL-R-28002B) can be used for in-place and unrevised legacy data. Tiling (as in NISTIR 88-4017) and compression are desirable for very large raster graphics files. (See the Still image compression BSA, part 3.5.8.2 of the ITSG.) MIL-PRF-28003 (CGM) offers the capability for having raster and vector graphics in the same file. The approved BDF provides conventions for font conversion/interchange between external and internal X Windows fonts and can be used in procurements using a client-server computing architecture with a graphical user interface in a networked environment. BDF can be compiled in Server Normal Format to be optimized for a particular server.

3.6.1.2 Still image compression. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) Still image compression standards provide the capability of reducing storage needed for raster graphics files. This compression can be either exact (loss-less) or approximate (lossy) upon reversal, depending upon the algorithm. The JPEG is interested in developing standards covering compression and decompression of still-frame, continuous tone, photographic (gray scale or color) digitized images by facsimile.

3.6.1.2.1 Standards. Table 3.6-2 presents standards for still image compression.

TABLE 3.6-2 Still image compression standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous - Tone Still Images, Part 1: Requirements and Guidelines (as profiled by MIL-STD-188-198A - JPEG)

10918-1:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Bi-Level Image Compression for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standards (NITFS)

MIL-STD-188-196 of 6/18/1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Vector Quantization (VQ) Decompression for the NITFS

MIL-STD-188-199 of 6/27/1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Group 3 Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission

FIPS PUB 147:1981

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Procedures for Document Facsimile Transmission (Adopts EIA-RS-466)

FIPS PUB 148:1982

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

General Aspects of Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA-536-1988)

FIPS PUB 149:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Facsimile Coding Schemes and Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Facsimile Apparatus (Adopts EIA 538-1988)

FIPS PUB 150:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Standardization of Group 3 Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission: Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.4 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Fax Coding Schemes & Coding Control Functions for Group 4 Fax Apparatus - Terminal Equipment & Protocols for Telematic Services

T.6 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous - Tone Still Images - Requirements and Guidelines - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.81 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images - Part 2: Compliance Testing

10918-2:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Progressive Bi-Level Image Compression (JBIG) Compression Algorithm for Black-and-White Images

11544 (Corrigendum 1):1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Adaptive Coding with Embedded Dictionary - DCLZ Algorithm

11558:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Procedure for the Registration of Algorithms for the Lossless Compression of Data

11576:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Data Compression for Information Interchange - Binary Arithmetic Coding Algorithm

12042:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Common Components for Image Compression and Communication - Basic Principles - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.80 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Coded Representation of Picture and Audio Information - Progressive Bi-Level Image Compression - Terminal Equipment and Protocols for Telematic Services

T.82 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Adaptive Recursive Interpolated Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ARIDPCM) for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standards (NITFS)

MIL-STD-188-197A of 10/12/1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Compaction Algorithm - Binary Arithmetic Coding

X3.225

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images - Part 3: Extensions

10918-3:1995

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images - Registration Procedures for JPEG profile, APPn marker, and SPIFF profile ID marker

10918-4:1996

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media up to about 1.5 Mbit/sec (MPEG 1), Part 5: Technical Report on Software for ISO/IEC 11172:1993

11172-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Moding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (MPEG2) Part 4: Compliance Testing

13818-4

Emerging

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

3.6.1.2.2 Alternative specifications. The following compression methods are also available:

a. LZW compression algorithm.
b. Fractal transforms.

3.6.1.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.6.1.2.4 Portability caveats. The DOD National Imagery Transfer Format Standards (NITFS) Adaptive Recursive Interpolated Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ARIDPCM) compression scheme for eight-bit gray scale images eventually will be replaced by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/JPEG standard in the broader community, thereby providing the potential for incompatibilities with existing ARIDPCM-based systems. Fractal transforms are still in a preliminary stage and continue to present many problems.

Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) is a joint development project of ISO and ITU-T. The same organization is responsible for the JPEG standard. Coordination of the standards in this area, ITU-T H.261, JPEG, and MPEG will depend on ISO and ITU-T.

