INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS GUIDANCE

(ITSG)

(Part 7 of 14 parts)

COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORK SERVICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version 3.1 - April 7, 1997

 

 

AREA TCSS/IPSC/DCPS

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

 

 

 

 

FOREWORD

The ITSG is the foundation document for the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), Volume 7, the Adopted Information Technology Standards (AITS) and provides more detailed information about the standards adopted by the AITS.

The ITSG aligns with the major service areas of the reference model identified in the TAFIM, Volume 2, Technical Reference Model. It is divided by major service areas into separate parts. See part 1 of the ITSG for the table of major service areas and associated ITSG part numbers along with the POC for each major service area. This document, ITSG part 7, addresses the Communications and Network Services Major Service Area.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.7 Communications and network services 3.7-

3.7.1 Base standards 3.7-

3.7.1.1 Base standards categories 3.7-

3.7.1.2 IAB standards 3.7-

3.7.2 Communications for end systems 3.7-

3.7.2.1 Host application support 3.7-

3.7.2.2 Information transport 3.7-

3.7.2.3 Domain name system and internet protocol addressing 3.7-

3.7.2.4 Network management for hosts 3.7-

3.7.2.5 Video teleconferencing 3.7-

3.7.2.6 Facsimile 3.7-

3.7.2.7 Secondary imagery dissemination 3.7-

3.7.2.8 High-level data link control protocols 3.7-

3.7.2.9 Record traffic protocol 3.7-

3.7.2.10 Voice encoding for end systems 3.7-

3.7.3 Communications services for networks 3.7-

3.7.3.1 Routers 3.7-

3.7.3.2 Local area networks 3.7-

3.7.3.3 Packet-switch services 3.7-

3.7.3.4 Point-to-point service 3.7-

3.7.3.5 Combat net radio 3.7-

3.7.3.6 N-ISDN 3.7-

3.7.3.7 N-ISDN supplementary services 3.7-

3.7.3.8 B-ISDN and ATM services 3.7-

3.7.3.9 Tactical networks 3.7-

3.7.3.10 Voice encoding for networks 3.7-

3.7.3.11 Timing and synchronization 3.7-

3.7.3.12 Network management 3.7-

3.7.4 Interworking services 3.7-

3.7.4.1 Interworking services 3.7-

3.7.5 Personal communications services 3.7-

3.7.5.1 Wireless access 3.7-

3.7.5.2 Future public land mobile telecommunications systems 3.7-

3.7.5.3 Universal personal communications 3.7-

3.7.6 Transmission media 3.7-

3.7.6.1 Military satellite communications 3.7-

3.7.6.2 Radio communications 3.7-

3.7.6.3 Cable interfaces 3.7-

3.7.6.4 Multiplex format 3.7-

3.7.6.5 Tactical digital information links 3.7-

3.7.7 Strategic/tactical interoperability 3.7-

3.7.7.1 Transcoding 3.7-

3.7.7.2 Rate adaptation 3.7-

3.7.7.3 Signaling message conversion 3.7-

3.7.8 NATO interoperability 3.7-

3.7.8.1 NATO tactical digital gateway 3.7-

3.7.8.2 Packet-switch networks 3.7-

3.7.8.3 NATO data network 3.7-

3.7.8.4 Digital facsimile 3.7-

3.7.8.5 Single channel radios 3.7-

3.7.8.6 Satellites 3.7-

3.7.8.7 TADILs 3.7-

3.7.9 Communications and network services security 3.7-

3.7.9.1 Network security architecture 3.7-

3.7.9.2 Security risk management 3.7-

3.7.9.3 Security management 3.7-

3.7.9.4 Security association and key management 3.7-

3.7.9.5 Security audit 3.7-

3.7.9.6 Security alarm reporting 3.7-

3.7.9.7 Network authentication 3.7-

3.7.9.8 Network access control 3.7-

3.7.9.9 Data encryption security 3.7-

3.7.9.10 Traffic flow confidentiality 3.7-

3.7.9.11 Network integrity 3.7-

3.7.9.12 Systems non-repudiation 3.7-

3.7.9.13 Electronic signature 3.7-

3.7.9.14 Electronic hashing 3.7-

3.7.9.15 Data communications security labeling 3.7-

Acronym List 3.7-

Index of Standards 3.7-

 

LIST OF TABLES

3.7-1 IAB Standards and RFCs 3.7-

3.7-2 Application support standards for hosts 3.7-

3.7-3 Host standards for information transport 3.7-

3.7-4 Domain name system and IP addressing standards 3.7-

3.7-5 Host standards for network management 3.7-

3.7-6 VTC standards 3.7-

3.7-7 Facsimile standards 3.7-

3.7-8 Secondary imagery dissemination standards 3.7-

3.7-9 HDLC-based link-layer protocol standards 3.7-

3.7-10 Record traffic protocol standards 3.7-

3.7-11 Voice encoding standards 3.7-

3.7-12 Router standards 3.7-

3.7-13 LAN standards 3.7-

3.7-14 Packet-switch standards 3.7-

3.7-15 Point-to-point standards 3.7-

3.7-16 Combat net radio standards 3.7-

3.7-17 N-ISDN standards 3.7-

3.7-18 N-ISDN supplementary services standards 3.7-

3.7-19 B-ISDN and ATM standards 3.7-

3.7-20 Tactical network standards 3.7-

3.7-21 Voice encoding standards for networks 3.7-

3.7-22 Timing and synchronization standards 3.7-

3.7-23 Network management standards 3.7-

3.7-24 Interworking standards 3.7-

3.7-25 Current wireless access standards 3.7-

3.7-26 FPLMTS standards 3.7-

3.7-27 Universal personal communications standards 3.7-

3.7-28 Military satellite communications standards 3.7-

3.7-29 Radio communications standards 3.7-

3.7-30 Cable interfaces standards 3.7-

3.7-31 Multiplex format standards 3.7-

3.7-32 TADIL standards 3.7-

3.7-33 Transcoding standards 3.7-

3.7-34 Rate adaptation standards 3.7-

3.7-35 Signaling message conversion standards 3.7-

3.7-36 NATO tactical digital gateway standards 3.7-

3.7-37 Packet-switch network standards 3.7-

3.7-38 NATO data network standards 3.7-

3.7-39 Facsimile standards 3.7-

3.7-40 Single channel radio standards for NATO 3.7-

3.7-41 Satellite standards for NATO 3.7-

3.7-42 NATO TADILs standards 3.7-

3.7-43 Network security architecture standards 3.7-

3.7-44 Security risk management standards 3.7-

3.7-45 Security management standards 3.7-

3.7-46 Security association and key management standards 3.7-

3.7-47 Security audit standards 3.7-

3.7-48 Security alarm reporting standards 3.7-

3.7-49 Network authentication standards 3.7-

3.7-50 Network access control standards 3.7-

3.7-51 Data encryption security standards 3.7-

3.7-52 Traffic flow confidentiality standards 3.7-

3.7-53 Network integrity standards 3.7-

3.7-54 Systems non-repudiation standards 3.7-

3.7-55 Electronic signature standards 3.7-

3.7-56 Electronic hashing standards 3.7-

3.7-57 Data communications security labeling standards 3.7-

3.7 Communications and network services. Provision of communications and network services for DOD users requires a set of information transfer standards encompassing all end systems and the subnetworks that interconnect them. Most end systems for data use the TCP/IP suite of internet protocols, which support internetworking operations over differing subnetwork technologies. Other end systems support voice, fax, messaging, and video services. This part of the ITSG identifies the base standards which support these communicating end systems, as well as the subnetwork technologies, the transmission systems, and the interworking protocols used to interconnect those end systems.

3.7.1 Base standards. Base standards supporting each of the BSAs are listed in tables provided in 3.7.2 to 3.7.9. The tables provide the standards organization numbers, titles, standards types, and base standards categories. Some of the most used standards types will appear in abbreviated form throughout this part. These types and their abbreviations are: Corporate Private Non-Consensus (CPN-C), Consortia Public Consensus (CPC), Government Public Consensus (GPC), International Public Consensus (IPC), and National Public Consensus (NPC). The ITSG, part 1, provides more information on these standards types. Some base standards are referenced more than once. For example, a base standard applicable to the user-to-network interfaces (UNI) may be referenced once as it applies to the end-system side of the UNI and again as it applies to the network side of the UNI.

3.7.1.1 Base standards categories. Base standards supporting each of the BSAs are categorized as mandated, adopted, legacy, emerging, and informational. These categories are in addition to the life-cycle status information usually presented. Each of these new categories is described in 3.7.1.1.1 to 3.7.1.1.5.

3.7.1.1.1 Mandated standard. The DOD status "Mandated" is used for those standards mandated by the JTA. A standard is mandatory in the sense that IF a service/interface is going to be implemented, it shall be implemented in accordance with the mandated standard. Although these standards are mandated for C4I only, they should be treated as recommended standards for non-C4I applications.

3.7.1.1.2 Adopted standard. The DOD status "Adopted" is used to mean that the standard in the ITSG is approved by DOD for use in satisfying a function of the BSA where there exists no JTA mandated standard where joint interoperability is impacted. Adopted standards may be implemented but shall not be used in lieu of a mandated standard. Adopted standards also appear in the top rows of the standards tables in the ITSG and are bordered with heavy black lines.

3.7.1.1.3 Legacy standard. A "Legacy" standard is a standard necessary to achieve or maintain interoperability with legacy systems. Legacy systems are systems that are in current use. Legacy standards are not recommended for future procurements. Legacy standards may be supported until the legacy system is no longer being maintained. Examples of legacy standards are X.25 packet switching standards and TRI-TAC/Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) System standards such as MIL-STD-188-256.

3.7.1.1.4 Emerging standard. According to the JTA, a DOD "Emerging" status denotes a candidate standard to be added as, or to replace, a mandated standard. This includes standards required to capitalize on new technologies. These candidates will help the program manager determine those areas that are likely to change in the near term (within three years) and suggest those areas in which "upgradability" should be a concern. The expectation is that emerging standards will be elevated to mandated status in the JTA when implementations of the standards mature. Emerging standards may be implemented but shall not be used in lieu of a mandated standard.

3.7.1.1.5 Informational standard. Informational standards include those remaining standards that fall outside the official DOD status of "mandated", "adopted", "emerging", and "legacy".

3.7.1.2 IAB standards. A number of standards mandated in this part are published by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), which is responsible for the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite and which documents these standards. A list of IAB standards cited in this part of the ITSG and the Request For Comments (RFCs) that make up these standards is given in Table 3.7-1. IAB standards can be obtained via electronic mail from FTP.ISI.EDC by using the RFC-INFO service. Address the request to "rfc-info@isi.edu" with a message body of:

Retrieve: STD

Doc-ID: STDnnnn (where nnnn refers to the number of the STD, e.g., STD0002 for IAB STD 2)

IAB standards, and other Internet documentation, can also be obtained via a WWW browser from URL http://ds.internic.net/ds/dspg0intdoc.html.

TABLE 3.7-1 IAB Standards and RFCs

IAB STANDARD

RFC NUMBER

IAB STD

NAME

3

Host Requirements

1122, 1123

5

Internet Protocol

0791, 0950, 0919, 0922, 0792, 1112

6

User Datagram Protocol

0768

7

Transmission Control Protocol

0793

8

TELNET Protocol

0854, 0855

9

File Transport Protocol

0959

13

Domain Name System

1034, 1035

15

Simple Network Management Protocol

1157

16

Structure of Management Information

1155, 1212

17

Management Information Base

1213

33

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

1350

35

ISO Transport Service on Top of the TCP

1006

37

An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol

0826

38

A Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

0903

41

Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Ethernet Networks

0894

43

Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over IEEE 802 Networks

1042

51

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

1661, 1662

 





3.7.2 Communications for end systems. End systems may be host computers [data terminal equipment (DTE)], video teleconferencing (VTC) terminals, facsimile terminals, secondary imagery terminals, or telephone terminals.

3.7.2.1 Host application support. Hosts are end-user computer systems that connect to a network. They perform numerous functions corresponding to all layers of the International Standards Organization (ISO) reference model. Host standards for internetwork routing and the higher layers are required so that communicating hosts can interoperate. Lower-layer standards depend on the particular network interface. Base standards for host applications are presented in table 3.7-2.

3.7.2.1.1 Standards. Base standards for host applications are presented in table 3.7-2.

TABLE 3.7-2 Application support standards for hosts

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

IAB

Host Requirements

Standard 3/RFC-1122/RFC-1123

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

TELNET Protocol

Standard 8/RFC-854/RFC-855

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

File Transfer Protocol

Standard 9/RFC-959

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Network Time Protocol (V3)

RFC 1305:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0

RFC 1945:1996

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Common Messaging Strategy and Procedures, November 1995

ACP 123 US Supplement No. 1

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

The Directory - Overview of Concepts, Models and Services - Data Communication Networks Directory, 1993

X.500

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Connectionless Data Transfer Application Layer Standard, July 27, 1995

MIL-STD-2045-47001

Mandated

(Approved)

3.7.2.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.1.3 Standards deficiencies. The Directory Implementor's Guide, Version 9, April 1996, provides reported defects and their resolutions to the 1988 and 1993 editions of the ITU-T Recommendations X.500. It also includes all approved and draft corrigenda to both editions of the directory specification.

3.7.2.1.4 Portability caveats. X.500 implementations based on 1988 and 1993 specifications will not interoperate if the resolution of defect 052 to the 1988 specification, which provides for version negotiation and rules for extensibility, has not been incorporated.

3.7.2.1.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. IAB STD 27, Telnet binary transmission, 5/1/83.

2. IAB STD 28, Telnet echo option, 5/1/83.

3. IAB STD 32, Telnet extended options: List option, 5/1/83.

4. RFC 1495, Mapping between X.400 and RFC-822 Message Bodies, 8/26/93.

5. RFC 1415, FTP-FTAM gateway specification, 1/27/93.

6. RFC 1708, NTP PICS PROFORMA for the Network Time Protocol, Version 3, 10/26/94.

7. IAB STD 10, SMTP service extensions, 11/6/95.

8. RFC 1830, SMTP Service Extensions for Transmission of Large and Binary MIME Messages, 8/16/95.

3.7.2.1.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. The standard for electronic-mail support, used by the Defense Message System (DMS), is the International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) X.400-based suite of military messaging standards defined in Allied Communication Publication (ACP) 123, U.S. Supplement No. 1. The U.S. Supplement contains standards profiles that define the DMS "Business Class Messaging" (P772) capability and the Message Security Protocol (MSP). The DMS will interface to SMTP by using multifunction interpreters (MFI). Some loss of functionality will occur when a gateway is used.

b. The X.500 protocol supports individual and organizational directory services and is mandated for use with DMS. X.500 supports directory services that may be used by users or host applications to locate other users and resources on the network. X.500 also supports security services used by DMS-compliant X.400 implementations.

c. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) will be used in support of basic file transfer. FTP provides a reliable, file transfer service for text or binary files.

d. Basic remote terminal services are supported by the Telecommunications Network (TELNET) protocol. TELNET provides a virtual terminal capability that allows users to log on to remote systems as if the user's terminal were directly connected to the remote system.

e. IAB STD 3, an umbrella standard, references other documents and corrects errors in some of the referenced documents. IAB STD 3 also adds additional discussion and guidance for implementors.

f. RFC 1305 specifies the mechanisms to synchronize time and coordinate time distribution in a large, diverse internet.

g. RFC 1945 specifies methods for search and retrieval within the World Wide Web.

h. MIL-STD-2045-47001 supports VMF message transmission using a connectionless application layer.

3.7.2.2 Information transport. Information-transport services provide host-to-host communications capability for application-support services.

3.7.2.2.1 Standards. Base standards for information transport are shown in table 3.7-3.

TABLE 3.7-3 Host standards for information transport

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

IAB

Host Requirements

Standard 3/RFC-1122/RFC-1123

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Internet Protocol

Standard 5/RFC-791/RFC-950/RFC-919/RFC-922/RFC-792/RFC-1112

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

User Datagram Protocol

Standard 6/RFC-768

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Transmission Control Protocol

Standard 7/RFC-793

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

ISO Transport Service on top of the TCP

Standard 35/RFC-1006

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Internet Transport Profile for DoD Communications - Transport and Internet Services

MIL-STD-2045-14502-1A

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Connection Oriented Transport Layer Specification (for TP0 only)

ISO 8073

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

X.25 Packet Level Protocol for DTE

ISO 8208

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Use of X.25 to Provide the CONS

ISO 8878

Legacy

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

IPv6 Specification

RFC 1883:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

ICMPv6 for IPv6

RFC 1885:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers

RFC 1933:1996

Emerging

(Draft)

3.7.2.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.2.3 Standards deficiencies. IPv4 does not provide security features such as authentication and privacy.

3.7.2.2.4 Portability caveats. There are many RFCs that specify extensions to TCP. Most vendors' products contain extensions. To maximize portability, reduce the use of extensions as much as possible.

3.7.2.2.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. RFC 1693, An extension to TCP: Partial Order Service, 11/1/94.

2. RFC 1644, T/TCP -- TCP Extensions for Transactions Functional Specification, 7/13/94.

3. RFC 1323, TCP Extensions for High Performance, 5/13/92.

4. RFC 1144, Compressing TCP/IP headers for low-speed serial links, 2/1/90.

5. RFC 1072, TCP extensions for long-delay paths, 10/1/88.

6. RFC 1240, OSI Connectionless Transport Services on Top of UDP - Version 1, 6/26/91.

3.7.2.2.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. IAB-STD-7 specifies the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP is the standard transport-level protocol most commonly used and is the protocol upon which many application-support protocols depend. TCP, as mandated by JTA, implements the PUSH flag and the Nagle Algorithm defined in IAB-STD-3.

b. IAB-STD-6 specifies the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). UDP is an alternative transport-level protocol that provides an unacknowledged, connectionless, datagram transport service.

c. IAB-STD-5 specifies the Internet Protocol (IP). RFCs corresponding to this standard are referenced in table 3.7-1. Both TCP and UDP use the IP to transport information across internetworks. IP supports connectionless datagram service. All protocols within the IP suite use IP datagrams as the basic data transport mechanism. Two other protocols are considered integral parts of IP: the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). ICMP is used to provide error reporting, flow control, and route redirection. IGMP provides multicast extensions for hosts to report their group membership to multicast routers. In addition, all implementations of IP must pass received type-of-service (TOS) values up to the transport layer.

d. MIL-STD-2045-14502-1A specifies a military-unique IP option field that must be used for hosts that are required to transmit or receive multiaddressed datagrams over combat net radio (CNR).

e. IAB-STD-35 supports interworking between Transport Protocol Class 0 (TP0) and TCP transport service when it is necessary for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) applications to operate over IP-based networks. TP0 is defined by ISO 8073.

f. ISOs 8208 and 8878 are layer 3 standards for legacy X.25 network interfaces.

g. RFC 1883 specifies a new version of IP (IPv6), which has been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The current version of IP (IPv4) provides only 32 bits of address space and is facing an inability to provide unique addresses at all entities that require them. RFC 1885 specifies a new internet control message protocol for IPv6. The changes from IPv4 to IPv6 are primarily in the following categories:

h. RFC 1933 specifies IPv4 compatibility mechanisms that can be implemented by IPv6 hosts and routers. These mechanisms are designed to allow IPv6 nodes to maintain complete compatibility with IPv4.

 

3.7.2.3 Domain name system and internet protocol addressing. Domain Name System (DNS), an on-line distributed database system, is used to map human-readable machine names into IP addresses. DNS servers throughout the interconnected internet implement a hierarchical name space that allows sites freedom in assigning machine names and addresses.

3.7.2.3.1 Standards. Base standards relevant to Domain Name System (DNS) and IP Addressing are presented in table 3.7-4.

TABLE 3.7-4 Domain name system and IP addressing standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

IAB

Domain Name System

Standard 13/RFC-1034/RFC-1035

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Bootstrap Protocol

RFC 951:1985

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions

RFC 1533:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DCHP)

RFC 1541:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol

RFC 1542:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Uniform Resource Locators

RFC 1738:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Relative Uniform Resource Locators

RFC 1808:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

IPv6 Addressing Architecture

RFC 1884:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

DNS Extensions to Support IPv6

RFC 1886:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

IP Mobility Support

RFC 2002:1996

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Mobility Support in IPv6

Internet Draft

Emerging

(Draft)

3.7.2.3.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.3.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.2.3.4 Portability caveats. There are many RFCs that specify extensions to DNS. Most vendors' products contain extensions. To maximize portability, reduce the use of extensions as much as possible.

3.7.2.3.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. RFC 1887, An Architecture for IPv6 Unicast Address Allocation, 1/4/96.

2. RFC 1971, IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration, 8/16/96.

3. RFC 1912, Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors, 2/28/96.

4. RFC 1664, Using the Internet DNS to Distribute RFC 1327 Mail Address Mapping Tables, 8/11/94.

5. RFC 1536, Common DNS Implementation Errors and Suggested Fixes, 10/6/93.

6. RFC 1534, Interoperation Between DHCP and BOOTP, 10/8/93.

3.7.2.3.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. IAB-STD-13 supports computer-addressing services and is mandated for IP-based services. The DNS translates between host names and IP addresses.

b. RFC-951 specifies the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), which assigns IP addresses to workstations with no current IP address.

c. RFCs 1533, 1541, and 1542 specify the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which provides an extension of BOOTP to support the passing of configuration information to internet hosts. DHCP consists of two parts, a protocol for delivering host-specific configuration parameters from a DHCP server to a host and a mechanism for automatically allocating IP addresses to hosts.

d. RFCs 1738 and 1808 specify the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for locating resources on an internet.

e. RFC 1884 defines the addressing architecture of the IP Version 6 protocol (IPv6). RFC 1886 defines the changes that need to be made to the Domain Name System to support hosts running IPv6.

f. RFC 2002 specifies protocol enhancements that allow transparent routing of IP datagrams to mobile nodes in the Internet. "Mobility Support in IPv6" is an internet draft that specifies the operation of mobile computers using IPv6.

3.7.2.4 Network management for hosts. The objective of network management is to support the establishment, reconfiguration, and maintenance of a stable signaling and user-to-network environment.

3.7.2.4.1 Standards. Base standards for network management of hosts are presented in table 3.7-5.

TABLE 3.7-5 Host standards for network management

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

IAB

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

Standard 15/RFC-1157

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Structure of Management Information (SMI)

Standard 16/RFC-1155/RFC-1212

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Management Information Base

Standard 17/RFC-1213

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Structure of Management Information for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol

RFC 1902:1996

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Conformance Statements for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol

RFC 1904:1996

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Protocol for Operations for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol

RFC 1905:1996

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Management Information Base for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol

RFC 1907:1996

Informational

(Approved)

3.7.2.4.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.4.3 Standards deficiencies. The chief disadvantage of SNMPv1 is the fact that its simplicity severely limits the protocol's ability to satisfy users' requirements for event reporting, sufficient control, and extensibility. Because SNMPv1 is so simplistic and limited, it provides more of a monitoring and data gathering capability than a management function.

The SNMPv1 accommodates only limited event reporting by means of the "trap" mechanism. Other events must be discovered by the managing node by means of periodic polling. Its simplicity compromises its ability to support consistent or extensive addressing. It has limited security capabilities, and does not support threshold-driven performance notification except indirectly through side effects or "set" operations on MIB items. SNMP cannot be extended easily.

3.7.2.4.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.2.4.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. RFC 1908, Coexistence between Version 1 and Version 2 of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework, 1/22/96.

2. RFC 1461, SNMP MIB Extension for Multiprotocol Interconnect over X.25, 5/27/93.

3. RFC 1449, Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2), 5/3/93.

4. RFC 1446, Security Protocols for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2), 5/3/93.

5. RFC 1445, Administrative Model for Version 2 of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2), 5/3/93.

6. RFC 1443, Textual Conventions for Version 2 of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2), 5/3/93.

7. RFC 1441, Introduction to Version 2 of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework, 5/3/93.

3.7.2.4.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. Hosts will use the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) set of network management protocols. SNMP v1 is specified in IAB-STD-15, -16, and -17.

b. SNMP v2 adds security and authentication capabilities and a new manager-to-manager relationship for distributed management. SNMP v2, which is backward-compatible with SNMP v1, is specified in RFCs 1902, 1904, 1905, and 1907. SNMP v2 has not been accepted by the industry, and few vendors include SNMP v2 in their products. The main complaints focus on the complex design of the security and administrative framework. The IETF is presently working on a next generation version called SNMPng. The first set of internet-drafts are expected in the Spring of 1997.

3.7.2.5 Video teleconferencing. DOD and the video teleconferencing (VTC) industry have developed a profile to provide a standards-based reference document for users as an aid in defining procurement specifications for VTC equipment.

3.7.2.5.1 Standards. Base standards for VTC are presented in table 3.7-6.

TABLE 3.7-6 VTC standards

Standard TypeStatus

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Industry Profile for Video Teleconferencing

VTC001, Revision 1, April 25, 1995

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Terminal for Low Bit Rate Multimedia Communications, March 19, 1996

H.324

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

VTC over ATM

H.321

Emerging

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

VTC over Ethernet

H.323

Emerging

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Video Teleconferencing Services at 56 to 1920 kb/s (Adopts ITU H.320, H.221, H.242, H.230, H.261, H.231, H.243, H.233, H.234, H.244)

FIPS PUB 178-1

Emerging

(Draft)

3.7.2.5.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.5.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.2.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.2.5.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. FIPS PUB 178, Video Teleconferencing Services at 56 to 1,920 Kb/s, 1992.

2. ANSI T1.314, Digital Processing of Video Signals - Video Coder/Decoder for Audiovisual Services at 56 to 1536 kbits/s, 1991.

3. ANSI T1.801.01, Telecommunications - Digital Transport of Video Teleconferencing/ Video telephony Signals - Video Test Scenes for Subjective and Objective Performance Assessment.

4. RFC 1890, RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control, 1/25/96.

3.7.2.5.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. VTC 001 applies to video teleconferencing terminals. VTC 001 is based on the H.320 and T.120 series of recommendations and is independent of the type of underlying network service.

b. FIPS PUB 178 is based on the H.320 series of recommendations but lacks the additional DOD requirements contained in VTC 001. The new version of FIPS PUB 178 includes these DOD requirements. Appendix A of the FIPS PUB 178-1 contains VTC 001. FIPS PUB 178-1 is awaiting final approval from NIST. FIPS PUB 178-1 will replace VTC 001 as the DOD mandated standard.

c. ITU-T H.321 and H.323 are emerging standards that support VTC over ATM and Ethernet networks.

d. ITU-T H.324 has been mandated by the JTA for VTC terminals that operate at low bit rates (9.6 to 28.8 kbps).

 

3.7.2.6 Facsimile. Facsimile terminals may be procured with either a standard analog interface or a standard digital interface.

3.7.2.6.1 Standards. Base standards for facsimile are presented in table 3.7-7.

TABLE 3.7-7 Facsimile standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

EIA/TIA

Group 3 Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission, March 21, 1995

465-A

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

EIA/TIA

Procedures for Document Facsimile Transmission

466-A

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Digital Facsimile Equipment, January 10, 1995

MIL-STD-188-161D

Mandated

(Approved)

3.7.2.6.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.6.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.2.6.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.2.6.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. MIL-STD-188-114A, Electrical Characteristics of Digital Interface Circuits, 12/91.

2. STANAG 5000, Interoperability of Tactical Digital Facsimile Equipment.

3.7.2.6.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. Facsimile requirements for analog output shall comply with ITU-T Group 3 specifications given in Electronics Industries Association/Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA) Standards 465-A and 466-A.

b. Digital facsimile terminals operating in tactical, high bit error ratio (BER) environments shall implement digital facsimile equipment standards for Type I, Type II, or both, modes specified in MIL-STD-188-161D. Facsimile transmissions requiring encryption shall also use this military standard.

3.7.2.7 Secondary imagery dissemination. National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) Standards (NITFS) define the standard formats for digital imagery and imagery-related products to be exchanged between members of the Intelligence Community, DoD, and other departments and agencies of the United States Government. The NITFS includes supporting standards for imagery, image compression, other imagery-related requirements, and the Tactical Communications 2 (TAC02) protocol. The document structure for current and anticipated NITFS documentation is described in MIL-HDBK-1300A.

3.7.2.7.1 Standards. Base standards for secondary imagery dissemination are presented in table 3.7-8.

TABLE 3.7-8 Secondary imagery dissemination standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

National Imagery Transmission Standard (NITFS) Tactical Communications Protocol 2 (TACO2), June 18, 1993

MIL-STD-2045-44500

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

National Imagery Transmission Format (Version 2.0) for file format

MIL-STD-2500A

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Bi-Level Image Compression

MIL-STD-188-196

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) Image Compression for the NITFS (for Gray Scale and Still Color Images)

MIL-STD-188-198A of 12/15/1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Vector Quantization (VQ) Decompression

MIL-STD-188-199

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Adaptive Recursive Interpolated Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ARIDPCM) for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standards (NITFS)

MIL-STD-188-197A of 10/12/1994

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.2.7.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.7.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.2.7.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.2.7.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

MIL-HDBK-1300A, National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, 10/12/94.

3.7.2.7.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. MIL-STD-2045-44500 is the standard mandated for Tactical Communications Protocol 2 (TACO2). TACO2 is the communications component of the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (NITFS) suite of standards used to disseminate secondary imagery. TACO2 supports operation over point-to-point tactical data links in high BER communications environments. TACO2 applies only to users that have simplex and half-duplex links as their only means of communications.

b. MIL-STD-2500A is the NITF Standard that provides a detailed description of the overall structure of the file format, as well as specification of the valid data content and format for all fields defined within a NITF file.

c. The MIL-STD-188-196/199 series defines compression algorithms for imagery. For more information on JPEG standard see ITSG, part 5, Data Interchange Services.

3.7.2.8 High-level data link control protocols. Link-layer protocols based on high-level data link control (HDLC) protocols are used by packet-switched networks, hosts, routers, and for Narrowband-Integrated Services Digital Network (N-ISDN) signaling messages.

3.7.2.8.1 Standards. Base standards for high-level data link control (HDLC)-based link-layer protocols are presented in table 3.7-9.

TABLE 3.7-9 HDLC-based link-layer protocol standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

ISDN User-Network Interface - Data Link Layer Specification - Digital Subscriber Signaling System No. 1, 1993

Q.921

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

HDLC Frame Structures

3309

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

HDLC Elements of Procedures

4335

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

X.25 LAPB-Compatible DTE Data Link Procedures

7776

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

HDLC Procedures, Data-Link Layer Address Resolution/Negotiation in Switched Environments

8471

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

HDLC Procedures, General Purpose XID Frame Information Field Content and Format

8885

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.2.8.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.8.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.2.8.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.2.8.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

ISO 7809, Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) Procedures - classes of procedures, Third Edition.

3.7.2.8.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

The X.25 link-layer protocol, known as link access procedure balanced (LAPB), is a subset of HDLC and uses the frame structure and procedures specified in ISO 3309 and 4335. LAPB for hosts is specified in ISO 7776. Link-layer address resolution and XID procedures for legacy packet-switch networks is supported by ISO 8471 and 8885, respectively.

LAPD is specified in ITU-T Q.921. LAPD is used as a data link control for ISDN. LAPD differs from LAPB in the following ways:

1. LAPD is designed for multiple access on the link. LAPB is intended for point-to-point operating.

2. LAPD and LAPB use different timers.

3. The address structures are different.

4. LAPD implements HDLC unnumbered information frame (UI). LAPB uses only sequenced information frames.

3.7.2.9 Record traffic protocol. Legacy formal record traffic systems are based on legacy interoperability standards. These standards shall be supported until the legacy systems are replaced by the Defense Message System (DMS).

3.7.2.9.1 Standards. Base standards for record traffic protocols are presented in table 3.7-10.

TABLE 3.7-10 Record traffic protocol standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standards for Information and Record Traffic Exchange, Mode I

MIL-STD-188-171

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standards for Information and Record Traffic Exchange, Mode II

MIL-STD-188-172

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standards for Information and Record Traffic Exchange, Mode V

MIL-STD-188-173

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standards for Information and Record Traffic Exchange, Mode VI

MIL-STD-188-174

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.2.9.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.9.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.2.9.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.2.9.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. JANAP 128 Joint Army/Navy/Air Force Publication 128: AUTODIN Operating Procedures, March 1983.

2. ACP 127 Message Relay procedures.

3. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Digital Data Communications Message Protocol (DDCMP).

3.7.2.9.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. MIL-STD-188-171 will provide the Mode I channel coordination procedure for synchronous, simultaneous, duplex data transfer over terrestrial links.

b. MIL-STD-188-172 will provide the Mode II non-ARQ channel coordination procedure for asynchronous, simultaneous, independent, duplex data transfer.

c. MIL-STD-188-173 will provide the Mode V ARQ channel coordination procedure for asynchronous, simultaneous, independent, duplex data transfer.

d. MIL-STD-188-174 will provide the Mode V ARQ channel coordination procedure for asynchronous, simultaneous, duplex data transfer.

3.7.2.10 Voice encoding for end systems. Several different voice digitization algorithms may be used to support digital voice applications. The method used depends on available bandwidth and type of interface.

3.7.2.10.1 Standards. Base standards for voice encoding are presented in table 3.7-11.

TABLE 3.7-11 Voice encoding standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies (narrowband)

G.711:1989

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

32 kbits/s Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) - General Aspects of Digital Transmission Systems

G.721:1989

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)

FED-STD-1015

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Analog-to-Digital Conversion of Radio Voice by 4800-bps Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP0

FED-STD-1016

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Analog-to-Digital Conversion Techniques (for CVSD Modulation)

MIL-STD-188-113

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.2.10.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.2.10.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.2.10.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.2.10.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ANSI T1.302, Telecommunications - Digital Processing of Voice-Band Signals - Line Format for 32-kbits/s Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (ADPCM).

2. ANSI T1.310, Telecommunications - Digital Processing of Voice-Band Signals - Algorithms for 5-, 4-, 3-, and 2-bit/Sample Embedded Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (ADPCM).

3. ANSI T1.501, Telecommunications - Network Performance - Tandem Encoding Limits for 32 kbits/s Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (ADPCM).

3.7.2.10.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. ITU-T G.711 specifies 64-kbps pulse-code modulation (PCM) for both mu-law and A-law companding.

b. MIL-STD-188-113 specifies 16-kbps continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation.

c. FED-STD-1015 specifies 2.4-kbps linear predictive coding (LPC).

d. FED-STD-1016 specifies 4.8-kbps code-excited linear prediction (CELP).

e. ITU-T G.721 specifies 32-kbps adaptive differential pulse-code modulation (ADPCM).

3.7.3 Communications services for networks. This section addresses standards for different types of networks and other network-related topics. Networks include router networks, local area networks (LANs), packet switch, point-to-point, combat net radio, N-ISDN, broadband-ISDN (B-ISDN), and the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Network-related topics include voice digitization, timing and synchronization, network management, interworking, and personal communications services.

3.7.3.1 Routers. IP routers perform internetwork routing. They also perform interface functions needed to pass packets between different networks. IP routers route packets based on destination subnetwork addresses, not destination end-system addresses. IP routers may exist any place within the Defense Information Systems Network (DISN) as either interior or exterior gateways. For the purpose of routing, a group of networks and gateways controlled by a single administrative authority is called an autonomous system, which uses interior gateway protocols. Gateways between autonomous systems use exterior gateway protocols.

3.7.3.1.1 Standards. Base standards for routers are presented in table 3.7-12.

TABLE 3.7-12 Router standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

IAB

Internet Protocol

Standard 5/RFC-791/RFC-950/RFC-919/RFC-922/RFC-792/RFC-1112

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

User Datagram Protocol

Standard 6/RFC-768

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Transmission Control Protocol

Standard 7/RFC-793

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

TELNET Protocol

Standard 8/RFC-854/RFC-855

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Domain Name System

Standard 13/RFC-1034/RFC-1035

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

Standard 15/RFC-1157

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Structure of Management Information (SMI)

Standard 16/RFC-1155/RFC-1212

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Management Information Base

Standard 17/RFC-1213

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Trivial FTP (TFTP), to be used for initialization only.

Standard 33/RFC-1350

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Bootstrap Protocol

RFC 951:1985

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions

RFC 1533:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DCHP)

RFC 1541:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol

RFC 1542:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Open Shortest Path First Routing Version 2, for unicast routing

RFC 1583:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Multicast Extensions to OSPF for multicast routing

RFC 1584:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Border Gateway Protocol 4

RFC 1771:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Application of BGP In the Internet

RFC 1772:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers

RFC 1812:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

IPv6 Specification

RFC 1883:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

IPv6 Addressing Architecture

RFC 1884:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

ICMPv6 for IPv6

RFC 1885:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

DNS Extensions to Support IPv6

RFC 1886:1995

Emerging

(Approved)

3.7.3.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.1.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.1.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. RFC 1970, Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPV6), 8/16/96.

2. RFC 1933, Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers, 4/8/96.

3.7.3.1.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. The following standards and RFCs that were mandated for hosts in section 3.7.2.1 also apply to routers: IAB-STD-5, -6, -7, -8, -13, -15, -16, and -17, and RFCs 0951, 1533, 1541, 1542, 1883, 1884, 1885, and 1886.

b. IAB-STD-33 specifies the trivial file transport protocol, which is used by routers for initialization only.

c. RFC 1583 specifies the open shortest path first (OSPF) version 2 protocol for unicast interior gateway routing; RFC 1584 specifies multicast OSPF (MOSPF) for multicast interior gateway routing.

d. RFCs 1771 and 1772 specify the gateway protocol used by routers for exterior gateway routing.

e. RFC-1812, an umbrella standard, references other documents for IPv4 and corrects errors in some of the reference documents.

 

3.7.3.2 Local area networks. Local Area Networks (LANs) provide connectionless subnetwork service to support information exchange between end systems. The information transfer can be point-to-point, multicast, or broadcast. The link layer consists of two sublayers, logical link control (LLC) and media access control (MAC). Link-layer addresses are used to exchange information between end systems on the same LAN. IP-layer addresses are required for information to be exchanged with end systems on LANs connected to other networks.

3.7.3.2.1 Standards. Base standards for LANs are presented in table 3.7-13.

TABLE 3.7-13 LAN standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications, 10 Base T Medium-Access Unit (MAU)

8802-3:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol

Standard 37/RFC-826

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams Over Ethernet Networks

Standard 41/RFC-894

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Logical Link Control

8802-2

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

A Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)

Standard 38/RFC-903

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

9314

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

FDDI Station Management

X3.229

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Token Bus Media Access Control

8802-4

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Token Ring Media Access Control

8802-5

Legacy

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Fast Ethernet

802.3u

Emerging

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Wireless LAN

802.11

Emerging

(Draft)

3.7.3.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.2.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.2.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ISO 8473-2, Information Technology - Protocol for Providing the Connectionless-Mode Network Service - Part 2: Provision of the Underlying Service by an ISO/IEC 8802 Subnetwork, First Edition.

2. ANSI/IEEE 802.1B, Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Common Specifications - Part 2: LAN/MAN Management.