3.6.1.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to non-text data compression standards:

a. MIL-HDBK-1300A, NITFS
b. MIL-STD-2500A, NITF Version 2.0 for the NITFS
c. Various multimedia standards
d. Raster graphics standards
e. ISO/IEC 11172, MPEG1
f. ISO/IEC 13818, MPEG2

3.6.1.2.6 Recommendations. The standards listed as mandated are recommended. If the DOD ARIDPCM compression scheme defined in the NITFS is specified in a procurement, a migration strategy to the ISO/ITU-T/JPEG standard also should be required. NITFS only supports ITU-T Group III compression, while CALS only supports Group IV.

Use the NITFS compression standards or CALS compression standard, as applicable. The MPEG and Joint Bi-Level Imaging Group (JBIG) standards should be considered for their specialized areas of use. The NIST and ITU-T standards for facsimile are recommended also. Lossless versus lossy compression: Group 4 facsimile is compatible with Group 3, but Group 3 facsimile is not necessarily compatible with Group 4. NITFS supports group 3, and CALS MIL-PRF-28002 supports group 4. If a file is compressed using group 4 facsimile, it will not be readable by a group 3 facsimile system, but a file compressed using group 3 facsimile will be readable by a group 4 facsimile system.

The JPEG standard can be implemented in hardware or software, and is already available in commercial products. However, sites purchasing JPEG products based on the draft versions of the standard should require vendor assurance that the products will comply with the international standard.

ITU-T H.261 is recommended for applications that require a 64-Kbit/second line rate. JPEG is recommended for still image applications when its data loss does not impact on the system function. MPEG is recommended for moving image applications when its elimination of redundant information between frames does not impact on the system function.

3.6.2 Vector graphics. Vector graphics are a method of representing graphical objects as sets of endpoints for lines, curves, and other geometric shapes with data about width, color, and spaces bounded by lines and curves. The entire image commonly is stored in the computer as a list of vectors called a display list. Vector graphics are used when you need geometric knowledge about the object created. Geometric shapes keep their integrity: a line always can be picked, extended, or erased. Today, most screens are raster graphics displays (composed of dots), and the vectors are put into the required dot patterns (rasters) by hardware or software. Vector graphics systems must be supplemented by data interchange standards such as Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), CGM, and the Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP).

3.6.2.1 Vector graphics APIs. The Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS) is a graphics system and language allowing programming of two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphical objects to be displayed or plotted on appropriate devices in interactive, high performance environments, and managing hierarchical database structures containing graphics data. PHIGS is a device-independent interface between the application program and the graphics subsystem. PHIGS manages graphics objects in a hierarchical manner so that a complete assembly can be specified with all of its subassemblies. The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) is a graphics system that is independent of the operating system and provides basic primitives and constructs for drawing two-dimensional objects to be displayed or plotted on appropriate devices (raster graphics and vector graphics devices). The GKS extensions add three-dimensional abilities. The application programming interfaces (APIs) allow graphics applications to be developed on one system and easily moved to another with minimal or no change.

3.6.2.1.1 Standards. Table 3.6-3 presents standards for vector graphics APIs.

TABLE 3.6-3 Vector graphics APIs standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Programmers' Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS and PHIGS PLUS) (as profiled by FIPS PUB 153-1)

9592-1,2,3,4:1989 with AMD1:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology-Computer Graphics-Interfacing (CGI) Techniques for Dialogue with Graphics Devices

9636:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Graphical Kernel System (GKS) functional description API (ANSI X3.124:1985 as profiled by FIPS PUB 120-1:1991)

7942:1985

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

GKS for 3 Dimensions (GKS-3D) Functional Description

8805:1988

Informational

(Approved)

3.6.2.1.2 Alternative specifications. No consortia or de facto specifications for vector graphics are available.

3.6.2.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Some features are added to PHIGS implementations to compensate for perceived deficiencies in the standard (e.g., adding the PHIGS Plus Lumiere und Surfaces (PLUS) standard). The is well-established and well-supported by the computer industry, but it is minimal and other capabilities are needed.

3.6.2.1.4 Portability caveats. Most implementations of PHIGS provide extra features that are not part of the PHIGS standard and often are unnecessary. These features must be avoided if possible, since unique features limit portability. As with graphics implementations based on PHIGS, many nonstandard additions in the implementation can impede portability.

3.6.2.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to vector graphics API standards:

a. ISO/International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 9593-1:1990: PHIGS Language Bindings - Part 1: FORTRAN (corrigendum 1:1993, 2 1994).

b ISO/IEC 9593-3:1990: PHIGS Language Bindings - Part 3: Ada (Amd 1 1994, Corr 1 1993.

c. ISO/IEC 9593-4:1991: PHIGS Language Bindings - Part 4: C (Amd 1 1994 Corr 1 1994).