3. IEC 847, Characteristics of Local Area Networks (LAN), First Edition.

4. ISO ISP 10608-4, Information Technology - International Standardized Profile TAnnn - Connection-Mode Transport Service over Connectionless-Mode Network Service - Part 4: Definition of Profile TA53, Operation over a Token Ring LAN Subnetwork, First Edition.

5. ISO ISP 10608-6, Information Technology - International Standardized Profile TAnnn - Connection-Mode Transport Service over Connectionless-Mode Network Service - Part 4: Definition of Profile TA54, Operation over an FDDI LAN Subnetwork, First Edition.

6. ISO ISP 10609-11, Information Technology - International Standardized Profiles TB, TC, TD, and TE - Connection-Mode Transport Service over Connectionless-Mode Network Service - Part 11: CSMA/CD Subnetwork - Dependent, Media-Dependent Requirements, First Edition.

7. ISO TR 10178, Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - the Structure and Coding of Logical Link Control Addresses in Local Area Networks, First Edition.

3.7.3.2.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. ISO-8802-2 specifies the LLC protocols used in LANs such as ISO 8802-3 (CSMA-CD), ISO 8802-4 (token bus), and ISO 8802-5 (token ring). The link service provided over ISO-8802 LANs shall be a Type-1 connectionless network service, as defined in ISO-8802-2. The LLC generates command packets (or frames) called protocol data units (PDU) and interprets them.

b. The MAC sublayer handles the methods for allowing a particular node to transmit on the specific data transmission media available to it. A LAN can be configured as either a bus or a ring topology. Two primary methods are used to control access: carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD) and token passing. The ISO 8802-3 standard addresses CSMA/CD, ISO 8802-4 addresses token-passing buses, and ISO 8802-5 addresses token-passing ring. ISO 9314 addresses Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) LANs. For interoperability reasons, the JTA mandates support for only one type of LAN.

c. ANSI X3.229 specifies the Station Management standards for FDDI LANs.

d. IAB-STD-37 and IAB-STD-38 specify the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Reverse ARP (RARP), which are needed for resolution of IP-layer and link-layer addresses.

e. IAB-STD-41 specifies a standard method of encapsulating IP datagrams on an Ethernet.

f. For high-speed LAN requirements, 100-Mbps Ethernet technology may be implemented in accordance with IEEE 802.3u. This standard supports auto-negotiation of the media speed, making it possible for dual-speed Ethernet interfaces to run either at 10 or 100 Mbps automatically.

g. The IEEE 802.11 Committee is developing emerging standards for wireless LAN services across three transmission media: spread-spectrum radio, narrowband radio, and infrared. Wireless technology is useful in environments requiring user mobility or flexible network establishment and reconfiguration.

3.7.3.3 Packet-switch services. Packet switch services are supported by both wide area packet-switched network standards and internet standards.

3.7.3.3.1 Standards. Base standards for packet switches are presented in table 3.7-14.

TABLE 3.7-14 Packet-switch standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI

Core Aspects of Frame Protocol for Use with Frame Relay Bearer Service

T1.618

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Interface Between DTE and DCE for Terminals Operating in the Packet Mode and Connected to Public Data Networks

X.25

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Packet-Switched Signaling System Between Public Networks Providing Data Transmission Services

X.75

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

International Numbering Plan for Public Data Networks

X.121

Legacy

(Approved)

CPN-C

Bellcore

Generic Switching Requirements in Support of SMDS

TR-TSV-000772

Informational

(Approved)

3.7.3.3.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.3.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.3.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ISO 8878, Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Use of X.25 to Provide the OSI Connection-Mode Network Service, Second Edition.

2. ISO 10588, Information Technology - Use of X.25 Packet Layer Protocol in Conjunction with X.21/X.21 is to provide the OSI Connection-Mode Network Service, First Edition.

3. ISO 8881, Information Processing Systems - Data Communications - Use of the X.25 Packet Level Protocol in Local Area Networks, First Edition.

3.7.3.3.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. ITU-T X.25 specifies the legacy packet-switch interface to DTEs for both the link and packet layers.

b. ITU-T X.75 specifies the link and packet layer interface used to interconnect legacy packet-switch networks.

c. ITU-T X.121 specifies the numbering plan format used by packet-switch networks.

d. ANSI T1.618 specifies frame relaying of packet-switch data using an ISDN packet-mode bearer service.

e. Bellcore TR-TSV-000772 specifies the interface used to transport packet-switch data using switched multi-megabit data service (SMDS).

3.7.3.4 Point-to-point service. Point-to-point protocols (PPP) support full-duplex, synchronous or asynchronous, communications between end systems. Point-to-point systems include physical-layer interfaces and a link-layer protocol.

3.7.3.4.1 Standards. Base standards for point-to-point systems are presented in table 3.7-15.

TABLE 3.7-15 Point-to-point standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

IAB

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

Standard 51/RFC 1661

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)

RFC 1332:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

PPP Link Quality Monitoring

RFC 1333:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

PPP Authentication Protocols

RFC 1334:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP) Extensions

RFC 1570:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, July 1991

232E

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

General Purpose 37-Position and 9-Position Interface for Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, February 1980

449

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

High Speed 25-Position Interface for Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment, June 1992, Including Alternate 26-Position Connector, 1992

530A

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Data Transmission at 48 kbps Using 60-108 kHz Group Band Circuits (Section on NRZ Interface)

V.35

Adopted

(Approved)

3.7.3.4.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.4.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.4.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.4.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

RFC 1841, PPP Network Control Protocol for LAN Extension, 9/29/95.

3.7.3.4.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. IAB-STD-51, RFC-1332, RFC-1333, RFC-1334, and RFC-1570 specify link-layer protocols for point-to-point systems.

b. EIA-232E, EIA-449, EIA-530A, and ITU-T V.35 (section on NRZ Interface) specify physical-layer interfaces for point-to-point systems.

3.7.3.5 Combat net radio. Combat net radios (CNRs) provide voice or data communications for mobile users. These radios provide a half-duplex broadcast transmission media with potentially high BERs.

3.7.3.5.1 Standards. The base standard for CNR is presented in table 3.7-16.

TABLE 3.7-16 Combat net radio standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standard for Digital Message Transfer Device (DMTD) Subsystems, July 27, 1995

MIL-STD-188-220A

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Internet Transport Profile for DoD Communications - Transport and Internet Services

MIL-STD-2045-14502-1A

Mandated

(Approved)

3.7.3.5.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.5.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.5.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. MIL-STD-188-114A, Electrical Characteristics of Digital Interface Circuits, 12/91.

2. MIL-STD-188-200, System Design and Engineering Standard for Tactical Communication, 6/83.

3. ISO 8802-2, Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 2: Logical Link Control, Second Edition.

4. ISO 8885, Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) Procedures - General purpose XID Frame Information Field Content and format, Third Edition.

5. IAB STD 3, Requirements for Internet hosts - communication layers, 10/1/89.

3.7.3.5.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. MIL-STD-188-220A specifies the method by which IP packets are encapsulated and transmitted over CNR subnetworks.

b. MIL-STD-2045-14502-1A specifies a multiaddressed IP option field that must be used by hosts that are required to transmit or receive multiaddressed datagrams over CNR.

3.7.3.6 N-ISDN. Narrowband-ISDN (N-ISDN) is based on a 64-kbps channel structure. Channels used for user information exchange are called B-channels. Separate channels provided for common-channel signaling, called D-channels, are used to set up connections and control supplementary services (see 3.7.3.7).

3.7.3.6.1 Standards. Base standards for N-ISDN are presented in table 3.7-17.

TABLE 3.7-17 N-ISDN standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI

Telecommunications - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Primary Rate - Customer Installation Metallic Interfaces (Layer 1 Specification), 1990

T1.408

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Telecommunications - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Basic Access Interface for Use on Metallic loops for Application on the Network Side of the NT (Layer 1 Specification), 1992

T1.601

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Numbering Plan for the ISDN Era, 1991

E.164

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

System Interface Criteria (section on WNDP)

DCAC 370-175-13

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

ISDN User-Network Interface - Data Link Layer Specification - Digital Subscriber Signaling System No. 1, 1993

Q.921

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

ISDN User-Network Interface Layer 3 Specification for basic Call Control - Digital Subscriber Signaling System No. 1 (DSS 1), Network Layer, User-Network Management, 1989

Q.931

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Multiprotocol Interconnect on X.25 and ISDN in the Packet Mode

RFC 1356:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

PPP over ISDN

RFC 1618:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) Message Transfer Part (MTP)

T1.111

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

T1.112

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) ISDN User Part (ISUP)

T1.113

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Signaling System Number (SS7) Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP)

T1.114

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Basic Access Interface for S and T Reference Points (Layer 1)

T1.605

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Digital Subscriber Signaling System Number 1 (DSS1) Signaling Spec for X.25 Packet Switched Bearer Service

T1.608

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Interworking Between the ISDN User-Network Interface Protocol and SS7 ISUP

T1.609

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Numbering Plan for the International Telephone System

E.163

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

FIPS PUB 182

Informational

(Approved)

3.7.3.6.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.6.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.6.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.6.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ANSI T1.219, Telecommunications - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Management - Overview and Principles.

2. ANSI T1.236, Telecommunications - Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) - ISDN User Part Compatibility Testing.

3. ANSI T1.239, Telecommunications - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Management - User-Network Interface Protocol Profile.

4. ANSI T1.604, Telecommunications - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Minimal Set of Bearer Services for the Basic Rate Interface.

5. ANSI T1.603, Telecommunications - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Minimal Set of Bearer Services for the Primary Rate Interface.

6. ANSI T1.234, Telecommunications - Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) MTP Levels 2 and 3 Compatibility Testing.

3.7.3.6.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. FIPS PUB 182 provides a basic overview of N-ISDN functionality and bearer services.

b. N-ISDN standards applicable to the UNI interface are given in ANSI T1.408, T1.601, and T1.605 for the physical layer; ITU-T Q.921, for the link layer; ITU-T Q.931, for the network layer when supporting circuit-switched connections; and ANSI T1.608, for the network layer when supporting packet-switched connections.

c. N-ISDN standards applicable to the node-to-network signaling interface are given in ANSI T1.111 to T1.114 and T1.609.

d. Address formats for N-ISDN use the numbering plan and format specified in ITU-T E.163 and E.164. Defense switched networks will support the worldwide numbering and dialing plan specified in DCAC 370-175-13.

e. RFCs 1356 and 1618 have been categorized as JTA mandatory standards when using ISDN packet-switched services to transmit IP packets, and when using the PPP over ISDN switched circuits configured for clear-channel services.

3.7.3.7 N-ISDN supplementary services. A network supplies supplementary services in addition to its basic services. The generic procedures applicable to the control of supplementary services at the user-to-network interface are defined in ANSI T1.610.

3.7.3.7.1 Standards. Base standards for N-ISDN Supplementary Services are presented in table 3.7-18.

TABLE 3.7-18 N-ISDN supplementary services standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI

DSS1 - Generic Procedures for the Control of ISDN Supplementary Services

T1.610

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

ISDN - Multi-level Precedence and Preemption (MLPP) Service Capability

T1.619

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Conferencing calling supplementary service

T1.647

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Call Waiting Supplementary Service

T1.613

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Call Holding Supplementary Service

T1.616

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Call Forwarding Supplementary Services

I.252

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

ISDN Normal Supplementary Service Call Transfer

T1.632

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Multiparty Supplementary Services

I.254

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

ISDN - User-to-User Supplementary Service

T1.621

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

ISDN - Calling Line Identification Presentation and Restriction Supplementary Service

T1.625

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Completion of call to a Busy Subscriber

I.253.3

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

ISDN - Message Waiting Indicator Control and Notification Supplementary Service and Associated Switching and Signaling Specification

T1.622

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Explicit Call Transfer

T1.643

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Call Park

T1.653

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Call Deflection Supplementary Service

T1.642

Adopted

(Approved)

3.7.3.7.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.7.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.7.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.7.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ITU-T I.250, Definition of Supplementary Services - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - General Structure and Service Capabilities.

2. ITU-T I.251, Number Identification Supplementary Services - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - General Structure and Service Capabilities.

3. ITU-T I.253, Call Completion Supplementary Services - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - General Structure and Service Capabilities.

4. ITU-T I.255, Community of Interest Supplementary Services - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - General Structure and Service Capabilities.

5. ITU-T I.256, Charging Supplementary Services - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - General Structure and Service Capabilities.

6. ITU-T I.258.1, Terminal Portability (TP) Supplementary Service - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Service Capabilities.

3.7.3.7.6 Recommendations. In addition to basic services, users should specify the required supplementary services. These services are defined in various ANSI standards and ITU-T Recommendations referenced in Table 3.7-18. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. Multi-level Precedence and Preemption. The Multi-level Precedence and Preemption (MLPP) service provides a prioritized call-handling service. This service has two parts: precedence and preemption. Precedence involves assigning a priority level to a call. Preemption involves the seizing of resources, which are in use by a call of lower precedence, by a higher-level precedence call in the absence of idle resources. The MLPP service is a network provider's option applicable to a domain of the network, that is, all subscribers, the network, and access resources that belong to the domain. Connections and resources belonging to calls from MLPP subscribers shall be marked with a precedence level and domain identifier and shall be preempted only by calls of a higher precedence from MLPP users in the same domain. Connections and resources belonging to calls from non-MLPP users and users from other MLPP domains shall not be preempted. The maximum precedence level of a subscriber will be set by the service provider, based on the subscriber's need. The subscriber may select a precedence level up to and including the maximum subscribed-to precedence level on a per-call basis. The MLPP service shall be mandatory in DoD networks (both fixed and deployed) and shall comply with ANSI T1.619. For calls to subscribers in existing deployed (tactical) networks that comply with Tri-Service Tactical Communications (TRI-TAC) specifications, the MLPP service shall comply with MIL-STD-188-105.

b. Conference Calling. This service is defined in ANSI T1.647.

c. Call Waiting. The Call Waiting service permits a subscriber to be notified of an incoming call with an indication that no interface information channel is available. The subscriber then has the choice of accepting, rejecting, or ignoring the waiting call. This service is defined in ANSI T1.613.

d. Call Hold. The Call Hold service allows a user to interrupt communications on an existing call and then subsequently, if desired, reestablish communications. This service is defined in ANSI T1.616.

e. Call Forwarding. The Call Forwarding service allows a served user to have the network send to another number all incoming calls for the served user's number. This service is defined in ITU-T I.252.

f. Normal Call Transfer. The Normal Call Transfer service allows a user to transfer an established call to a third party. This service is defined in ANSI T1.632.

g. Multiparty. The Conference Call service allows a user to establish calls to multiple parties, one at a time, using normal call-handling procedures. The parties may also communicate among themselves. This service is defined in ITU-T I.254, the section titled I.254.1 - Conference Calling Service Description.

h. User-to-User Signaling. The User-to-User Signaling service allows users to send and receive limited amounts of user-generated information to and from another user-network interface. This information is passed transparently (without changing contents) through the network. Users can transfer information during the establishment and clearing phases of calls. The information is transmitted in the user-user information element. The user-user information element is an optional element of the following Digital Subscriber Signaling System Number 1 (DSS1) types of messages: Alerting, Connect, Disconnect, Progress, Release, Release Complete, and Setup. This service is defined in ANSI T1.621.

i. Calling Line Identification Presentation. The Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP) service provides the called party with the calling line identification at call setup on all incoming calls. This service applies to both basic rate and primary rate interfaces. This service is defined in ANSI T1.625.

j. Calling Line Identification Restriction. The Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR) service notifies the network that the Calling Party Number is not allowed to be presented to the called party. This service is defined in ANSI T1.625. The service applies to both basic rate and primary rate interfaces.

k. Call Completion to a Busy Subscriber. The Call Completion to a Busy Subscriber service allows an authorized user, A, who encounters a busy destination, B, to be notified when B becomes idle. The network reinitiates the call to destination B if user A desires. This service is defined in ANSI Drafts T1S1.1/92-253 and T1S1.2/92-323.

l. Message Waiting Indicator Control and Notification. The Message Waiting Indicator (MWI) Control and Notification service is provided by the network to a Message Storage and Retrieval (MSR) system provider. The MSR system may request the network to provide an indication to one of its client users that messages are waiting at the MSR system. This service is defined in ANSI T1.622.

m. Explicit Call Transfer. The Explicit Call Transfer service allows a service user that has two independent calls to interconnect the distant parties of the two calls. The served user is thereby released from the call. This service, which is defined in ANSI T1.643, applies to both basic rate and primary rate interfaces.

n. Call Park. The Call Park service allows a service user to interrupt speech or voice band data communications on an existing call and then reestablish communications from the same or different terminal equipment within the same Call Park Subscriber Group. A Call Park Subscriber Group is designated by the service provider, who may optionally group together Call Park subscribers into a Call Park Subscriber Group to provide a measure of security. Call Park is a circuit-switched voice service with similar characteristics of Call Hold, except for the ability to reestablish communications from different terminal equipment. This service, which is defined in ANSI T1.653, applies to the basic rate interface.

o. Call Deflection. The Call Deflection service permits a served user to respond to an offered call with a request to deflect the call to another number. As a subscription option, the subscriber can invoke the deflection request after answering the call. In addition, the subscriber can limit the time it takes for the deflected-to user to answer the call. If the deflected-to user does not answer within a specified time interval, the network stops the deflection attempt and returns a failure indication to the deflecting user, if the deflecting user is still associated with the call. Unlike Call Forwarding, Call Deflection allows the network to redirect a call only after receipt of a specific user request to deflect that call. This service is defined in ANSI T1.642.

3.7.3.8 B-ISDN and ATM services. B-ISDN signaling standards are basically N-ISDN standards enhanced to support higher-speed networks that use ATM as the underlying switching fabric. B-ISDN standards support all of the N-ISDN 64-kbps transmission services and facilitate migration from N-ISDN to B-ISDN. ATM is a high-speed switching technology that takes advantage of low BER transmission facilities to accommodate intelligent multiplexing of voice, data, video, imagery, and composite input over high-speed trunks. Note that ATM technology is not limited to support of B-ISDN and data rates that are broadband (rates higher than the primary rate interface).

3.7.3.8.1 Standards. Base standards for B-ISDN and ATM are presented in table 3.7-19.

TABLE 3.7-19 B-ISDN and ATM standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

ATM Forum

UNI Specification V 3.1, User-Network Interface, September 1994

AF UNI v3.1

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

ATM Adaptation Layer for Constant Bit Rate Services Functionality and Specifications, 1993

T1.630

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

ATM Adaptation Layer Type 5 Common Part Functions and Specifications, 1994, which adopts ITU-T I.363, section 6

T1.635

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Classical IP and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) over ATM

RFC 1577:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

BISDN - ATM Layer Functionality and Specification

T1.627

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

BISDN - ATM Adaptation Layer 3/4 Common Part Functions & Specification

T1.629

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

BISDN - Service Specific Connection-Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) Specification

T1.637

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

B-ISDN UNI - Physical Layer Specification

I.432

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Service-Specific Coordination Function (SSCF) for Signaling at the UNI

Q.2130

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Service-Specific Coordination Function (SSCF) for Signaling at the NNI

Q.2140

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

BISDN NNI Network Signaling Requirements

Q.2761 to Q.2764

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

BISDN DSS2 UNI L-3 Spec for Basic Call/Connection Control

Q.2931

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Point-to-Multipoint Call Connection Control

Q.2971

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Standardized Profile for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

MIL-STD-188-176

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

ATM Forum

Private Network-Network Interface (PNNI)

AF PNNI v1.0

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

ATM Forum

LAN Emulation

AF LANE v1.0

Emerging

(Approved)

3.7.3.8.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.8.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.8.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.8.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ANSI T1.636, Telecommunications - B-ISDN Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer - Overview.

2. ANSI T1.638, Telecommunications - B-ISDN Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer - Service-Specific Coordination Function for Support of Signaling at the User-to-Network Interface.

3. ANSI T1.645, Telecommunications - B-ISDN Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer - Service-Specific Coordination Function for Support of Signaling at the Network Node Interface.

4. ITU-T I.150, B-ISDN Asynchronous Transfer Mode Functional Characteristics.

5. ITU-T I.311 (REV1), B-ISDN General Network Aspects.

6. ITU-T I.361 (REV1), B-ISDN ATM Layer Specification.

7. ITU-T I.363, B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Specification - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Overall Network Aspects and Functions.

8. ITU-T I.610 (REV1), B-ISDN Operation and Maintenance Principles and Functions.

3.7.3.8.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. ATM standards adopted for the Department of Defense (DoD) are given in DoD's ATM Standards Profile, MIL-STD-188-176. The network access protocols to connect user equipment to ATM switches are defined in the ATM Forum's User-Network Interface (UNI) Specification v3.1.

b. ATM protocol layers consist of an ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL), the ATM layer, and a physical layer:

(1) The role of AAL is to divide the variable-length data units into 48-octet units to pass to the ATM layer. AAL1, which supports constant bit rate service, is specified in ANSI T1.630. AAL 3/4 and AAL5, which support variable bit rate service, are specified in ANSI T1.629 and T1.635, respectively.

(2) The ATM layer is specified in ANSI T1.627.

(3) Physical-layer standards for different cable interfaces and rates are specified in AF UNI v3.1. Physical media-independent functions are specified in ITU-T I.432.

c. Signaling messages to support switched connections specified in ATM FORUM (AF) UNI v3.1 are based on ITU-T Q.2931 and Q.2971, but the full functionality of these two standards is not supported. Signaling AAL services are specified in ANSI T1.635, T1.637, and ITU-T Q.2130.

d. RFC-1577 supports interworking between ATM networks and IP router networks.

e. The ATM Forum is developing Private Network-to-Network Interface (PNNI) routing and signaling standards to support large, dynamic, multivendor ATM networks. PNNI routing will automatically disseminate network topology and resource information to switches in the network, enabling quality-of-service sensitive routing. Using this information, PNNI signaling will allow calls to traverse large, dynamic networks.

f. Signaling at the NNI is specified by ITU-T Q.2761 to Q.2764. The signaling AAL services are specified in ANSI T1.635, T1.637, and ITU-T Q.2140.

g. LANs, such as Ethernet, can be emulated over ATM networks, using ATM LAN Emulation, Version 1.0.

3.7.3.9 Tactical networks. Existing tactical networks were designed to operate over noisy radio trunks having limited bandwidth. For this reason, military standards were developed for circuit-switch signaling methods, channel structure, and voice digitization. Tactical packet-switch networks, however, use commercial standards (see 3.7.3.3).

3.7.3.9.1 Standards. Base standards developed for TRI-TAC/MSE are presented in table 3.7-20.

TABLE 3.7-20 Tactical network standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Digital Signaling and Supervision of Tactical Communications Systems

MIL-STD-188-256

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Tactical Digital Transmission Groups

MIL-STD-188-202

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Analog-to-Digital Conversion Techniques (for CVSD Modulation)

MIL-STD-188-113

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.3.9.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.9.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.9.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.9.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. MIL-STD-188-200, System Design and Engineering Standards for Tactical Communications, 6/83.

2. FED-STD-1015, Telecommunications: Analog to Digital Conversion of Voice by 2,400 Bits/Second Linear Predictive Coding.

3. STANAG 4198, Parameters and Coding Characteristics That must be Common to Assure Interoperability of 2400 bps Linear Predictive Encoded Digital Speech.

4. STANAG 4209, The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway - Standards for Analog to Digital Conversion of Speech Signals.

3.7.3.9.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. MIL-STD-188-256 specifies the trunk and loop signaling messages employed in tactical networks.

b. MIL-STD-188-202 specifies the multiplex signal formats used by tactical circuit switches and multiplexers.

c. MIL-STD-188-113 specifies the CVSD voice-encoding method used in tactical networks.

3.7.3.10 Voice encoding for networks. Networks must be able to switch, rate adapt, and transcode different voice digitization algorithms, as necessary, to meet interoperability requirements.

3.7.3.10.1 Standards. Base standards for voice encoding are presented in table 3.7-21.

TABLE 3.7-21 Voice encoding standards for networks

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies (narrowband)

G.711:1989

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)

FED-STD-1015

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Analog-to-Digital Conversion of Radio Voice by 4800-bps Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP0

FED-STD-1016

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

32 kbits/s Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) - General Aspects of Digital Transmission Systems

G.721:1989

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Analog-to-Digital Conversion Techniques (for CVSD Modulation)

MIL-STD-188-113

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.3.10.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.10.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.10.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.10.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ITU-T G.712, Performance Characteristics of PCM Channels Between 4-wire Interfaces at Voice Frequencies - General Aspects of Digital Transmission Systems; Terminal Equipment.

2. ITU-T G.713, Performance Characteristics of PCM Channels Between 2-wire Interfaces at Voice Frequencies - General Aspects of Digital Transmission Systems; Terminal Equipment (Replaced by Recomm. G.712).

3. STANAG 4198, Parameters and Coding Characteristics That must be Common to Assure Interoperability of 2400 bps Linear Predictive Encoded Digital Speech.

4. STANAG 4209, The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway - Standards for Analog to Digital Conversion of Speech Signals.

3.7.3.10.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. ITU-T G.711 specifies the 64-kbps voice-encoding method used in commercial and strategic networks.

b. MIL-STD-188-113 specifies the 16/32-kbps voice-encoding method used in tactical networks.

c. FED-STD-1015 specifies the 2400-bps voice-encoding method used in STU-IIIs.

d. FED-STD-1016 specifies the 4800-bps voice-encoding method used in STU-IIIs.

e. ITU-T G.721 specifies the 32-kbps voice-encoding method used to double the channel capacity of high-cost T-1 transmission facilities.

3.7.3.11 Timing and synchronization. In general, bit timing for hosts and end systems will be slaved to the local network.

3.7.3.11.1 Standards. Base standards for timing and synchronization are presented in table 3.7-22.

TABLE 3.7-22 Timing and synchronization standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI

Synchronization Interface Standards for Digital Service

T1.101

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Time and Frequency Reference Information in Telecommunications Systems

FED-STD-1002

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Standards for Communications Timing and Synchronization Subsystems

MIL-STD-188-115

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.3.11.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.11.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.11.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.11.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

ITU-T G.810, Considerations on Timing and Synchronization Issues - Digital Networks, Digital Sections and Digital Line Systems.

3.7.3.11.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. Systems that require time and frequency reference information based on coordinated universal time (UTC) will comply with FED-STD-1002.

b. Local-network and wide-network elements provide stratum-1 clock accuracy, as defined in ANSI T1.101, and buffering sufficient to maintain bit count integrity (BCI) for a minimum of 24 hours.

c. Systems that use bit-timing slaved to the network will comply with MIL-STD-188-115.

3.7.3.12 Network management. Network management includes the capability to control the network's topology, dynamically segment the network into multiple logical domains, maintain network routing tables, monitor the network load, and make routing adjustments to optimize throughput. Network management also provides the capability to review and publish addresses of network objects; monitor the status of network objects; start, restart, reconfigure, or terminate network objects; and detect loss of network objects to support automated fault recovery.

3.7.3.12.1 Standards. Base standards for network management are presented in table 3.7-23.

TABLE 3.7-23 Network management standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179-1:1995

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Common Management Information Services (CMIS) Definition, with Amendment 4: Access Control

9595:1991/ AM4:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) - Part 1: Specification (Includes amendment 1 and 2 of ISO/IEC 9596-1:1990)

9596-1:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

3.7.3.12.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.3.12.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.3.12.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.3.12.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ISO 7498-4, Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection - Basic Reference Model - Part 4: Management Framework, First Edition.

2. ISO 10165-1, Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of Management Information - Part 1: Management Information Model, First Edition.

3. ISO 10165-2, Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of Management Information - Part 2: Definition of Management Information, First Edition.

4. ISO 10165-4, Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of Management Information - Part 4: Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects, First Edition.

5. ISO DIS 10165-7, Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of Management Information - Part 7: General Relationship Model.

3.7.3.12.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

DISN network management communications protocol and services, which provide the management information-transfer mechanism, are specified in FIPS-PUB-179, the sections titled Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) and Common Management Information Services (CMIS). A complete coverage of CMIP and CMIS can be found in ISO 9596-1 and ISO 9595, respectively.

3.7.4 Interworking services. Interworking standards are required to ensure interoperability between differing networks. Interworking requires transformation and compatibility at the lower three layers.

3.7.4.1 Interworking services. (See the Interworking MLSA, above.)

3.7.4.1.1 Standards. Base standards for interworking are presented in table 3.7-24.

TABLE 3.7-24 Interworking standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

IETF

Classical IP and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) over ATM

RFC 1577:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams Over Ethernet Networks

Standard 41/RFC-894

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Transmission of IP and ARP over FDDI Networks

Standard 36/RFC-1390

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

IAB

Transmission of IP Datagrams over IEEE 802 Networks

Standard 43/RFC-1042

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Multiprotocol Interconnect on X.25 and ISDN in the Packet Mode

RFC 1356:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

DSS1 Signaling Specification for Frame Relay Bearer Service

T1.617

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Core Aspects of Frame Protocol for Use with Frame Relay Bearer Service

T1.618

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Frame Relaying Bearer Service Interworking

T1.633

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Frame Relaying Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (FR-SSCS)

T1.634

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Interworking between Signaling System No. 7 Broadband ISDN User Part (BISUP) and Narrowband ISDN User Part (NISUP)

Q.2660

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

Frame Relay Forum

Frame Relay/ATM PVC Network Interworking Implementation Agreement

FRF.5

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

Frame Relay Forum

Frame Relay/ATM PVC Service Interworking Implementation Agreement

FRF.8

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

SMDS Interest Group

Protocol Interface Specification for Implementation over an ATM-based Public UNI

SIG-TWG-008

Adopted

(Approved)

3.7.4.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.4.1.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.4.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.4.1.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ANSI T1.609, Telecommunications - Interworking Between the ISDN User-Network Interface Protocol and the Signaling System Number 7 ISDN User Part.

2. ANSI T1.656, Telecommunications - Broadband ISDN - Interworking Between Signaling System Number 7 Broadband (B-ISUP) and ISDN User Part (ISUP).

3. ITU-T Q.608, Miscellaneous Interworking Aspects - Interworking of Signaling Systems.

3.7.4.1.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. IP level interworking between different LANs is specified in IAB-STD-36, -41, and -43. IP interworking over ATM is specified in RFC 1577.

b. RFC 1356 specifies the method of interworking IP with X.25.

c. For frame relay interworking with N-ISDN, ANSI T1.617 specifies access connections on demand, and ANSI T1.618 specifies the method for multiplexing multiple subscriber data streams onto a single connection. Frame relay interworking with B-ISDN is specified in ANSI T1.633 and T1.634. FRF.5 specifies interworking between frame relay and ATM; FRF.8 specifies the interworking of a frame-relay-service user and an ATM service user.

d. Interworking between N-ISDN and B-ISDN is specified in ITU-T Q.2660.

e. Interworking between SMDS and ATM is specified in SIG-TWG-008.

3.7.5 Personal communications services. Personal communications services (PCS) will support both terminal mobility and personal mobility. Personal mobility allows users to gain access to telecommunication services from any convenient terminal with which they choose to associate themselves. Personal mobility may be provided by either wireline or wireless terminals. Terminal mobility is based on wireless access. Thus, wireless access standards will govern the protocols and procedures for establishing connections among mobile terminals and between them and fixed terminals of a switched network (or mobile terminals of a different cellular system).

3.7.5.1 Wireless access. Cellular mobile systems use wireless access standards to support terminal mobility. Wireless access allows subscribers to place and receive telephone calls over fixed networks wherever cellular service is provided. Two methods for digital access have emerged, time-division multiple access (TDMA) and code-division multiple access (CDMA). In North America the standards for TDMA and CDMA are based on IS-136 and IS-95-A, respectively. Both of these standards use IS-41-C as the standard signaling protocol.

3.7.5.1.1 Standards. Table 3.7-25 presents base standards used in support of cellular mobile and PCS systems.

TABLE 3.7-25 Current wireless access standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

EIA/TIA

800 MHz TDMA Cellular - Radio Interface - Mobile Station - Base Station Compatibility Standard

IS-136

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Personal Station-Base Station Compatibility Requirement for 1.8 to 2.0 GHz CDMA Personal Communications Systems

J-STD-008

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

IS-136 Based Mobile Station Minimum Performance 1900 Mhz Standard

J-STD-009

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

IS-136 Based Base Station Minimum Performance 1900 Mhz Standard

J-STD-010

Adopted

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

IS-136 Based Air Interface Compatibility 1900 Mhz Standard

J-STD-011

Adopted

(Approved)

CPC

EIA/TIA

Cellular Radio Telecommunications Intersystems Operations

IS-41-C

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

EIA/TIA

Cellular System Dual-Mode Mobile Station Base Station Compatibility Standard.

IS-54-B

Emerging

(Approved)

CPC

EIA/TIA

Mobile Station-Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual-Mode Wideband Spread-Spectrum Cellular Systems

IS-95-A

Emerging

(Approved)

3.7.5.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.5.1.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.5.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.5.1.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. EIA TSB47 IS-54, Implementation Issues.

2. EIA TSB51, Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations: Authentication, Signaling Message Encryption and Voice Privacy.

3. EIA TSB56-A, Cellular Application Level Testing for IS-41 Revision B, TSB51 and IS-53.

4. EIA TSB64 IS-41-B, Support for Dual-Mode Wideband Spread Spectrum Mobile Stations.

5. EIA TIA/IS-98, Recommended Minimum Performance Standards for Dual-Mode Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular Mobile Stations.

3.7.5.1.6 Recommendations. PCS is an emerging technology with the two predominant competing world-wide methodologies: code-division multiple access (CDMA) and time-division multiple access (TDMA). Of these, CDMA offers the best technical advantages for military applications based on its use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) techniques which provide increased channel capacity, low probability of intercept (LPI), and protection against jamming. The PCS air-interface standard for CDMA is J-STD-008 which is a frequency upshifted version of IS-95-A, the 800 MHz digital cellular standard for CDMA. The PCS air-interface standard for TDMA is IS-136 which is a frequency upshifted version of IS-54B, the 800 MHz digital cellular standard for TDMA. In North America, the standard signaling protocol for CDMA and TDMA mobile cellular is IS-41-C. It should be recognized that for Operations-Other-Than-War (OOTW), a user may have to support multiple protocols to access region-specific international digital PCS/mobile cellular infrastructures.

3.7.5.2 Future public land mobile telecommunications systems. ITU is now working on standards for future public land mobile telecommunications systems (FPLMTS) standards. The aim of this effort is to achieve better compatibility among various cellular systems so that universal global access supporting terminal mobility will become a reality.

3.7.5.2.1 Standards. The documents shown in table 3.7-26 provide guidance for future implementation of land mobile telecommunications systems.

TABLE 3.7-26 FPLMTS standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

Coding of Speech at 16 kbits/s using Low-Delay Code Excited Linear Prediction (LD-CELP).

G.728:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Systems (FPLMTS)

M.687-1

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Framework for Services Supported on FPLMTS

M.816

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Satellite Operation within FPLMTS

M.818.1

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Requirements for the Radio Interface(s) for FPLMTS

M.1034

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Framework for the Radio Interface(s) and Radio Subsystem Functionality for FPLMTS

M.1035

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Spectrum Considerations for Implementation of FPLMTS in the Bands 1885-2-25 MHz and 2110-2200 MHZ

M.1036

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Security Principles for FPLMTS Speech and Voiceband Data

M.1078

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Performance Requirements for FPLMTS

M.1079

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Framework of FPLMTS Management

FPLMTS.FMGM

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Framework for the Satellite Component of FPLMTS

FPLMTS.SFMK

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Security Mechanisms and Operating Procedures for FPLMTS

FPLMTS.SECMOP

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Videotelephony Services for FPLMTS

F.724

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Reference Connections for Engineering of Land Mobile Networks

E.751

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Network Grade-of-Service Parameters and Target Values for Circuit-switched Public Land Mobile Services

E.771

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Traffic Engineering Methods for Land Mobile Systems

E.780

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

TMN Management Service for FPLMTS

M.32xx

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

FPLMTS Information Flows

Q.FIF

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Network Interworking Between FPLMTS and Other Types of Networks

I.5xw

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Extension of H.263 for Mobile Application

H.26P/M

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.5.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.5.2.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.5.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.5.2.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ITU-T E.173, Routing Plan for Interconnection Between Public Land Mobile Networks and Fixed Terminal Networks.

2. ITU-T E.201, Reference Recommendation for Mobile Services.

3. ITU-T E.202, Network Operational Principles for Future Public Mobile Systems and Services.

4. ITU-T E.212, Identification Plan for Land Mobile Stations - Telephone Network and ISDN - Operation, Numbering, Routing and Mobile Service.

5. ITU-T E.220, Interconnection of Public Land Mobile Networks.

6. ITU-T F.115, Service Objectives and Principles for Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems - Operations and Quality of Service - Mobile Service.

7. ITU-T Q.1001, General Aspects of Public Land Mobile Networks - Public Land Mobile Network Interworking with ISDN and PSTN.

3.7.5.2.6 Recommendations. Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems is an emerging technology. For additional guidance, users should review ITU-T F.115, Service Objectives and Principles for Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems - Operations and Quality of Service - Mobile Service.

3.7.5.3 Universal personal communications. Universal personal telecommunications (UPT) allows users to gain access to a variety of authorized services without limiting personal mobility, terminal mobility, or both. All authorized services will be available to the user, irrespective of location and limited only by the capabilities of the terminal and the network used.

3.7.5.3.1 Standards. ITU Recommendations (approved or in draft) are listed in table 3.7-27.

TABLE 3.7-27 Universal personal communications standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

UPT Service Set 1

F.851

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

UPT Numbering

E.168

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

UPT Grade-of-Service Concept

E.775

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

UPT Service Set 2

F.852

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

UPT Supplementary Service

F.853

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Grade-of-Service Parameters for Networks Support UPT

E.776

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

Stage 3 for Supporting UPT Service Set 1 on IN CS1

Q.UPT

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ITU-T

UPT Network Capabilities

I.137

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.5.3.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.5.3.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.5.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.5.3.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ITU-T E.175, Routing Principles and Guidance for Universal Personal Telecommunications (UPT) - Telephone Network and ISDN - Operation, Numbering, Routing and Mobile Service.

2. ITU-T F.850, Principles of Universal Personal Telecommunication (UPT) - Operations and Quality of Service.

3. ITU-T Q.76, Service Procedures for Universal Personal Telecommunication - Functional Modeling and Information Flows - General Recommendations on Telephone Switching and Signaling - Functions and Information Flows for Services in the ISDN.

3.7.5.3.6 Recommendations. Universal Personal Telecommunications is a new service concept and it is not totally defined. For more information users should review ITU-T F.850, Principles of Universal Personal Telecommunication (UPT) - Operations and Quality of Service.

3.7.6 Transmission media. Transmission media of interest to DoD communications systems includes satellite terrestrial radio and fiber and metallic cable. Also included in this section are standards for multiplexer formats and message formats for tactical digital information links (TADIL).

3.7.6.1 Military satellite communications. The standards for military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) can be categorized in accordance with the frequency band of operation, that is, ultra high frequency (UHF), super high frequency (SHF), and extremely high frequency (EHF).