3.6.2.1.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended. The PHIGS standards must be used without allowing extra features, and the use of options must be controlled. The GKS functionality (and GKS-3D's functionality) is totally subsumed and extended by PHIGS.

3.6.2.2 Vector graphics data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) These standards provide file formats for the storage, exchange, and import/export of raster or vector graphical drawings and images.

3.6.2.2.1 Standards. Table 3.6-4 presents standards for vector graphics data interchange.

TABLE 3.6-4 Vector graphics data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Metafile for Storage/Transfer of Pictorial Description Information (CGM) (as profiled by FIPS PUB 128-1 and MIL-STD-2301)

8632-1,2,3,4:1992 (w/Amd 1&2)

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Programmers' Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS and PHIGS PLUS) (as profiled by FIPS PUB 153-1)

9592-1,2,3,4:1989 with AMD1:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (adopts ASME/ANSI Y14.26M-1989) (IGES ver. 4)

FIPS PUB 177:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/US PRO

IGES 5.2, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (Replaces ANSI/ASME Y14.26M-1989)

US PRO/IPO-100 (Nov 1993)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ANSI/NPESA

Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Tag Image File Format for Image Technology (TIFF/IT)

IT8.8

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-PRF-28000

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-PRF-28002

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-PRF-28003

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) Implementation Standard for National Imagery Transfer Format Standard (NITFS) (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-STD-2301A

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Recommended Practice; File Format for Storage and Exchange of Images; Bi-Level Image File Format: Part 1

MS53-1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Data: IGES Application Subsets and IGES Application Protocols

MIL-D-28000A(1) of 12/14/92

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Requirements for Raster Graphics Representation in Binary Format (Group 4 Raster Scanned Images)

MIL-R-28002B(1) of 9/20/1993

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

DOD

Digital Representation for Communication of Illustration Data : CGM Application Profile (based on FIPS 128)

MIL-D-28003A(1) of 8/14/1992

Informational

(Superseded)

NPC

ANSI/ASME

Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data

Y14.26M:1989

Informational

(Superseded)

3.6.2.2.2 Alternative specifications. The following specifications are also available:

a. BMP (Windows Bitmap) - Proprietary.

b. CGI (Computer Graphics Interface)

c. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) (Used by CompuServe)

d. NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax)

e. PDL (Page Description Language) - Proprietary

f. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) - Proprietary

g. VDM (Virtual Device Metafile)

h. VDI (Virtual Device Interface)

3.6.2.2.3 Standards deficiencies. The CGM standards have limited capabilities for handling 3-D geometries, providing fine control over line drawing details, and using font resource references enabling reasonably accurate font substitution (the latter is an understatement), and describing color. Several addenda and amendments are being developed. The addenda would add a global symbol capability, 3-dimensional geometry extensions, and improved engineering drawing capabilities (such as better control over fine details of line drawings). The amendments listed in table above are concerned with fonts and color. These CGM changes are intended to be upwardly compatible with existing versions of the specification.

3.6.2.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems for existing versions of the CGM standard are unknown. Potential portability problems exist for the CGM addenda and amendments, as with any new version of a specification or product, even though the standards groups are developing their specifications with upward compatibility in mind.

3.6.2.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to graphics data exchange or graphics data exchange standards:

a. ISO 9281: Identification of Picture Coding Methods.

b. ISO 10918-1: Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous Tone Still Images, Part 1: Requirements and Guidelines.

c. ISO 10918-2: Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous Tone Still Images, Part 2: Compliance Testing.

d. ISO CD 11172: Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio.

e. ISO SC21/WG5, N4192: Proposed FTAM Document Type to Support CGM.

f. ISO SC21/WG5, N5165: FTAM Constraint Set and Document Types for CGM.

g. MIL-HDBK-1300A, NITFS

h. MIL-STD-2500A, National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) Version 2.0 for the NITFS.

3.6.2.2.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

The following wording from the APP is recommended for specifying data interchange standards:

"All computer graphics metafiles acquired to describe, store, and/or communicate graphical (pictorial) information in vector format among different devices, systems, and installations should comply with the requirements set forth in FIPS PUB 128-1, Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)."