3.7.6.1.1 Standards. Base standards for MILSATCOM are presented in table 3.7-28.

TABLE 3.7-28 Military satellite communications standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standard for Dedicated 5-kHz and 25-kHz UHF Satellite Communications, September 18, 1992

MIL-STD-188-181

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standard for 5kHz UHF DAMA Terminal Waveform, September 18, 1992

MIL-STD-188-182

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standard for 25kHz UHF/TDMA/DAMA Terminal Waveform, September 18, 1992

MIL-STD-188-183

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standard for the Data Control Waveform, August 20, 1993

MIL-STD-188-184

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for C-Band, X-Band, and Ku-Band SHF Satellite Communications Earth Terminals, January 13, 1995

MIL-STD-188-164

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

SHF Interoperability and Performance Standards for SHF Satellite Communications PSK Modems (Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Operations), January 13, 1995

MIL-STD-188-165

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

EHF LDR uplinks and Downlinks, December 10, 1992

MIL-STD-1582

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

EHF MDR Uplinks and Downlinks, August 26, 1995

MIL-STD-188-136

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability of UHF MILSATCOM DAMA Control System

MIL-STD-188-185

Emerging

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for SHF SATCOM Link Control

MIL-STD-188-166

Emerging

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for SHF SATCOM Demand Assignment

MIL-STD-188-167

Emerging

(Draft)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for SHF SATCOM Multiplexer

MIL-STD-188-168

Emerging

(Draft)

3.7.6.1.2 Alternative specification. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.6.1.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.6.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.6.1.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. Intelsat Earth Station Standard (IESS) 308, Performance Characteristics for Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) Digital Carriers (Standard A, B, C, E, and F Earth Stations).

2. IESS 309, QPSK/FDMA Performance Characteristics of INTELSAT Business Services (IBS).

3.7.6.1.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. UHF SATCOM Standards:

(1) The parameters defined in MIL-STD-188-181 provide for the interoperability and performance of UHF SATCOM terminals that use nonprocessed 5-kHz (narrowband) and 25-kHz (wideband) channels. The dedicated/phase-shift keying (PSK) mode is used for narrowband channels. The dedicated/ frequency-shift keying (FSK) mode, or optional PSK modes, are used for wideband channels.

(2) The parameters defined in MIL-STD-188-182 provide for the dynamic sharing of one or more nonprocessed narrowband (5-kHz) UHF SATCOM channels in demand-assignment multiple access (DAMA) mode.

(3) The parameters defined in MIL-STD-188-183 provide for the dynamic sharing of a nonprocessed wideband (25-kHz) UHF SATCOM channel in the TDMA/DAMA mode.

(4) The parameters defined in MIL-STD-188-184 provide for data compression and adaptive error-correction processing of user data.

(5) The parameters defined in MIL-STD-188-185 will provide for centralized control and decentralized management of 5-kHz and 25-kHz UHF military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) resources.

b. SHF SATCOM Standards:

(1) MIL-STD-188-164 defines minimum mandatory rf and IF requirements to ensure interoperability of SATCOM earth terminals operating over C-band, X-band, and Ku-band channels.

(2) MIL-STD-188-165 defines minimum mandatory requirements to ensure interoperability of PSK modems operating in the FDMA mode with SHF SATCOM earth terminals.

(3) MIL-STD-188-166 will define the communications link characteristics required to control and manage access to SHF SATCOM transponders.

(4) MIL-STD-188-167 will define the communications protocols required for assignment of SHF satellite space resources in accordance with demand.

(5) MIL-STD-188-168 will define the formats, protocols, and other communications techniques required for transferring multiple-user information over a single SATCOM link.

c. EHF SATCOM Standards:

(1) MIL-STD-1582 defines a common waveform for low-data-rate (75 to 2400 bps) EHF satellite data links.

(2) MIL-STD-188-136 defines a common waveform for medium-data-rate (4.8 kbps to 1.544 Mbps) EHF satellite data links.

3.7.6.2 Radio communications. Radio communications standards cover the frequency range from low frequencies (LF) to ultra high frequencies (UHF). They provide service to fixed and mobile applications.

3.7.6.2.1 Standards. Base standards for radio communications are presented in table 3.7-29.

TABLE 3.7-29 Radio communications standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Medium and High Frequency Radio Equipment Standard, September 10, 1993

MIL-STD-188-141A

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standard Anti-Jam Communications (2-30 Mhz)

MIL-STD-188-148A

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Data Modems, Interoperability and Performance Standards, September 30, 1991

MIL-STD-188-110A

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Tactical Single Channel (VHF) Radio Equipment, June 20, 1985

MIL-STD-188-242

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Tactical Single Channel (UHF) Radio Communications, March 15, 1989

MIL-STD-188-243

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Digital Line-of-Sight (LOS) Microwave Radio Equipment, July 28, 1992

MIL-STD-188-145

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Equipment Technical Design Standards for Common Long Haul/Tactical Radio Communications in the LF and Lower Frequency Bands

MIL-STD-188-140A

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Interoperability Requirements for Meteor Burst Radio Communications Between Conventional Master and Remote Stations

FED-STD-1055

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Interoperability Requirements for Encryption of Meteor Burst Radio Communications

FED-STD-1056

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

Interoperability Requirements for Meteor Burst Radio Communications Between Networks by Master Stations

FED-STD-1057

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Joint Technical Interface Specification for VHF SINCGARS Waveform

JIEO Spec 9001

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NCS

HF Radio Automatic Message Exchange

FED-STD-1047

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

NCS

HF Radio Automatic Networking to Multimedia

FED-STD-1048

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.6.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.6.2.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.6.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.6.2.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. MIL-STD-188-200, System Design and Engineering Standards Tactical Communication.

2. MIL-STD-449, Radio Frequency Spectrum Characteristics, Measurement of.

3. MIL-STD-461, Electromagnetic Interface Characteristics, Requirements for Equipment.

4. MIL-STD-462, Electromagnetic Interface Characteristics, Measurements of.

5. MIL-STD-463, Definition and System of Units, Electromagnetic Interface and Electromagnetic Compatibility Technology.

6. STANAG 4204, Technical Standards for Single Channel VHF Radio Equipment.

3.7.6.2.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. LF radio communications standards: Parameters for radio subsystems operating in the low frequency (LF) and lower bands are defined in MIL-STD-188-140A.

b. MF and HF radio communications standards: Parameters for radio subsystems operating in the medium frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) bands are defined in MIL-STD-188-141A. Standards for HF radio automatic link establishment (ALE) and HF automatic operation in stressed environments are provided in MIL-STD-188-141A.

c. HF radio communications standards: Parameters for HF radio anti-jam (AJ) transmission systems are defined in MIL-STD-188-148A and MIL-STD-188-110A. Emerging standards for HF store-and-forward service and for automatic HF networking to multiple transmission media will be in FED-STD-1047 and FED-STD-1048, respectively.

d. Meteor burst radio communications standards: Meteor burst radio communications relies on the billions of meteors that enter the earth's atmosphere daily, are vaporized by atmospheric friction, and produce ionized trails. A high percentage of these trails lasts less than one-half second, although some trails last up to several seconds. Trail occurrence and duration are random events. FED-STD-1055, FED-STD-1056, and FED-STD-1057 are intended for use by systems that use meteor burst communications.

e. VHF radio communications standards: Parameters for radio subsystems using frequencies between 30 and 300 MHz are defined in MIL-STD-188-242. Parameters for VHF radios requiring transmission security are defined in Joint Interoperability and Engineering Organization (JIEO) Specification 9001.

f. UHF radio communications standards: Parameters for radio subsystems using frequencies between 300 and 3000 MHz are defined in MIL-STD-188-243. Parameters for UHF radios requiring transmission security are defined in Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 4372.

g. SHF radio subsystems: Parameters for radio subsystems using frequencies between 3 and 30 GHz are defined in MIL-STD-188-145.

3.7.6.3 Cable interfaces. Cable interfaces apply to terminal access and user-to-network interfaces (UNI). They also apply within networks for trunking between switches.

3.7.6.3.1 Standards. Base standards for cable interfaces are presented in table 3.7-30.

TABLE 3.7-30 Cable interfaces standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI

Digital Hierarchy - Optical Interface Specifications (SONET) (Single Mode - Short Reach), 1991

T1.117

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Physical/Electrical Characteristics of Hierarchical Digital Interfaces (For E-1)

G.703

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

ATM Forum

ATM Physical Medium Dependent Interface Specification for 155 Mbps over Twisted Pair Cable

AF-PHY-0015.00

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

ATM Forum

DS-1 Physical Layer Specification

AF-PHY-0016.00

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

ATM Forum

Mid-range Physical Layer Specification, Category 3, Unshielded Twisted Pair

AF-PHY-0018.00

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Digital Hierarchy - Optical Interface Specifications (Single Mode)

T1.106

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Joint Interoperability via Fiber Optic Cable

JIEO Spec 9109

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Subsystem Design and Engineering Standards for Common Long Haul/Tactical Cable and Wireless Communications

MIL-STD-188-112

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

System Design and Engineering Standards for Tactical Communications (Conditioned Diphase)

MIL-STD-188-200

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.6.3.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.6.3.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.6.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.6.3.5 Related standards. No related standards have been identified.

3.7.6.3.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. AF-PHY-0015.00, AF-PHY-0016.00, and AF-PHY-0018.00 are the ATM Forum's physical-layer base standards that apply to the UNI.

b. ANSI T1.106, ANSI T1.117, and ITU-T G.703 standards apply to optical and metallic cables used for trunking applications.

c. Joint Interoperability and Engineering Organization (JIEO) Spec 9109, MIL-STD-188-112, and MIL-STD-188-200 apply to access, to the UNI, and to trunking for tactical cable interfaces.

3.7.6.4 Multiplex format. Where necessary, support of various low transmission rates across a high-rate connection is accomplished through the employment of synchronous multiplexing.

3.7.6.4.1 Standards. Base standards for multiplex formats are presented in table 3.7-31.

TABLE 3.7-31 Multiplex format standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI

Telecommunications - Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Basic Description Including Multiplex Structure, Rates and Formats (ATIS) (Revision and Consolidation of ANSI T1.105-1991 and ANSI T1.105A-1991), 1995

T1.105

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Digital Hierarchy - Formats Specifications, 1995

T1.107

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Synchronous Frame Structures Used at Primary and Secondary Hierarchical Levels (for E-1)

G.704

Informational

(Approved)

3.7.6.4.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.6.4.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.6.4.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.6.4.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. ANSI T1.119, Telecommunications - Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P) Communications.

2. ITU-T G.782, Types and General Characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Multiplexing Equipment.

3.7.6.4.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. ANSI T1.105 specifies the multiplexing format supported by SONET systems. SONET multiplexing results in a family of standard rates and formats, which are multiples of the basic 51.84-Mbps Synchronous Transport Signal Level-1 (STS-1) rate. SONET systems support sub-STS-1 rate signals by multiplexing lower-rate signals onto a SONET format.

b. The multiplex formats applicable to DS1 and DS3 interfaces are defined in ANSI T1.107.

c. The E1 interface uses the basic frame structure defined in ITU-T G.704.

3.7.6.5 Tactical digital information links. Standard message formats and related information for tactical digital information links (TADIL) are published in documents called TADILs. A TADIL consists of a combined information medium and hardware protocol, and a message format standard. The waveform standard is identified in 3.7.6.5.1. Information exchange standards are addressed in ITSG Part 5. TADILs are migrating away from unique data links to achieve seamless information exchange. TADILs will conform to a standardized TADIL family. All TADILs will migrate to this standard unless granted a migration exemption. The J-Series Family of TADILs, described fully in the Joint Tactical Data Link Management Plan (JTDLMP), dated April 1996, enables this migration while accommodating differences in information exchange requirements.

3.7.6.5.1 Standards. Base standards for TADILs are presented in table 3.7-32.
(Note: STANAGs for TADILs are presented in 3.7.8.7.)

TABLE 3.7-32 TADIL standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

JTIDS System Segment Specification (Class 2 Terminal)

JTIDS Spec

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standard for TADIL A

MIL-STD-188-203-1

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) B (NOTE 4)

MIL-STD-188-212 of 10/17/1992

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability and Performance Standards for Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) C (NOTE 5)

MIL-STD-188-203-3 of 10/5/88

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Manual for Employing Joint Tactical Communications (for ATDL-1)

CJCSM 6231

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Waveform for Maritime Operational Data (for UHF and HF)

Link 22

Emerging

(Draft)

3.7.6.5.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.6.5.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.6.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.6.5.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. STANAG 4175, Technical Characteristics of the Multi-functional Information Distribution System (for TADIL J).

2. STANAG 5516, Tactical Data Exchange Link-16 (for TADIL J).

3.7.6.5.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. Technical characteristics of TADIL A subsystems are specified in MIL-STD-188-203-1.

b. Technical characteristics of TADIL B subsystems are specified in MIL-STD-188-212.

c. Technical characteristics of TADIL C subsystems are specified in MIL-STD-188-203-3.

d. Technical characteristics of Army Tactical Data Link-1 (ATDL-1) are specified in CJCSM 6231.

e. Link 22 messages will be used for the exchange of maritime operational data between tactical data systems using line-of-sight (LOS) UHF radio and HF radio for beyond LOS. The Link 22 standard is under development.

 

3.7.7 Strategic/tactical interoperability. Legacy tactical networks are based on Tri-Service Tactical Communications (TRI-TAC) specifications. Future tactical and strategic networks will be based on the same set of commercial standards, eliminating current interoperability problems that result from using military-unique standards in tactical systems. In the meantime, strategic/tactical gateway facilities will be needed to achieve interoperability. Gateways will support five capabilities:

3.7.7.1 Transcoding. A transcoder performs direct digital-to-digital conversion between two different voice-encoding schemes without returning the signals to analog form. For nonsecure voice, strategic/tactical gateway facilities will transcode PCM-encoded voice to and from CVSD-encoded voice. The method of transcoding does not need to be standardized. It is necessary only to meet the PCM interface standard on one side and the CVSD interface standard on the other side of the transcoder.

3.7.7.1.1 Standards. Base standards for transcoding are presented in table 3.7-33.

TABLE 3.7-33 Transcoding standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies (narrowband)

G.711:1989

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Analog-to-Digital Conversion Techniques (for CVSD Modulation)

MIL-STD-188-113

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.7.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.7.1.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.7.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.7.1.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

STANAG 4209, The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway - Standards for Analogue to Digital Conversion of Speech Signals.

3.7.7.1.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

The standards for PCM and CVSD are ITU-T G.711 and MIL-STD-188-113, respectively.

3.7.7.2 Rate adaptation. Information sources that operate at rates of 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 16000, 19200, or 32000 bps may be rate-adapted to a 64-kbps channel.

3.7.7.2.1 Standards. Base standards for rate adaptation are presented in table 3.7-34.

TABLE 3.7-34 Rate adaptation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ITU-T

Support of Data Terminal Equipments (DTEs) with V-series Interfaces by ISDN

V.110

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

Multiplexing, Rate Adaptation and Support of Existing Interfaces

I.460

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Interoperability Standards for Data Adapter Control Mode (for multisampling)

MIL-STD-188-216

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.7.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.7.2.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.7.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.7.2.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

ITU-T I.464 Multiplexing, Rate Adaptation and Support of Existing Interfaces for Restricted 64 kbits/s Transfer Capability - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Overall Network Aspects and Functions, ISDN User-Network Interfaces.

3.7.7.2.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

The rate adaptation of bit rates up to 32 kbps uses the multi-stage approach defined in ITU-T V.110, the section titled Adaptation of V-series data signaling rates to the intermediate rates. Rate adaptation of 8-, 16-, and 32-kbps signals is accomplished in accordance with
ITU-T I.460, the section titled Rate adaptation of 8-, 16-, and 32-kbps streams. Information sources, linked to a tactical network, that operate at rates of 75, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, or
9600 bps, may be rate-adapted to a 16-kbps channel, as described in MIL-STD-188-216, the section titled Multisampling.

3.7.7.3 Signaling message conversion. Interoperability between tactical circuit switches and ISDN circuit switches will occur through appropriate transformation of signaling messages at the gateway function. The gateway function translates out-of-band signaling messages between the tactical circuit-switched network and ISDN switched networks for calls initiated in either direction.

3.7.7.3.1 Standards. The base standard for signaling message conversion is presented in table 3.7-35.

TABLE 3.7-35 Signaling message conversion standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

All-Digital Tactical-to-Strategic Gateway

MIL-STD-188-105

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.7.3.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.7.3.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.7.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.7.3.5 Related standards. No related standards have been identified.

3.7.7.3.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

Signaling message conversion for the tactical-to-strategic gateway is defined in MIL-STD-188-105.

3.7.8 NATO interoperability. NATO standardization agreements (STANAGs) identified in this section are agreements between NATO nations for the interoperability of their communications networks and end systems.

3.7.8.1 NATO tactical digital gateway. The interface between U.S.-tactical and NATO-tactical switched networks will comply with the series of STANAGs developed for the NATO Digital Gateway. This series of STANAGs, is based to a large degree on U.S. legacy tactical circuit-switch specifications.

3.7.8.1.1 Standards. Base standards for the NATO Tactical Digital Gateway are presented in table 3.7-36.

TABLE 3.7-36 NATO tactical digital gateway standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway System Standards

STANAG 4206

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway Mux Group Framing

STANAG 4207

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway Signaling Messages and Protocols

STANAG 4208

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway A/D Conversion of Speech

STANAG 4209

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway Metallic Cable

STANAG 4210

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway System Control

STANAG 4211

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway Radio Relay

STANAG 4212

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway Routing

STANAG 4214

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway Fiber Optic cables

STANAG 4290

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.8.1.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.8.1.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.8.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.8.1.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. STANAG 4213, The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway - Data Transmission standards.

2. STANAG 4249, The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway - Data Transmission standards (Packet Switching Service).

3.7.8.1.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

The interface between U.S. tactical circuit-switch networks and NATO tactical circuit-switch networks will be based on STANAGs 4206 to 4212, 4214, and 4290.

3.7.8.2 Packet-switch networks. The network-to-network interface between U.S.-tactical and NATO-tactical packet-switched networks will comply with STANAG 4249. STANAG 4249 specifies the network-to-network international interface for tactical packet-switch networks. To achieve DTE-to-DTE interoperability across NATO gateway links requires additional agreements. This is being worked in several NATO technical working groups. The agreement expected will use TCP/IP, which is independent of the underlying subnetworks, including LANs, that may exist in national networks.

3.7.8.2.1 Standards. The base standards for interfacing packet-switch networks across a NATO Tactical Digital Gateway are presented in table 3.7-37.

TABLE 3.7-37 Packet-switch network standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

NATO

NATO Standardized Profile - Connection-oriented Mode Gateway Between Tactical Packet-Switched Data Networks Using Digital Data Circuits

STANAG 4249

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

The NATO Multi-Channel Tactical Digital Gateway

STANAG 4213

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.8.2.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.8.2.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.8.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.8.2.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

1. IAB STD-35, ISO Transport Service on Top of the TCP.

2. RFC 1356, Multiprotocol Interconnect on X.25 and ISDN in the Packet Mode.

3.7.8.2.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. STANAG 4249 supports both switched virtual circuits (SVC) and permanent virtual circuits (PVC) across NATO gateway links. SVCs and PVCs will support connectionless IP traffic between terminals on different national subnetworks.

b. STANAG 4213 specifies the forward error correction code applicable to the layer 1 interface between tactical packet-switch networks.

3.7.8.3 NATO data network. Current NATO standards for data networks are aligned with the OSI reference model. It is expected that NATO standards will be expanded to support IP router networks.

3.7.8.3.1 Standards. Base standards for NATO data networks are presented in table 3.7-38.

TABLE 3.7-38 NATO data network standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 1 (Physical Layer) Service Definition

STANAG 4251

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) Service Definition

STANAG 4252

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 3 (Network Layer) Service Definition

STANAG 4253

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer) Service Definition

STANAG 4255

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 6 (Presentation Layer) Service Definition

STANAG 4256

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 1 (Physical Layer) Protocol Specification

STANAG 4261

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) Protocol Specification

STANAG 4262

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 3 (Network Layer) Protocol Specification

STANAG 4263

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer) Protocol Specification

STANAG 4265

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

NATO Reference Model for OSI Layer 6 (Presentation Layer) Protocol Specification

STANAG 4266

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.8.3.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.8.3.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards. However, there are some NATO efforts to enhance the capability of NATO data network standards.

3.7.8.3.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.8.3.5 Related standards. No related standards have been identified.

3.7.8.3.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

The STANAG 4250 series defines the services that a layer provides to the layer above. The STANAG 4260 series defines the protocols for operation between layer peers.

3.7.8.4 Digital facsimile. Facsimile transmissions requiring interoperability with NATO countries will use digital facsimile.

3.7.8.4.1 Standards. The base standard for facsimile interoperability with NATO allies is given in table 3.7-39.

TABLE 3.7-39 Facsimile standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

NATO

Interoperability for Tactical Digital Facsimile

STANAG 5000

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.8.4.2 Alternative specifications. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.8.4.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.8.4.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.8.4.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

EIA/TIA-466-A, Procedures for Document Facsimile Transmission.

3.7.8.4.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

Facsimile transmissions requiring encryption or interoperability with NATO countries will use digital facsimile, as defined in STANAG 5000.

3.7.8.5 Single channel radios. Voice and data may be exchanged between different national forces using single channel radios.

3.7.8.5.1 Standard. Base standards for single channel radios for NATO are presented in
Table 3.7-40.

TABLE 3.7-40 Single channel radio standards for NATO

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

NATO

Transmission Characteristics for Data Exchange between Land Tactical Data Processing Equipment over Single Channel Radio Links

STANAG 4202

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Technical Standard for Single Channel HF Radio Equipment

STANAG 4203

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Technical Standard for Single Channel VHF Radio Equipment

STANAG 4204

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Technical Standard for Single Channel UHF Radio Equipment

STANAG 4205

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Secure and Jam-resistant HF Low Speed Data Communications System

STANAG 4245

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

HAVE QUICK: UHF Secure and Jam-resistant Low Speed Data Communications Equipment

STANAG 4246

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

1200/2400/3600 MODEM for HF Radio Links

STANAG 4285

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Standards to Achieve Communication between Single Channel Tactical Combat Net Radio Equipment and Frequency Hopping Radios Operating in the VHF Band (30 - 88 MHZ)

STANAG 4292

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

SATURN, a Fast Frequency Hopping ECCM mode for UHF Radio

STANAG 4372

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.8.5.2 Alternative specification. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.8.5.3 Standard deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.8.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.8.5.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

STANAG 4291, 2400 wireless modem.

3.7.8.5.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

a. STANAG 4202 defines the error detection and correction techniques for DTEs to exchange information over HF, VHF, and UHF single channel radios.

b. STANAG 4203 defines the technical characteristics for single channel HF radio equipment.

c. STANAG 4204 defines the technical characteristics for single channel VHF radio equipment.

d. STANAG 4205 defines the technical characteristics for transmission of voice/data/teletype over single channel UHF radio equipment.

e. STANAG 4246 defines the technical characteristics for airborne radios operating at UHF.

f. STANAG 4285 defines the call establishment procedures and modem characteristics for low speed data transmission over HF radio links.

3.7.8.6 Satellites. UHF satellites may be used to support exchange of voice and data between different national forces.

3.7.8.6.1 Standard. Base standards for Satellites for NATO are presented in Table 3.7-41.

TABLE 3.7-41 Satellite standards for NATO

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

NATO

Digital Interoperability between UHF Satellite Communications Terminals

STANAG 4231

Legacy

(Approved)

3.7.8.6.2 Alternative specification. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.8.6.3 Standard deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.8.6.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.8.6.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

MIL-STD-188-181, Interoperability Standard for Dedicated 5-kHz and 25-kHz UHF Satellite Communications Channels.

3.7.8.6.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

STANAG 4231 specifies the minimum necessary parameters to achieve interoperability of UHF SATCOM terminals for teletype, low speed data, or voice.

3.7.8.7 TADILs. Standard message formats and related information for tactical digital information links (TADIL) are published in documents called TADILs. TADIL J has been standardized for use in NATO.

3.7.8.7.1 Standard. Base standards for TADILs are presented in Table 3.7-42.

TABLE 3.7-42 NATO TADILs standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

NATO

Technical Characteristics of the Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)

STANAG 4175, Edition 1, August 29, 1991

Mandated

(Approved)

3.7.8.7.2 Alternative specification. No other consortia or de facto specifications are available.

3.7.8.7.3 Standard deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.8.7.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.8.7.5 Related standards. Related standards are informative documents related to the base standards. Normative references are included in the base standards.

STANAG 5516, Tactical Data Exchange Link-16 (for TADIL J)

3.7.8.7.6 Recommendations. The following base standards should be used in support of related procurements:

Technical characteristics and waveform parameters of TADIL J subsystems are specified in STANAG 4175.

3.7.9 Communications and network services security. Communications and network services security protects the information, components, and mechanisms of the communications and network system. Use of, and compliance with, the security standards identified in this document does not constitute authorization to process classified data. DOD policy covering the security accreditation process must still be followed to obtain approval for processing classified data.

3.7.9.1 Network security architecture. (This BSA appears in both part 7 and part 10.) OSI security architecture defines the general security-related architectural elements, provides a general description of security services and related mechanisms, and defines the positions within the OSI Reference Model at which the services and mechanisms may be provided. Open systems security frameworks address data elements and sequences of operations that are used to obtain security services.

Note: The security architecture and framework standards are intended to provide guidance and background information to developers. In general, these standards do not provide implementable specifications against which conformance can be claimed.

3.7.9.1.1 Standards. Table 3.7-43 presents standards for network security architecture.

TABLE 3.7-43 Network security architecture standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

The DOD Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

DOD 5200.28-STD: 1985

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Trusted Network Interpretation

NCSC-TG-005, Version 1: 1987

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Basic Reference Model, Part 2: Security Architecture (same as CCITT X.800:1991)

7498-2:1989

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks for Open Systems - Part 2: Authentication Framework

10181-2:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Upper Layer Security Model

10745:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 1: Overview, Models, and Notation

11586-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Lower Layer Security Model

TR 13594:1995

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol

RFC 1825: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol

draft-ietf-ipssec-arch-sec-01.txt, 10 November 1996

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Interoperable LAN Security - Part A: The Model

802.10a: 1989

Emerging

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks for Open Systems, Part 1: Overview

10181-1

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks in Open Systems, Part 3: Access Control

10181-3

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks in Open Systems, Part 4: Non-Repudiation (same as ITU-TS X.813)

10181-4

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks in Open Systems, Part 5: Confidentiality

10181-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks in Open Systems, Part 6: Integrity (same as ITU-TS X.815)

10181-6

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks for Open Systems, Part 7: Security Audit Framework

10181-7

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks for Open Systems Part 8: Key Management

10181-8

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.9.1.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.1.3 Standards deficiencies. The Upper Layer Security Model (ISO 10745) primarily addresses FTAM requirements and does not deal with Directory, Transaction Processing, and X.400.

3.7.9.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.9.1.5 Related standards. NCSC-TG-011, Version 1, 1 August 1990, Trusted Network Interpretation Environments Guideline - Guidance for Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation is a guideline supporting the TCSEC.

3.7.9.1.6 Recommendations. The standards listed as mandated are recommended. Implementations involving security services should require conformance to the security principles and concepts of the DGSA (TAFIM, Volume 6) and supporting standards. RFC 1825 is an emerging standard that provides the current view of how to implement security functions within an Internet Protocol (IP) suite network. The Internet Draft document draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-01.txt is a "work-in-progress" revision of RFC 1825.

3.7.9.2 Security risk management. (This BSA appears in part 2, part 7, part 9, and part 10.) Security risk management supports accreditation through a risk analysis of an information system and its operational environment, and the steps taken to manage the risk requirements.

3.7.9.2.1 Standards. Table 3.7-44 presents standards for security risk management.

TABLE 3.7-44 Security risk management standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

The DOD Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

DOD 5200.28-STD: 1985

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guideline for the Analysis of Local Area Network Security

FIPS PUB 191:1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guideline for Automated Data Processing Risk Analysis

FIPS PUB 65:1979

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management

FIPS PUB 31:1974

Informational

(Approved)

3.7.9.2.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Because of its age, FIPS PUB 31 does not include information about modern security concepts.

3.7.9.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to the TCSEC standard:

a. CSC-STD-003-85 25 June 1985, Computer Security Requirements - Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted Computer Security Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments

b. CSC-STD-004-85, 25 June 1985, Technical Rationale Behind CSC-STD-003-85: Computer Security Requirements - Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted Computer Security Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments

3.7.9.2.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130, "Management of Federal Information Resources," provides guidance on effective security risk management of federal information systems. NIST Special Publication 800-12, "An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook" provides additional guidance on risk management. DOD Directive 5200.28 requires a risk analysis of an information system be conducted in its operational environment to support accreditation of the information system. System implementors should perform the risk analysis in accordance with CSC-STD-003-85 and CSC-STD-004-85 to determine the appropriate DOD-5200.28-STD class.

3.7.9.3 Security management. (This BSA appears in part 7, part 8, part 9, and part 10.) Security management is a particular instance of information system management. Security management provides supporting services that contribute to the protection of information and resources in open systems in accordance with information domain and information security policies. The basic elements that must be managed are users, security policies, information, information processing systems that support one or more security policies, and the security functions that support the security mechanisms (automated, physical, personnel, or procedural) used to implement security services. For each of these elements, the managed objects that constitute them must be identified and maintained. For example, users must be known and registered, security policies must be represented and maintained and information objects must be identified and maintained. Security policies, security services and security mechanisms are the first classes of managed objects.

3.7.9.3.1 Standards. Table 3.7-45 presents standards for security management.

TABLE 3.7-45 Security management standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

The DOD Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

DOD 5200.28-STD: 1985

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Trusted Network Interpretation

NCSC-TG-005, Version 1: 1987

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Trusted Database Management System Interpretation of the Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

NCSC-TG-021, Version 1: 1991

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Security Services

DCE 1.1 Security Services: 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

The Directory: Procedures for Distributed Operation (X-ref: ISO 9594-4)

X.518: 1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Rev. 1.2.2

DCE Rev. 1.2.2:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Common Management Information Services (CMIS) Definition, with Amendment 4: Access Control

9595:1991/ AM4:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) - Part 1: Specification (Includes amendment 1 and 2 of ISO/IEC 9596-1:1990)

9596-1:1991

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NMF

OMNIPoint 1 (Adopts ISO Profile Sets 11183-X, 12059-X, and 12060-X, includes ISO/IEC 10164-X)

OMNIPoint 1:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Systems Management, Part 7: Security Alarm Reporting Function (same as ITU-T X.736)

10164-7:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Systems Management, Part 8: Security Audit Trail Function (same as ITU-T X.740)

10164-8:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Systems Management, Part 9: Objects and Attributes for Access Control

10164-9:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Basic Reference Model, Part 2: Security Architecture (same as CCITT X.800:1991)

7498-2:1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179-1:1995

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

POSIX Part 2: Shell and Utilities - Amendment n: Protection and Control Utilities, Draft 15

P1003.2c: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

NPC

IEEE

POSIX, Part 1: System API - Amendment n: Protection, Audit, and Control Interfaces (C Language), Draft 15

P1003.1e: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

OMG

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security

OMG 95-12-1: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

Domain Name System (DNS) Security Extensions

RFC 2065:1997

Emerging

(Draft)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179:1992

Informational

(Superseded)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Interoperable LAN Security - Part D: Security Management

802.10d

Informational

(Formative)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Management Plan for Security

JTC1/SC21 SD-7

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.9.3.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies exist in standardization of security policy rule representation; key management, including generation, distribution, and accounting; audit information formats; exchange of security management information; and remote security management.

The DGSA principle of decision and enforcement separation requires that the functions determining how to enforce a security policy and the actual enforcement of the policy be implemented independently. That is, the enforcement mechanisms do not need any knowledge of security policy. Standards are needed for object class definitions for classes of managed objects and for methods of representing security policy.

The DGSA calls for a separation mechanism, such as separation kernel, to mediate all calls to security critical functions to ensure that strict isolation is maintained. Standardization of object class definitions for management of critical functions used within the separation kernel is needed.

The present ISO/IEC 10164-7 "Security Alarm Reporting Function," and 10164-8, "Security Audit Trail Function," standards were designed with network security in mind. Little work has been done, either in standards groups or in products, on how to use these standards for general system management (e.g., computer systems and software).

FIPS PUB 179-1 supersedes FIPS PUB 179. The present GNMP specifications require ISO Common Management Information Service/Protocol (CMIS/CMIP) to communicate management information and ISO OSI networking protocols. Plans are for the GNMP eventually to provide a capability to integrate the present GNMP with Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). One reason for this goal is the widespread use of SNMP.

No Ada bindings exist for any of the ISO or consortia system management specifications.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) POSIX Security Working Group (formerly P1003.6) is defining security extensions to the base POSIX interface standard (ISO 9945-1), to include support for audit, privilege, discretionary and mandatory access control, and information labels. These have been redesignated IEEE P1003.1e and IEEE P1003.2c. The draft standards are still incomplete, and the specifications may change.

The POSIX/UNIX permission bits are inadequate for fine-grained control over exactly which users can perform specified actions to particular files.

In the IETF, efforts to develop an acceptable security standard for SNMPv2 have been on hold since September 1995 when the IETF SNMP Working Group failed to agree on the proposals submitted. Since then, two sets of proposals for providing SNMPv2 security have emerged. The first set of proposed specifications, the User-based Security Model (USEC), also referred to as SNMPv2u, consists of two documents: RFC 1909, "An Administrative Infrastructure for SNMPv2" and RFC 1910, "The User-based Security Model for SNMPv2." Both RFCs were issued 28 February 1996 and are classified by the IETF as experimental RFCs. The other proposal is known as SNMPv2*, which its proponents claim is heavily based on USEC. Neither USEC nor SNMPv2* has been approved for a standards track by IETF.

3.7.9.3.4 Portability caveats. The structure of certain traditional UNIX directories, such as the familiar "/tmp," "/usr/spool," and "/usr/spool/mail" directories must be expressly managed to accommodate the P1003.1e and P1003.2c security standards. This is because these are directories to which all users have access and to which many programs write. A change in the way programs write to directories has the potential for causing software portability and systems administrator portability problems.

The traditional UNIX permission bits that have been carried into POSIX are inadequate for defining exactly which user can perform specific actions on specific files. Eliminating the permission bits in favor of Access Control Lists could make the secure POSIX systems incompatible with non-POSIX compliant systems and many applications.

OSF DCE Version 1.1's authentication services are based on Kerberos Version 5 (RFC 1510), but is not totally compatible with RFC 1510. DCE 1.2.2 adds testing and official support for Kerberos Version 5.

3.7.9.3.5 Related standards. ISO/IEC 9945-1 as profiled by FIPS PUB 151-2 is related to IEEE P1003.1e and IEEE P1003.2c.

3.7.9.3.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

All IEEE P1003.1e and IEEE P1003.2c security systems should incorporate Access Control Lists as an optional feature in addition to permission bits (not "in place of" permission bits). The incompatibilities between the two access control methods (permission bits and access control lists) are not resolvable. The best method for resolving the overall problems seem to be incorporation Access Control Lists as an optional feature on top of permission bits. The permission bits would represent the lowest common denominator of security, showing the maximum amount of openness possible in a system. Organizations needing only the lowest level of security could continue to use the familiar permission bits and associated "chmod" command. Use of access control lists will require a change in security policy such that access is granted if and only if permission is granted and access control permits it.

3.7.9.4 Security association and key management. (This BSA appears in part 7, part 9, and part 10.) A security association is the totality of communication and security mechanisms and functions (e.g., communications protocols, security protocols, doctrinal mechanisms, security-critical mechanisms and functions) that securely binds together two security contexts in different end systems or relay systems supporting the same information domain. A security association is an application association that includes additional support from security functions and mechanisms. Key management provides procedures for handling cryptographic keying material to be used in symmetric or asymmetric cryptographic mechanisms. It includes key generation, key distribution, key storage, key archiving, and key deletion.

3.7.9.4.1 Standards. Table 3.7-46 presents standards for security association and key management.

TABLE 3.7-46 Security association and key management standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NSA

Key Exchange Algorithm

R21-TECH-23-94: 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Key Management Protocol (KMP)

SDN.903, Version 3.2: 1989

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Key Management Using ANSI X9.17

FIPS PUB 171:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 1: Overview, Models, and Notation

11586-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 2:Security Exchange Service Element Definition

11586-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 3: Security Exchange Service Element Protocol Specification

11586-3:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Banking Key Management (wholesale)

8732:1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Financial Institution Key Management (wholesale)

X9.17-1991

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Interoperable LAN Security - Part C: Key Management Protocol (KMP)

802.10c

Emerging

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks for Open Systems Part 8: Key Management

10181-8

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)

draft-ietf-ipsec-isakmp-07.txt,.ps, 21 February 1997

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

The Photuris Session Key Management Protocol

draft-simpson-photuris-11.txt, 13 June 1996

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

Simple Key Management for Internet Protocols (SKIP)

draft-ietf-ipssec-skip-07.txt, August 1996

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

The Oakley Key Determination Protocol

draft-ietf-ipsc-oakley-01.txt, 5/10/96

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Public-Key Cryptography

P1363

Informational

(Formative)

3.7.9.4.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.4.3 Standards deficiencies. There is a lack of guidance for establishing a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to automatically manage public keys through the use of public key certificates. In April 1994, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in conjunction with seven other federal agencies, completed a study on automated management of public keys and associated public key certificates on a nationwide basis. Based on the recommendations of the study, GSA is establishing a PKI pilot project to provide public key certificate services for participating government agencies.

3.7.9.4.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.9.4.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.7.9.4.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended. In FORTEZZA applications, the NSA-developed Key Exchange Algorithm, R21-TECH-23-94, must be used.

IEEE P1363, Standard for Public-Key Cryptography, is under development, with the first version expected to be ready for balloting in 1997.

The IETF's IP Security Protocol (IPSEC) Working Group (WG) is developing an Internet Key Management Protocol (IKMP) that will be specified as an application layer protocol independent of the lower layer security protocol. The IKMP will be based on ISAKMP/Oakley work begun in the Internet Draft documents for ISAKMP and the Oakley Key Determination Protocol.

3.7.9.5 Security audit. (This BSA appears in part 7, part 9, part 10, and part 11.) Security auditing is a review or examination of records and activities to test controls, ensure compliance with policies and procedures, detect breaches in security, and indicate changes in operation (paraphrased from ISO 7498-2).

3.7.9.5.1 Standards. Table 3.7-47 presents standards for security audit.

TABLE 3.7-47 Security audit standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

The DOD Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria

DOD 5200.28-STD: 1985

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

NMF

OMNIPoint 1 (Adopts ISO Profile Sets 11183-X, 12059-X, and 12060-X, includes ISO/IEC 10164-X)

OMNIPoint 1:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Systems Management, Part 8: Security Audit Trail Function (same as ITU-T X.740)

10164-8:1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Security Interface Specification: Auditing and Authentication

S020: 1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

CCEB

Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, (CC) Version 1.0

CC Version 1.0: 1996

Emerging

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks for Open Systems, Part 7: Security Audit Framework

10181-7

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) - Draft Amendments to Parts 1-3: Transaction Processing Security

WDAMs ((SC21 N6232) to ISO 10026-1,2,3) 1994

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.9.5.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.5.3 Standards deficiencies. ISO Transaction Processing Security work (WDAMs to ISO 10026-1,2,3) is in the early stages. Its content is not defined, and it cannot be used for procurement. ISO 10164-8 does not define a security audit, or explain how to perform one. It does not define implementation aspects, occasions where the use of the security audit trail function is appropriate, or the services necessary for the establishment and normal or abnormal release of a management association.