The use of CGM is widespread, and many (most) off-the-shelf products for graphics data interchange are compatible with it.

It is important to consider the specification of CGM conformance in procurements because CGM is important to the integration of PC applications with the enterprise. Most PC graphics, word processing and desktop publishing programs support the importing and exporting of pictures, bidirectionally to other PC programs and between PC and server/minicomputer/ workstation applications.

3.6.3 Device interfaces. An API is a set of formalized software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program to access underlying network services. The vector graphics standards mid level service area also fall into this category. Graphical user interfaces are closely related to this area.

3.6.3.1 Device interface API. Device interface API standards provide the capability to write graphics device drivers.

3.6.3.1.1 Standards. Table 3.6-5 presents standards for device interface APIs.

TABLE 3.6-5 Device interface API standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 1: Overview, Profiles, and Conformance

9636-1:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 2: Control

9636-2:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 3: Output

9636-3:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 4: Segments

9636-4:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 5: Input and Echoing

9636-5:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Functional Specification - Part 6: Raster

9636-6:1991

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Data Stream Binding - Part 1: Character Encoding

9637-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Interfacing Techniques for Dialogues with Graphical Devices (CGI) - Data Stream Binding - Part 2: Binary Encoding

9637-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

3.6.3.1.2 Alternative specifications. Numerous unique proprietary APIs are available for specific vendor devices.

3.6.3.1.3 Standards deficiencies. A single standard and many implementations of a device interface API may add features desirable in future standards.

3.6.3.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.6.3.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to device interface API standards:

a. ISO/IEC 9638-1: CGI Language Bindings - Part 1

b. ISO/IEC 9638-2: CGI Language Bindings - Part 2

c. ISO/IEC DIS 9638-3:1993 CGI Language Bindings - Part 3: Ada

3.6.3.1.6 Recommendations. CGI is the recommended device interface API for graphics.

3.6.3.2 Image processing API. Image processing API standards provide basic facilities and interfaces for imaging applications at the machine level.

3.6.3.2.1 Standards. Table 3.6-6 presents standards for image processing APIs.

TABLE 3.6-6 Image processing API standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) Functional Specification: Part 1: Common Architecture

12087-1:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) Functional Specification: Part 2: Programmers Imaging Kernel System API

12087-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) Functional Specification, Part 3: Image Interchange Facility (IIF)

12087-3:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) API Language Bindings Part 4: C

12088-4:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) Functional Specification, Part 3: Image Interchange Facility (IIF) Amendment 1: Type Definition, Scoping, and Logical Views for Image Interchange Facility

12087-3 DAM 1:1994

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Encoding for the Image Processing and Interchange Standard (IPI) - Encoding for the Image Interchange Facility (IIF)

12089:1994

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

NIST

Image Processing and Interchange (IPI) Functional Specification: Programmers Imaging Kernel System API

TBD-Image Processing and Interchange (IPI)

Informational

(Formative)

3.6.3.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.6.3.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.6.3.2.4 Portability caveats. Deficiencies in the existing IPI standards are unknown.

3.6.3.2.5 Related standards. The language interface bindings for IPI (ISO 12088) are related.

3.6.3.2.6 Recommendations. Use the current version of IPI, including the most current drafts of the unfinished parts, and implement a transition to the final standard.

3.6.4 Geospatial (MC&G). Standards for geospatial (Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy) products such as maps, charts, and computer displays include graphics symbols and formats for information storage and processing.

3.6.4.1 Symbology graphics. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) These are standards for the symbology to be used in geospatial applications such as hardcopy mapping products and computer-generated displays. DoD standards provide definitions for the representation of military and intelligence information.

3.6.4.1.1 Standards. Table 3.6-7 presents standards for symbology graphics.

TABLE 3.6-7 Symbology graphics standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Human Factors Engineering Design Criteria for Helicopter Cockpit Electro-Optical Display Symbology

MIL-STD-1295A of 6/26/1984

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (USAF)

Aircraft Display Symbology

MIL-STD-1787B of 6/93

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Mapping, Charting and Geodesy (MC&G) Symbology for Graphic Products

MIL-STD-2402 of 2/95

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (DISA)

Common Warfighting Symbology, Version 1

MIL-STD-2525

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

WMO

Technical Regulation Vol II, Meteorological Services for International Air Navigation