There is a need for a standard for programming interfaces to support development of portable tools for audit trail analysis and configuration.

3.7.9.5.4 Portability caveats. Proposed amendments to ISO 10026 have ceased. This is a high portability risk area.

3.7.9.5.5 Related standards. The following guidelines support the TCSEC standard:

a. NCSC-TG-005, Version 1, July 1987, Trusted Network Interpretation

b. NCSC-TG-011, Version 1, 1 August 1990, Trusted Network Interpretation Environments Guideline - Guidance for Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation

c. NCSC-TG-001, Version 2, June 1988, A Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted Systems

3.7.9.5.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended.

3.7.9.6 Security alarm reporting. (This BSA appears in part 7, part 9, part 10, and part 11.) Security alarm reporting is the capability to receive notifications of security-related events, alerts of any misoperations in security services and mechanisms, alerts of attacks on system security, and information as to the perceived severity of any misoperation, attack, or breach of security.

3.7.9.6.1 Standards. Table 3.7-48 presents standards for security alarm reporting.

TABLE 3.7-48 Security alarm reporting standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

CPC

NMF

OMNIPoint 1 (Adopts ISO Profile Sets 11183-X, 12059-X, and 12060-X, includes ISO/IEC 10164-X)

OMNIPoint 1:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Systems Management, Part 7: Security Alarm Reporting Function (same as ITU-T X.736)

10164-7:1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179-1:1995

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179:1992

Informational

(Superseded)

3.7.9.6.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.6.3 Standards deficiencies. FIPS PUB 179-1 supersedes FIPS PUB 179. ISO 10164-7 does not define implementation aspects, specify the manner in which management is accomplished by the user of the Security Alarm Reporting Function (SARF), define interactions that result in the use of the SARF, or specify the services necessary for the establishment and normal and abnormal release of a management association.

3.7.9.6.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.6.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.7.9.6.6 Recommendations. There are no recommended standards for security alarm reporting.

3.7.9.7 Network authentication. (This BSA appears in part 7 and part 10.) Network authentication services establish the validity of a claimed identity (peer-entity) or origin (data) (paraphrased from ISO 7498-2).

3.7.9.7.1 Standards. Table 3.7-49 presents standards for network authentication.

TABLE 3.7-49 Network authentication standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Information Technology - Defense Standardized Profiles AMHXn(D)- Message Handling Systems - Message Security Protocol (MSP) Parts 1-5

MIL-STD-2045-18500: 1993

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ITU-T

The Directory: Authentication Framework (X-ref: ISO 9594-8)

X.509, Version 3: 1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Trusted Network Interpretation

NCSC-TG-005, Version 1: 1987

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Digital Signature Standard (DSS)

FIPS PUB 186:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

FIPS PUB 180-1:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Security Protocol 3 (SP3)

SDN.301, Revision 1.5: 1989

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

FORTEZZA Interface Control Document

FORTEZZA ICD Rev P1.5: 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

FORTEZZA Plus Interface Control Document

FORTEZZA Plus ICD Rel 3.0: 1995

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Interoperable LAN Security - Part B: Secure Data Exchange (SDE)

802.10b:1992

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, Rev. 3.0: 1994

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, v. 4.0, Rev. A: 1997

Emerging

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection - Service Definition for the Association Control Service Element (ACSE), Revised Edition

8649:1992 (Incorporates AM 1&2)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection - Protocol Specification for the ACSE, Revised Edition

8650:1992 (Incorporates AM 1)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 1: Overview, Models, and Notation

11586-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 2:Security Exchange Service Element Definition

11586-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 3: Security Exchange Service Element Protocol Specification

11586-3:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 4: Protecting Transfer Syntax Specification

11586-4:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Transport Layer Security Protocol (TLSP) (Includes Amendment 1)

10736:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Network Layer Security Protocol (NLSP)

11577:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks for Open Systems - Part 2: Authentication Framework

10181-2:1996

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179-1:1995

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail

RFC 1421-1424:1993

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Security Protocol 4 (SP4)

SDN.401, Rev. 1.3:1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP) with MIME

SDN.704, Rev. 1.4: 1996

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Protocol Version 3.0

draft-ietf-tls-ssl-version3-00.txt, 18 November 1996

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

S/MIME Message Specification: PKCS Security Services for MIME

draft-dussc-mime-msg-spec-00.txt, September 1996

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

OSI File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM) - Parts 1-4: Amendment 4: Enhancement to FTAM Security Services

8571-1,2,3,4:1988/ WDAM4:1993

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

NSA

Use of X.509 Certificates

SDN.706, Rev. 2.0: 1997

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

NSA

X.509 Certificates and Certification Revocation List Profiles and Certificate Path Processing Rules for the Multilevel Information Systems Security Initiative (MISSI)

SDN.706, Rev. 1.1: 1996

Informational

(Draft)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179:1992

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

NIST

Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

FIPS PUB 180:1993

Informational

(Superseded)

3.7.9.7.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.7.3 Standards deficiencies. FIPS PUB 179-1 supersedes FIPS PUB 179. Procurements requiring authentication in FTAM cannot specify a standard at this time. The ISO FTAM security effort is in its early stages. Current proprietary FTAM security is based on passwords for authentication. ISO TP security work is in the early stages. Its content is not defined, and it cannot be used in a procurement.

3.7.9.7.4 Portability caveats. Proposed security enhancements to FTAM (WDAM4 to ISO 8571) have ceased. This is a high portability risk area.

3.7.9.7.5 Related standards. NCSC-TG-011, Version 1, 1 August 1990, Trusted Network Interpretation Environments Guideline - Guideline for Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation, supports NCSC-TG-005.

3.7.9.7.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

MIL-STD-2045-18500 describes the security provided by MSP. It should be used for DOD message systems that are required to exchange classified and sensitive but unclassified information. It is based on Version 3.0 of the MSP documented in SDN701, "Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Message Security Protocol," Revision 1.5, 1 August 1989. MSP is under revision to Version 4.0 to accommodate, in part, Allied requirements. This DOD Standardized Profile (DSP) standard will be replaced by a portion of the U.S. Supplement to Allied Communications Publication (ACP) 123 or ACP 120, Common Security Protocol, when the revision to MSP is complete.

SP3 provides connectionless security services and is the basis for ISO 11577. SP3 is designed to be used at the top of layer 3.

DSS is intended to specify general security requirements for generating digital signatures. Conformance to this standard does not assure that a particular implementation is secure. The responsible authority in each Government agency or department shall assure that an overall implementation provides an acceptable level of security. DSS can be used in electronic mail, electronic funds transfer, electronic data interchange, software distribution, data storage, and other applications that require data integrity assurance and data origin authentication. It uses the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) specified in FIPS PUB 180-1, which supersedes FIPS PUB 180. NIST is developing a validation program to test implementations for conformance to DSS.

The following two documents should be consulted for systems required to interface with the Defense Message System (DMS):

a. FORTEZZA Interface Control Document, Rev. 1.5, 22 December 1994

b. FORTEZZA Plus Interface Control Document, Release 3.0, 1 June 1995

SDN.701, Rev.3.0, is used with DMS, Phase 1. It is for use with legacy systems only.

IEEE 802.10b is for use with legacy LANs only.

3.7.9.8 Network access control. (This BSA appears in part 7, part 9, and part 10.) Access control is the prevention of unauthorized use of a resource, including its use in an unauthorized manner.

3.7.9.8.1 Standards. Table 3.7-50 presents standards for network access control.

TABLE 3.7-50 Network access control standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Information Technology - Defense Standardized Profiles AMHXn(D)- Message Handling Systems - Message Security Protocol (MSP) Parts 1-5

MIL-STD-2045-18500: 1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Security Protocol 3 (SP3)

SDN.301, Revision 1.5: 1989

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Interoperable LAN Security - Part B: Secure Data Exchange (SDE)

802.10b:1992

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Common Management Information Services (CMIS) Definition, with Amendment 4: Access Control

9595:1991/ AM4:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Transport Layer Security Protocol (TLSP) (Includes Amendment 1)

10736:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Network Layer Security Protocol (NLSP)

11577:1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179-1:1995

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guidelines for Security of Computer Applications

FIPS PUB 83:1980

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Security Protocol 4 (SP4)

SDN.401, Rev. 1.3:1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Government Network Management Profile (GNMP)

FIPS PUB 179:1992

Informational

(Superseded)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, v. 4.0, Rev. A: 1997

Emerging

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, Rev. 3.0: 1994

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory - Parts 1-4 DAM1: Access Control

9594-1,2,3,4:1990/ DAM1

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory - Part 8: Authentication Framework, DAM1: Access Control

9594-8:1990/ DAM1

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

OSI File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM) - Parts 1-4: Amendment 4: Enhancement to FTAM Security Services

8571-1,2,3,4:1988/ WDAM4:1993

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.9.8.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.8.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown. FIPS PUB 179-1 supersedes FIPS PUB 179.

3.7.9.8.4 Portability caveats. Proposed security enhancements to FTAM (WDAM4 to ISO 8571) has ceased. This is a high portability risk area because no standards exist.

3.7.9.8.5 Related standards. NCSC-TG-005, Version 1, July 1987, Trusted Network Interpretation, and NCSC-TG-011, Version 1, August 1990, Trusted Networks Interpretation Environments Guideline - Guideline for Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation, supports the DOD 5200.28-STD.

3.7.9.8.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

MIL-STD-2045-18500 describes the security provided by MSP. It should be used for DOD message systems that are required to exchange classified and sensitive but unclassified information. It is based on Version 3.0 of the MSP documented in SDN.701, "Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Message Security Protocol," Revision 1.5, 1 August 1989. MSP is under revision to Version 4.0 to accommodate, in part, Allied requirements. This DOD Standardized Profile (DSP) standard will be replaced by a portion of the U.S. Supplement to ACP 123 or ACP 120, Common Security Protocol, when the revision to MSP is complete.

SDN.701, Rev.3.0, is used with DMS, Phase 1. It is for use with legacy systems only.

SP3 provides connectionless security services and is the basis for ISO 11577. SP3 is designed to be used at the top of layer 3.

The work on File Transfer, Access, and Management (FTAM) security (WDAM4 to ISO 8571) security enhancements has been suspended. Procurements requiring access control for FTAM and transaction processing should not use these standards.

IEEE 802.10b is for use with legacy LANs only.

3.7.9.9 Data encryption security. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, part 10, and part 11.) Encryption is the cryptographic transformation of data to produce cipher text. Standards for data encryption security services describe services such as definitions/algorithms, modes of operation, and guidelines for use for those systems that require their data to be encrypted using data encryption security services. None of these standards are for systems processing classified information.

3.7.9.9.1 Standards. Table 3.7-51 presents standards for data encryption security.

TABLE 3.7-51 Data encryption security standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES)

FIPS PUB 185: 1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Data Encryption Standard (DES) (related to ANSI X3.92-1981/R1987/R1993)

FIPS PUB 46-2:1993 (Reaffirmed until 1998)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Guidelines for Implementation and using the NBS Data Encryption Standard

FIPS PUB 74:1981

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Data Encryption Standard (DES) Modes of Operation (related to ANSI X3.106-1983)

FIPS PUB 81:1980

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules

FIPS PUB 140-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Modes of Operation for a 64-Bit Block Cipher Algorithm (Related to ANSI X3.106)

8372:1987

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Data Encryption Algorithm

X3. 92-1981 (R1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Digital Encryption Algorithm - Modes of Operation

X3.106-1983 (R1990)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Advanced Encryption Standard

FIPS PUB JJJ

Informational

(Formative)

3.7.9.9.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary, for example, RSA.

3.7.9.9.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.9.4 Portability caveats. DES applications are not interoperable with non-DES systems. Portability problems related to the EES are unknown. The U.S. controls export of cryptographic technologies, products, and related technologies as munitions. On October 1, 1996, a new federal policy allowing U.S. vendors to export products using up to 56-bit encryption, provided the vendors sign an agreement to make their 56-bit encryption technologies key-recovery-compliant within 24 months.

3.7.9.9.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 113, Computer Data Authentication, is related to DES security mechanisms and their standards.

3.7.9.9.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. FIPS PUB 185, EES, supports lawful authorized access to the keys required to decipher enciphered information for systems requiring strong encryption protection of sensitive but unclassified information. EES provides stronger protection than DES against unauthorized access. Devices conforming to EES may be used when replacing Type II and Type III (DES) encryption devices owned by the Government. Implementations requiring use of EES should require conformance with FIPS PUB 140-1.

On 2 January 1997, NIST announced plans to develop a FIPS, Advanced Encryption Standard, incorporating an advanced encryption algorithm to replace DES (FIPS PUB 46-2).

3.7.9.10 Traffic flow confidentiality. (This BSA appears in part 7 and part 10.) Traffic flow confidentiality is a service to protect against unauthorized traffic analysis (ISO 7498-2) by concealing presence, absence, amount, direction, and frequency of traffic.

3.7.9.10.1 Standards. Table 3.7-52 presents standards for traffic flow confidentiality.

TABLE 3.7-52 Traffic flow confidentiality standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Security Protocol 3 (SP3)

SDN.301, Revision 1.5: 1989

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Network Layer Security Protocol (NLSP)

11577:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) - Draft Amendments to Parts 1 to 3: Transaction Processing Security

WDAMs (SC21 N 5232 to ISO 10026-1,2,3) 1991

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.9.10.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.10.3 Standards deficiencies. There are no mandated standards for traffic flow confidentiality.

3.7.9.10.4 Portability caveats. Work on proposed amendments to ISO 10026 has ceased. This is a high portability risk area, because no standards exist.

3.7.9.10.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.7.9.10.6 Recommendations. No standards are recommended.

SP3 is the basis for ISO 11577.

3.7.9.11 Network integrity. (This BSA appears in part 7 and part 10.) Network integrity ensures that data is not altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner when transmitted across a network.

3.7.9.11.1 Standards. Table 3.7-53 presents standards for network integrity.

TABLE 3.7-53 Network integrity standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Information Technology - Defense Standardized Profiles AMHXn(D)- Message Handling Systems - Message Security Protocol (MSP) Parts 1-5

MIL-STD-2045-18500: 1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Security Protocol 3 (SP3)

SDN.301, Revision 1.5: 1989

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Interoperable LAN Security - Part B: Secure Data Exchange (SDE)

802.10b:1992

Legacy

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Transport Layer Security Protocol (TLSP) (Includes Amendment 1)

10736:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Network Layer Security Protocol (NLSP)

11577:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 1: Overview, Models, and Notation

11586-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 4: Protecting Transfer Syntax Specification

11586-4:1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Security Protocol 4 (SP4)

SDN.401, Rev. 1.3:1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, v. 4.0, Rev. A: 1997

Emerging

(Approved)

3.7.9.11.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.11.3 Standards deficiencies. No deficiencies have been identified in the existing standards.

3.7.9.11.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.9.11.5 Related standards. ITU-T X.500: 1993 (same as ISO 9594-1), Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory - Overview of Concepts, Models, and Services, is a related standard.

3.7.9.11.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended.

MIL-STD-2045-18500 describes the security provided by MSP. It should be used for DOD message systems that are required to exchange classified and sensitive but unclassified information. It is based on Version 3.0 of the MSP documented in SDN.701, Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Message Security Protocol," Revision 1.5, 1 August 1989. MSP is under revision to Version 4.0 to accommodate, in part, Allied requirements. This DSP standard will be replaced by a portion of the U.S. Supplement to ACP 123 or ACP 120, Common Security Protocol, when the revision to MSP is complete.

SP3 provides connectionless security services and is the basis for ISO 11577. SP3 is designed to be used at the top of layer 3.

SP4 is the basis for ISO 10736.

IEEE 802.10b is for use with legacy LANs only.

3.7.9.12 Systems non-repudiation. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, part 10, and part 11.) These standards provide the security services for non-repudiation in systems.

3.7.9.12.1 Standards. Table 3.7-54 presents standards for systems non-repudiation.

TABLE 3.7-54 Systems non-repudiation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Digital Signature Standard (DSS)

FIPS PUB 186:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Information Technology - Defense Standardized Profiles AMHXn(D)- Message Handling Systems - Message Security Protocol (MSP) Parts 1-5

MIL-STD-2045-18500: 1993

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, Rev. 3.0: 1994

Legacy

(Approved)

GPC

NSA

Message Security Protocol (MSP)

SDN.701, v. 4.0, Rev. A: 1997

Emerging

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 1: Overview, Models, and Notation

11586-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Generic Upper Layer Security (GULS) - Part 4: Protecting Transfer Syntax Specification

11586-4:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Basic Reference Model, Part 2: Security Architecture (same as CCITT X.800:1991)

7498-2:1989

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

IP Authentication Header (AH)

RFC 1826: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

OMG

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security

OMG 95-12-1: 1995

Emerging

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

S/MIME Message Specification: PKCS Security Services for MIME

draft-dussc-mime-msg-spec-00.txt, September 1996

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

OSI Security Frameworks in Open Systems, Part 4: Non-Repudiation (same as ITU-TS X.813)

10181-4

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Non-Repudiation Mechanisms Part 1: General Model

13888-1:1992 (SC27 N868 (Project 1.27.06.01))

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Non-Repudiation Mechanisms Part 2: Using Symmetric Encipherment Algorithms

13888-2:1994 (SC27 N864 (Project 1.27.06.02))

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Non-Repudiation Mechanisms Part 3: Using Asymmetric Techniques

13888-3:1992 (SC27 N869 (Project 1.27.06.03))

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

OSI Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) - Draft Amendments to Parts 1 to 3: Transaction Processing Security

WDAMs (SC21 N 5232 to ISO 10026-1,2,3) 1991

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.9.12.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.12.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.12.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.12.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 180-1, Secure Hash Standard, must be used with FIPS PUB 186. FIPS PUB 180-1 provides the Secure Hash Algorithm used in generating and verifying electronic signatures.

3.7.9.12.6 Recommendations. The mandated standards are recommended for non-repudiation.

MIL-STD-2045-18500 describes the security provided by MSP. It should be used for DOD message systems that are required to exchange classified and sensitive but unclassified information. It is based on Version 3.0 of the MSP documented in SDN.701, "Secure Data Network System (SDNS) Message Security Protocol," Revision 1.5, 1 August 1989. MSP is under revision to Version 4.0 to accommodate, in part, Allied requirements. This DSP standard will be replaced by a portion of the U.S. Supplement to ACP 123 or ACP 120, Common Security Protocol, when the revision to MSP is complete.

MSP provides for signed receipts. S/MIME, an Internet Draft specification, does not provide for signed receipts.

3.7.9.13 Electronic signature. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, and part 10.) Electronic signature is the process that operates on a message to ensure message source authenticity and integrity, and source non-repudiation. Electronic signatures are composed so that the identity of a signatory and integrity of the data can be verified.