WMO Document #49 of 1988

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Symbols

Q-STAG 509 of 3/5/1979

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/SAE

Human Interface Design Methodology for Integrated Display Symbology

ARP 4155 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Symbols for Army Air Defense System Displays

MIL-STD-1477B of 2/1/1993

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (DISA)

Common Warfighting Symbology, Version 2

MIL-STD-2525A

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Army Field Manual (FM): Operational Terms and Symbols

FM 101-5-1 SMIGS (Symbols of Oct. 1985)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/ISA

Instrumentation Symbols and Identification

S5.1-1984 (R1992)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/ISA

Graphic Symbols for Process Displays

S5.5-1985

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Experimental Tactics and Amplifying Tactical Instructions - AXP-5(B) (Navy/Air)

STANAG 1125

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Military Symbols for Land Based Systems (APP-6, Ed 3)

STANAG 2019(1) of 11/26/1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Electronically and/or Optically Generated Aircraft Displays for Fixed Wing Aircraft

STANAG 3648 of 6/29/1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Symbols on Land Maps, Aeronautical Charts and Special Naval Charts

STANAG 3675

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Symbols for Use on Maps of Training Areas for Land Forces

STANAG 3833

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

CJCS

Joint Symbols and Graphics

Joint Pub 1-06

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (US Army)

Army Field Manual (FM): Operational Terms and Symbols

FM 101-5-1A SMIGS

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Vector Product Format Symbology

MIL-PRF-89045

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (ASPO)

Symbol Automation

MIL-STD-2526

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DIA

Standard Military Graphics Symbols (SMIGS)

DIAM 65-xx

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

NATO

Display Symbology and Colors for NATO Maritime Units

STANAG 4420

Informational

(Formative)

3.6.4.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.6.4.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Draft MIL-STD-2525A does not currently contain weather, geospatial (mapping/charting), cockpit display, and engineering design symbology. Therefore NIMA MIL-STD-2402, 2412 should be used for geospatial symbology until such time as a decision is made to modify MIL-STD-2525A to accomodate these symbols.

3.6.4.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability will be reduced if a Geographic Information System (GIS) does not allow users to associate their cartographic data independently with relational database management systems based on Structured Query Language (SQL). Only government standards are available. Most commercial products will not comply with these standards.

3.6.4.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to symbology graphics or symbology graphics standards:

a. ISO 6937: Supplementary Characters (for accents to the text)
b. ISO 9292: Picture Coding
c. Autometric, Inc., Lakewood, CO: MOSS
d. Map graphics standards.

3.6.4.1.6 Recommendations. The adopted symbology standards are recommended, as applicable; MIL-STD 2525 is the recommended standard for warrior symbology.

3.6.4.2 Geospatial data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 6, Graphics.) These standards provide formats and facilities for machine-readable graphics-based mapping, charting, and geodesy data.

3.6.4.2.1 Standards. Table 3.6-8 presents standards for geospatial data interchange.

TABLE 3.6-8 Geospatial data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

World Geodetic System (WGS 84)

MIL-STD-2401 of 21 March 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Raster Product Format (RPF)

MIL-STD-2411:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Interface Standard for Vector Product Format (VPF)

MIL-STD-2407

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST) Part 1 - Generic Standard Part 2 - Minimum Standards Specifications Part 3 - Matrix (Exchange of elevation of data) Part 4 - Spaghetti Vector

STANAG 7074

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

FIPS PUB 173-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Digital Terrain Elevation Data, (DTED)

STANAG 3809

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representation of Geographic Point Locations for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.61-1986)

FIPS PUB 70-1:1986

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Codes for Identification of Hydrologic Units in the United States and the Caribbean Outlying Areas (adopts USGS Circular 878-A and ANSI X3.145-1986)

FIPS PUB 103:1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

NIMA GGI&S List of Products and Services

NIMAL 805-1A, Jan 1997

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Arc Digitized Raster Graphics Worldwide Map Images on CD-ROM, 1:5,000 through 1:2,000,000

MIL-A-89007 of 2/22/1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

DTED (Machine readable terrain/elevation data for the U.S., the former USSR, Europe, Central Asia, Mideast, Parts of Southern Asia, Northern Canada, 3-Arc-Sec)

MIL-D-89000 of 2/26/90 MIL-D-89001 of 2/26/90 MIL-D-89020 of 5/28/93

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Digital Chart of the World (DCW) (A comprehensive 1:1,000,000-scale digital base map of the world)

MIL-D-89009 of 4/13/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Digital Cities Data Base (DCDB)

MIL-D-89011 of 7/2/90

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Firefinder Elevation Data (FED)

MIL-D-89018 of 10/1/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Digital Landmass Blanking (DLMB)

MIL-D-89021 of 6/15/91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Interim Terrain Data/Planning Interim Terrain Data (ITD/PITD)

MIL-I-89014 of 11/30/90

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Video Disc for Mapping, Charting and Geodesy (Worldwide Map Images on 12 inch Video Disk, 1:50,000 through 1:1,000,000)

MIL-V-89300(1) of 11/30/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

World Vector Shoreline (showing Worldwide Coastlines and International Boundaries, 1:250,000 scale)

MIL-W-89012(2) of 11/30/92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

World Magnetic Model (WMM)

MIL-W-89500 of 6/18/93

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DARPA

SIMNET Geographic Data Model and Database Interchange Specification

BBN DARPA Report 7108:July 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NGDC

Worldwide Coverage for 5 Mini Grid maps: Bathymetric/Elevation Data

ETOPO 5

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

LANDSAT: Worldwide Coverage for 1:1,000,000 Scale Maps: Feature/Terrain Data

LANDSAT

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Scope and Presentation of Military Geographic Information and Documentation

STANAG 2251

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Roads and Road Structures

STANAG 2253

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

MGD-Ports

STANAG 2255

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Indexes to series of Land Maps and Aeronautical Charts and Indexes to Military Geographic Information and Documentation (MGID)

STANAG 3672

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Preferred Magnetic Tape Standards for the Exchange of Digital Geographic Information

STANAG 3985

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Digital Data File Transmittal Form for Geographic Information

STANAG 3986

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Specification for Representation of Geographic Point Locations for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.61-1986)

USGS Circular 878-B of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Digital Elevation Models

USGS Circular 895-B of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Digital Line Graphs from 1:24,000 Scale Maps

USGS Circular 895-C of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Digital Line Graphs from 1:2,000,000 Scale Maps

USGS Circular 895-D of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Land Use and Land Cover Digital Data

USGS Circular 895-E of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

USGS

Geographic Names Information System

USGS Circular 895-F of 1983

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

CIA

World Data Bank II: Worldwide Coverage for 1:2,000,000 Scale Maps (Lines of Communication, Coastlines, Waterways, International/Political Boundaries)

World Data Bank II

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD (USAF)

Arc Digital Raster Imagery (ADRI) Format

MIL-STD-2406

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Standard Linear Format (SLF) Digital Cartographic Feature

MIL-HDBK-854

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (AFMC)

Registered Data Values for Raster/Gridded Product Format

MIL-HDBK-856

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Text Product Form (TPF)

MIL-STD-2400

Informational

(Final)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Mapping Charting and Geodesy Symbology Graphics

MIL-STD-600002

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

NATO

Header Record Format for Exchange of Digital Geographic Information

STANAG 3984

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

NATO

Digital Geographic Information Data Sets Series Numbering

STANAG 7070

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

DFAD (Machine-readable feature data of the U.S., Europe, the former Western USSR, Limited Areas of Far East and Western Asia, 1:250,000 scale)

MIL-D-89005

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

DOD (NIMA)

Tactical Terrain Data: Digital Database for 1:50,000 Scale Maps

TBD-Tactical Terrain Data: Digital Database for 1:50,000 Scale Maps

Informational

(Formative)

3.6.4.2.2 Alternative specifications. Many existing proprietary map graphics applications vary in complexity to meet users' needs. These applications serve as the cornerstone of the mapping, charting, and geodesy areas requiring further investigation for standardization consideration.

3.6.4.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Many of the standards listed in the table accompanying this section are old. They do not accommodate new sophisticated computerized techniques, and probably will be replaced in the next several years. The standards available pertain almost exclusively to the data rather than the functionality of an application.

3.6.4.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability will be reduced if a GIS does not allow users to associate their cartographic data independently with relational database management systems based on SQL.

The use of different file formats by a GIS reduces portability. However, in the production world several file formats specified by vendors are used so widely that they are considered neutral file formats (e.g., Intergraph's Standard Interchange Format (SIF), Autodesk's Drawing Exchange Format (DXF), and MOSS).

Traditionally, standards governing exchanges among field systems have been the responsibility of the military system development organization. This leads to substantial interoperability problems, particularly international. To maximize interoperability, Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST) and other map producing data should be exchanged between map-producing agencies, such as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and not between operational units, and the systems development organizations should use the standards set by such agencies as the NIMA.

Portability difficulties may exist between the Vector Product Format (VPF) and the Spatial Transfer Specification (SDTS).

Portability can be especially difficult in an area where so many standards exist.

3.6.4.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to map graphics exchange or exchange standards:

a. ISO 646: 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

b. ISO 1001: File Structure and Labeling of Magnetic Tapes for Information Interchange

c. ISO 2375: Non-Latin Alphabets

d. ISO 6937: Supplementary Characters (for accents to the text)

e. ISO 8211:1985 Specification for a Data Descriptive File for Information Exchange

f. ISO 8824/8825: ASN.1

g. ISO 9292: Picture Coding

h. ISO 9660:1988 Volume and File Structure of CD ROM for Information Exchange

i. ANSI/ASME Y14.26M-1989: IGES (Neutral file format)

j. Intergraph Corporation, Huntsville, AL: SIF

k. Autodesk, Inc., Sausalito, CA: DXF

l. Autometric, Inc., Lakewood, CO: MOSS

m. The various data compression standards listed earlier in the section on data compression

3.6.4.2.6 Recommendations. GIS specifications in a procurement should require SQL compatibility so that cartographic data can be associated independently with relational database management systems based on SQL. In each case, consideration of the scale of data and geographic region needed will be a primary determinant in selection. The standards in the table above labeled mandated are recommended. The VPF is preferred.

If a packaged GIS is to be purchased, if possible, it should be standardized around a single GIS file format. If a GIS is to be used on workstations and PCs, this may not be possible. Then the agency's focus will have to be on the use of interoperability protocols and designing applications for portability. GIS specifications should require SQL compatibility so that cartographic data can be associated independently with relational database management systems based on SQL.

3.6.5 Editors. An editor is a software program used to modify programs or files while they are being prepared, or after they are complete. A textual editor is a very rudimentary word processing program. The following editors provide the services for creating and editing nontextual data.

3.6.5.1 Graphics editor. A graphics editor provides an interactive editor to create, edit, and compose drawings, symbols, and maps.

3.6.5.1.1 Standards. Table 3.6-9 presents standards for graphics editors.

TABLE 3.6-9 Graphics editor standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.6.5.1.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.6.5.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.6.5.1.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area, because no standards exist.

3.6.5.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to graphics editor standards:

a. ISO 9592:1989 PHIGS.
b. ISO 7942:1985 GKS.
c. ISO 10918-1:1994 JPEG.
d. ISO 11172: MPEG.
e. ANSI X3H3.8: PIK.
f. ISO 10918-2.

3.6.5.1.6 Recommendations. Carefully match specific requirements for a graphics editor to the capabilities offered by any appropriate implementation.

3.6.5.2 Image processor editor. Image processing editors analyze a picture using techniques that can identify shades, colors, and relationships not perceptible by the human eye. These editors also perform image improvement, such as refining a picture in a paint program that has been scanned or entered from a video source.

3.6.5.2.1 Standards. Table 3.6-10 presents standards for image processor editors.

TABLE 3.6-10 Image processor editor standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.6.5.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.6.5.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.6.5.2.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area, because no standards exist.

3.6.5.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to image processor editor standards:

a. ISO 9592:1989 PHIGS
b. ISO 7942:1985 GKS
c. ISO 10918-1:1994 JPEG
d. ISO 11172: MPEG
e. ANSI X3H3.8: PIK
f. ISO 10918-2

3.6.5.2.6 Recommendations. There are no standards to recommend. It is suggested that requirements be specified to anticipate future needs.

3.6.5.3 Videoprocessor editor. Videoprocessing editors provide an interactive editor to capture, scan, create, and edit live, full-motion video.

3.6.5.3.1 Standards. Table 3.6-11 presents standards for videoprocessor editors.

TABLE 3.6-11 Videoprocessor editor standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.6.5.3.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.6.5.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.6.5.3.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.6.5.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to videoprocessor editor standards:

a. ISO 9592:1989 PHIGS
b. ISO 7942:1985 GKS
c. ISO 10918-1:1994 JPEG
d. ISO 11172: MPEG
e. ANSI X3H3.8: PIK
f. ISO 10918-2:JPEG

3.6.5.3.6 Recommendations. See the Image Processor Editor BSA.

3.6.6 Graphics search and sort. Graphics search and sort standards provide capability and standardized interface to search for and access graphical objects based on file attributes.

3.6.6.1 Graphics search. Graphics search standards provide the capability and standardized interface to search for and access graphical objects based on file attributes.

3.6.6.1.1 Standards. Table 3.6-12 presents standards for graphics searches.

TABLE 3.6-12 Graphics search standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.6.6.1.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.6.6.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.6.6.1.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.6.6.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to graphics search or graphics search standards:

a. ISO 9592:1989 PHIGS
b. ISO 7942:1985 GKS
c. ISO 10918-1:1994 JPEG
d. MIL-STD-188-198: JPEG
e. ISO 11172: MPEG
f. ANSI X3H3.8: PIK
g. ISO 10918-2 JPEG

3.6.6.1.6 Recommendations. Without standards, specifications should reflect current needs and anticipate future changes.

3.6.6.2 Image query and search. Image query and search standards provide the capability and standardized interface to search for and access image data based on file attributes.

3.6.6.2.1 Standards. Table 3.6-13 presents standards for image queries and searches.

TABLE 3.6-13 Image query and search standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.6.6.2.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.6.6.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.6.6.2.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.6.6.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to image query and search standards:

a. ISO 9592:1989 PHIGS
b. ISO 7942:1985 GKS
c. ISO 10918-1:1994 JPEG
d. ISO 11172: MPEG
e. ANSI X3H3.8: PIK
f. ISO 10918-2

3.6.6.2.6 Recommendations. No standard is available to recommend. Only a proprietary solution that best fits the requirements of the system or a custom-developed implementation is possible.

3.6.6.3 Graphical object sorting. Graphical object sorting standards provide the capability and standardized interface to arrange graphical objects and information in a specified order.

3.6.6.3.1 Standards. Table 3.6-14 presents standards for graphical object sorting.

TABLE 3.6-14 Graphical object sorting standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

N/A

N.A.

None

N.A.

Informational

(N.A.)

3.6.6.3.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.6.6.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standards are unknown, since these services are not part of any formal standard.

3.6.6.3.4 Portability caveats. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.6.6.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to graphical object sorting standards:

a. ISO 9592:1989 PHIGS.
b. ISO 7942:1985 GKS.
c. ISO 10918-1:1994 JPEG.
d. ISO 11172: MPEG.
e. ANSI X3H3.8: PIK.
f. ISO 10918-2

3.6.6.3.6 Recommendations. No standards are available to recommend. See the Image query and search BSA.

3.6.7 Graphics security. Graphics security services include graphics security labeling.

3.6.7.1 Graphics security labeling. (This BSA appears in part 6 and part 10.) Graphics security labeling provides a security service for ensuring that graphical data includes labeling information in support of mandatory access control security services, marking security services, handling security services, aggregation security services, sanitization security services, and release security services. Security labeling services produce and maintain the integrity of the security label and its binding to the data with which it is associated.

3.6.7.1.1 Standards. Table 3.6-15 presents standards for graphics security labeling.

TABLE 3.6-15 Graphics security labeling standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

The DOD Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

DOD 5200.28-STD: 1985

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Encoding Format

DDS-2600-6216-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Source Code and User Interface Guidelines, Revision 1

DDS-2600-6243-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) Evaluation Criteria

DDS-2600-6243-92

Informational

(Approved)

3.6.7.1.2 Alternative specifications. There are no other specifications.

3.6.7.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.6.7.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.6.7.1.5 Related standards. Graphics security labeling should be compatible with MIL-STD-2045-48501, Common Security Label, for any system with a communications interface.

DOD 5200.1-R, "Information Security Program Regulation," June 1986, establishes DOD policy for security classification, declassification, and marking of DOD information. It also contains DOD policy for safeguarding of classified information, including accountability, storage, transmission, and destruction of the information.

3.6.7.1.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. Graphics security labeling should be based on the operating system security label standards. Graphics security labeling should employ binding of strength equal to or greater than that of the operating system. Compatible security labeling standards include the ability to perform a one-for-one mapping or translation between security labeling standards.