3.7.9.13.1 Standards. Table 3.7-55 presents standards for electronic signature.

TABLE 3.7-55 Electronic signature standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Digital Signature Standard (DSS)

FIPS PUB 186:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature Scheme Giving Message Recovery

9796:1991

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail

RFC 1421-1424:1993

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature with Appendix - Part 1: General

SC27/WG2 N294 (Project 1.27.08.01)

Informational

(Formative)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature with Appendix - Part 2: Identity-Based Mechanisms

SC27/WG2 N295 (Project 1.27.08.02)

Informational

(Formative)

IPC

ISO

Digital Signature with Appendix - Part 3: Certificate-Based Mechanisms

SC27/WG2 N296 (Project 1.27.08.03)

Informational

(Formative)

3.7.9.13.2 Alternative specifications. Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) Public Key Algorithm RC-5 was developed and published in 1994. It is proprietary, but RSA Data Security is working to have it included in numerous Internet standards. At present, RC-5 is not recommended for DOD use because it is proprietary.

3.7.9.13.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.13.4 Portability caveats. DSS applications are not interoperable with non-DSS systems.

3.7.9.13.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 180-1, Secure Hash Standard, must be used with FIPS PUB 186. FIPS PUB 180-1 provides the Secure Hash Algorithm used in generating and verifying electronic signatures.

3.7.9.13.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. FIPS PUB 186 is implemented in the FORTEZZA cryptographic card, a PC card (formerly called a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) standard card) that can be integrated into personal computers and workstations to provide security in commercial applications. FORTEZZA is being used in the Defense Message System. FIPS PUB 186 is the government-wide key cryptographic signature system.

3.7.9.14 Electronic hashing. (This BSA appears in part 5, part 7, part 8, and part 10.) Electronic hashing services compute a condensed representation of a message or a data file, often used as a measure of data integrity checking.

3.7.9.14.1 Standards. Table 3.7-56 presents standards for electronic hashing.

TABLE 3.7-56 Electronic hashing standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

FIPS PUB 180-1:1995

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 1: General Model

10118-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 2: Hash Functions Using an N-Bit Block Cipher Algorithm

10118-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

FIPS PUB 180:1993

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 3: Dedicated Hash Functions

WD 10118-3, JTC1/SC27 N883 (Project 1.27.09.03)

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Hash Functions, Part 4: Hash Functions Using Modular Arithmetic

WD 10118-4, JTC1/SC27 N884 (Project 1.27.09.04)

Informational

(Draft)

3.7.9.14.2 Alternative specification. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.14.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing specifications are unknown.

3.7.9.14.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.14.5 Related standards. FIPS PUB 180-1 supersedes FIPS PUB 180 and is required for use with FIPS PUB 186, Digital Signature Standard.

3.7.9.14.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended. FIPS PUB 180-1 specifies SHA, which can be used to generate a message digest. SHA is required for use with the DSA as specified in FIPS PUB 186 and whenever an SHA is required for federal applications.

3.7.9.15 Data communications security labeling. (This BSA appears in part 7 and part 10.) Data communications security labeling encompasses the application of security labeling, which is used as the basis for mandatory access control security services and release security services.

3.7.9.15.1 Standards. Table 3.7-57 presents standards for data communications security labeling.

TABLE 3.7-57 Data communications security labeling standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Common Security Label (CSL)

MIL-STD-2045-48501: 1995

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Transport Layer Security Protocol (TLSP) (Includes Amendment 1)

10736:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Network Layer Security Protocol (NLSP)

11577:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

OSI Basic Reference Model, Part 2: Security Architecture (same as CCITT X.800:1991)

7498-2:1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Encoding Format

DDS-2600-6216-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

CMW Labeling: Source Code and User Interface Guidelines, Revision 1

DDS-2600-6243-91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) Evaluation Criteria

DDS-2600-6243-92

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Standard Security Label (SSL) for Information Transfer

FIPS PUB 188:1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

IETF

DoD Security Options for the Internet Protocol

RFC 1108:1991

Legacy

(Draft)

CPC

IETF

Revised Internet Protocol Security Options (RIPSO)

RFC 1038:1988

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

TSIG

Trusted Security Information Exchange for Restricted Environments

TSIX (RE) 1.1

Emerging

(Draft)

NPC

IEEE

Standard for Interoperable LAN Security-Part G: Standard for Security Labeling within Secure Data Exchange

802.10g/D7

Emerging

(Draft)

3.7.9.15.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.7.9.15.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.15.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing standards are unknown.

3.7.9.15.5 Related standards. DOD 5200.28-STD is a related standard. DOD 5200.1-R, "Information Security Program Regulation," June 1986, establishes DOD policy for security classification, declassification, and marking of DOD information. It also contains DOD policy for safeguarding of classified information, including accountability, storage, transmission, and destruction of the information.

3.7.9.15.6 Recommendations. The mandated standard is recommended and should be used for new acquisitions. MIL-STD-2045-48501 supports the exchange of security attributes, for example, sensitivity labels. It provides a means to label and protect data as it passes through communications systems and implements FIPS PUB 188 for the DOD environment. MIL-STD-2045-48501 and FIPS PUB 188 apply only to layers 3 and 4. TSIG TSIX(RE) 1.1, "Trusted Systems Interoperability Group, Trusted Security Information Exchange for Restricted Environments," includes options compatible with MIL-STD-2045-48501.

IEEE 802.10g is consistent with the SSL and the CSL.

RFC 1108 makes RFC 1038 obsolete. RFC 1108 should be used for legacy systems only. RFC 1038 is not recommended.

 

 

Acronym List

Acronyms. The acronyms used in Part 7 are defined as follows:

AAL ATM adaptation layer

ACP Allied Communication Publication

ADPCM adaptive differential pulse-code modulation

AF ATM Forum

AITS Adopted Information Technology Standard

AJ anti-jam

ALE automatic link establishment

ANSI American National Standards Institute

ARIDPCM Adaptive Recursive Interpolated Differential PCM

ARP Address Resolution Protocol

ATDL-1 Army Tactical Data Link 1

ATM asynchronous transfer mode

B-Channel bearer channel

BER bit error ratio

B-ISDN broadband-ISDN

BOOTP BOOTSTRAP protocol

bps bit per second

CDMA code-division multiple access

CELP code-excited linear prediction

CJCSM Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual

CNR combat net radio

CONS connection-oriented network service

CPC Consortia Public Consensus

CPN-C Corporate Private Non-Consensus

CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access/collision detection

CVSD continuously variable slope delta

C4I command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence

DAMA demand-assignment multiple access

D-channel 16- or 64-kbps channel for signaling and data

DCE data circuit-terminating equipment

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DMS Defense Message System

DoD Department of Defense

DSN Defense Switched Network

DS1 Digital Interface Rate 1 (1.544 Mbps)

DS3 Digital Interface Rate 3 (44.736 Mbps)

DSS1 Digital Subscriber Signaling System Number 1

DSS2 Digital Subscriber Signaling System Number 2

DTE data terminal equipment

EHF extremely high frequency

EIA Electronic Industries Association

FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface

FDMA frequency-division multiple access

FED-STD federal standard

FPLMTS future public land mobile telecommunications system

FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard

FTAM file transfer, access, and management

FTP File Transfer Protocol

GPC Government Public Consensus

HDLC high-level data link control

HF high frequency

IAB Internet Architecture Board

ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IESS Intelsat Earth Station Standard

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force

IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol

IP internet protocol

IPC International Public Consensus

ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO International Organization for Standardization

ISUP ISDN User Part

ITSG Information Transfer Standards Guidance

ITU International Telecommunications Union

ITU-T ITU-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (formerly CCITT)

JTA Joint Technical Architecture

JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System

kbps kilobit per second

kHz kilohertz

LAN local area network

LAP link access protocol

LAPB LAP balanced

LAPD LAP on the D-channel

LF low frequency

LLC logical link control

LOS line-of-sight

LPC linear predictive coding

Mbps megabit per second

MF medium frequency

MIB management information base

MIL-STD military standard

MLPP Multi-level Precedence and Preemption

MSE Mobile Subscriber Equipment

MSP message security protocol

MSR message storage and retrieval

MTP message transfer part

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

N-ISDN narrowband ISDN

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology

NITF National Imagery Transmission Format

NITFS NITF standard

NNI network-node interface

NPC National Public Consensus

NRI net radio interface

NRZ non-return-to-zero

NSA National Security Agency

OSI Open Systems Interconnection

PCM pulse-code modulation

PCS personal communications services

PICS protocol implementation conformance statement

PNNI private node network interface

PPP point-to-point protocol

PVC permanent virtual circuit

QPSK quadrature phase shift keying

rf radio frequency

RFC request for comment

SCCP signaling connection control part

SHF super high frequency

SINCGARS Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System

SMDS switched multi-megabit data service

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol

SONET synchronous optical network

SS7 Signaling System Number 7

STANAG standardization agreement

STU secure telephone unit

SVC switched virtual circuit

TAC02 Tactical Communications Protocol 2

TADIL tactical digital information link

TAFIM Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management

TCP transmission control protocol

TDM time-division multiplexing

TDMA time-division multiple access

TIA Telecommunications Industry Association

TOS type of service

TP0 transport protocol class 0

TRI-TAC Tri-Service Tactical Communications

UDP user datagram protocol

UHF ultra high frequency

UNI user-to-network interface

UPT universal personnel telecommunications

URL uniform resource locator

UTC coordinated universal time

VHF very high frequency

VMF variable message format

VTC video teleconferencing

WNDP worldwide numbering and dialing plan

XID exchange identification

 

Index of Standards

Standard Page

ACP 123 US Supplement No.1 4, 5

ACP 127 21

AF LANE v1.0 44

AF PNNI v1.0 44

AF UNI v3.1 44

AF-PHY-0015.00 68

AF-PHY-0016.00 68

AF-PHY-0018.00 8

ANSI/IEEE 802.1B 29

ANSI J-STD-008 56, 57

ANSI J-STD-009 56

ANSI J-STD-010 56

ANSI J-STD-011 56

ANSI T1.101 51

ANSI T1.105 70

ANSI T1.106 68

ANSI T1.107 70

ANSI T1.111 37, 38

ANSI T1.112 37, 38

ANSI T1.113 37, 38

ANSI T1.114 37, 38

ANSI T1.117 68

ANSI T1.119 69

ANSI T1.219 38

ANSI T1.234 38

ANSI T1.236 38

ANSI T1.239 38

ANSI T1.302 23

ANSI T1.310 23

ANSI T1.314 14

ANSI T1.408 37, 38

ANSI T1.501 23

ANSI T1.601 37, 38

ANSI T1.603 38

ANSI T1.604 38

ANSI T1.605 37, 38

ANSI T1.608 37, 38

ANSI T1.609 37, 38, 55

ANSI T1.610 40

ANSI T1.613 40, 42

ANSI T1.616 40, 42

ANSI T1.617 54, 55

ANSI T1.618 31, 32, 54, 55

ANSI T1.619 40, 41

ANSI T1.621 40, 42

ANSI T1.622 40, 43

ANSI T1.625 40, 42

ANSI T1.627 44, 46

ANSI T1.629 44, 46

ANSI T1.630 44, 46

ANSI T1.632 40, 42

ANSI T1.633 54, 55

ANSI T1.634 54, 55

ANSI T1.635 44, 46

ANSI T1.636 45

ANSI T1.637 44, 46

ANSI T1.638 45

ANSI T1.642 40, 43

ANSI T1.643 40, 43

ANSI T1.645 45

ANSI T1.647 40, 42

ANSI T1.653 40, 43

ANSI T1.656 55

ANSI T1.801.01 14

ANSI X3.106 104

ANSI X3.229 29, 30

ANSI X3.92 104

ANSI X9.17 94

Bellcore TR-TSV-00772 31, 32

CCEB CC version 1.0 96

CJSM 6231 72, 73

CSC-STD-003-85 89

CSC-STD-004-85 89

DCAC 370-175-13 37, 39

DCE 1.1 Security 90

DCE Rev. 1.2.2 90

DEC DDCMP 21

DOD 5200.28-STD 87, 89, 90, 96, 113

DOD DDS-2600-6216-91 113

DOD DDS-2600-6243-91 113

DOD DDS-2600-6243-92 113

DOD FORTEZZA ICD Rev P1.5 99

DOD FORTEZZA Plus ICD Rel 3.0 99

DOD NCSC-TG-001, version 2 96

DOD NCSC-TG-005 87, 90, 96, 99, 103

DOD NCSC-TG-011 88, 96, 100, 103

DOD NCSC-TG-021 90

EIA-232E 34

EIA-449 34

EIA-530A 34

EIA/TIA-465-A 16

EIA/TIA-466-A 16, 82

EIA/TIA IS-41-C 56, 57

EIA/TIA IS-54-B 56, 57

EIA/TIA IS-95-A 56, 57

EIA TIA/IS-98 57

EIA/TIA IS-136 56

EIA TSB47 57

EIA TSB51 57

EIA TSB56-A 57

EIA TSB64 IS-41-B 57

FED-STD-1002 51

FED-STD-1015 23, 24, 47, 49, 50

FED-STD-1016 23, 24, 49, 50

FED-STD-1047 65, 66

FED-STD-1048 65, 66

FED-STD-1055 65, 66

FED-STD-1056 65, 66

FED-STD-1057 65, 66

FIPS PUB 31 89

FIPS PUB 46-2 104

FIPS PUB 65 89

FIPS PUB 74 104

FIPS PUB 81 104

FIPS PUB 83 102

FIPS PUB 113 104

FIPS PUB 140-1 104

FIPS PUB 171 94

FIPS PUB 178 14

FIPS PUB 178-1 14, 15

FIPS PUB 179 91, 98, 100, 102

FIPS-PUB-179-1 52, 53, 90, 98, 100, 102

FIPS PUB 180 100, 112

FIPS PUB 180-1 100, 109, 111, 112

FIPS-PUB-182 37, 38

FIPS PUB 185 104

FIPS PUB 186 99, 107, 111, 112

FIPS PUB 188 113

FIPS PUB 191 89

FIPS PUB JJJ 104

FRF.5 54, 55

FRF.8 54, 55

IAB STD-3 2, 4, 7, 35

IAB-STD-5 2, 7, 8, 25, 26

IAB-STD-6 2, 7, 8, 25, 26

IAB-STD-7 2, 7, 8, 25, 26

IAB-STD-8 2, 4, 25, 26

IAB-STD-9 2, 4

IAB-STD-10 5

IAB-STD-13 2, 10, 11, 25, 26

IAB-STD-15 2, 12, 13, 25, 26

IAB-STD-16 3, 12, 13, 25, 26

IAB-STD-17 3, 12, 13, 25, 26

IAB-STD-27 5

IAB-STD-28 5

IAB-STD-32 5

IAB-STD-33 3, 25, 26

IAB-STD-35 3, 7, 8, 80

IAB-STD-36 54, 55

IAB-STD-37 3, 28, 30

IAB-STD-38 3, 28

IAB-STD-41 3, 28, 30, 54, 55

IAB-STD-43 3, 54, 55

IAB-STD-51 3, 33, 34

IEC 847 29

IEEE 802.3u 28, 30

IEEE 802.10a 87

IEEE 802.10b 99, 102, 107

IEEE 802.10c 94

IEEE 802.10d 91

IEEE 802.10g/D7 113

IEEE 802.11 28, 30

IEEE P1003.1e 91

IEEE P1003.2c 91

IEEE P1363 64

IESS 308 63

IESS 309 63

IETF draft-dussc-mime-msg-spec-00.txt 100, 104

IETF draft-frier-ssl-version 3-01.txt 100

IETF draft-ietf-ipsc-oakley-01.txt 94

IETF draft-ietf-ipsec-isakmp-05.txt,.ps 94

IETF draft-ietf-ipssec-arch-sec-01.txt 87

IETF draft-ietf-ipssec-skip-06.txt 94

IETF draft-simpson-photuris-10.txt 94

ISO 3309 19

ISO 4335 19

ISO 7498-2 87, 90, 109, 113

ISO 7498-4 52

ISO 7776 19

ISO 7809 19

ISO 8073 7, 8

ISO 8208 7, 8

ISO 8372 104

ISO 8471 19

ISO 8473-2 29

ISO 8571-1,2,3,4:1988/ WDAM4:1993 100, 102

ISO 8649 99

ISO 8650 99

ISO 8732 94

ISO 8802-2 28, 29, 35

ISO 8802-3 28, 29

ISO 8802-4 28, 29

ISO 8802-5 28, 29

ISO 8878 7, 8, 31

ISO 8881 31

ISO 8885 19, 35

ISO 9314 28, 29

ISO 9595 53

ISO 9596-1 53

ISO 9796 111

ISO 10118-1 112

ISO 10118-2 112

ISO 10165-1 52

ISO 10165-2 52

ISO 10165-4 52

ISO 10181-2 100

ISO 10588 31

ISO 10736 99, 102, 107, 113

ISO 10745 87

ISO 11577 99, 102, 106, 107, 113

ISO 11586-1 87, 94, 104, 107, 109

ISO 11586-2 94, 100

ISO 11586-3 94, 100

ISO 11586-4 100, 107, 109

ISO 13888-1:1992 (SC27 N868 (Project 1.27.06.01)) 109

ISO 13888-2:1994 (SC27 N864 (Project 1.27.06.02)) 109

ISO 13888-3:1992 (SC27 N869 (Project 1.27.06.03)) 109

ISO DIS 10165-7 53

ISO ISP 10608-4 29

ISO ISP 10608-6 29

ISO ISP 10609-11 29

ISO SC27/WG2 N294 (Project 1.27.08.01) 111

ISO SC27/WG2 N295 (Project 1.27.08.02) 111

ISO SC27/WG2 N296 (Project 1.27.08.03) 111

ISO TR 10178 29

ISO WD 10118-3, JTC1/SC27 N883 (Project 1.27.09.03) 112

ISO WD 10118-4, JTC1/SC27 N884 (Project 1.27.09.04) 112

ISO WDAMs (SC21 N 5232 to ISO 10026-1,2,3) 106, 109

ISO/IEC 9594-1,2,3,4:1990/ DAM1 102

ISO/IEC 9594-8:1990/ DAM1 102

ISO/IEC 9595:1991/ AM4:1992 52, 90, 102

ISO/IEC 9596-1 52, 90

ISO/IEC 10164-7 90, 98

ISO/IEC 10164-8 90, 96

ISO/IEC 10164-9 90

ISO/IEC 10181-1 87

ISO/IEC 10181-2 87, 100

ISO/IEC 10181-3 87

ISO/IEC 10181-4 88, 109

ISO/IEC 10181-5 88

ISO/IEC 10181-6 88

ISO/IEC 10181-7 88, 96

ISO/IEC 10181-8 88, 94

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21 SD-7 91

ISO/IEC TR 13594 87

ISO/IEC WDAMs ((SC21 N6232) to ISO 10026-1,2,3) 96

ITU-T E.163 37, 39

ITU-T E.164 37, 39

ITU-T E.168 60

ITU-T E.173 59

ITU-T E.175 60

ITU-T E.201 59

ITU-T E.202 59

ITU-T E.212 59

ITU-T E.220 59

ITU-T E.751 58

ITU-T E.771 58

ITU-T E.775 60

ITU-T E.776 60

ITU-T E.780 58

ITU-T F.115 59

ITU-T F.724 58

ITU-T F.850 60

ITU-T F.851 60

ITU-T F.852 60

ITU-T F.853 60

ITU-T FPLMTS.FMGM 58

ITU-T FPLMTS.SECMOP 58

ITU-T FPLMTS.SFMK 58

ITU-T G.703 68

ITU-T G.704 70

ITU-T G.711 23, 24, 49, 50, 74, 75

ITU-T G.712 49

ITU-T G.721 23, 24, 49, 50

ITU-T G.728 58

ITU-T G.782 70

ITU-T G.810 51

ITU-T H.26P/M 59

ITU-T H.321 14, 15

ITU-T H.323 14, 15

ITU-T H.324 14, 15

ITU-T I.137 60

ITU-T I.150 45

ITU-T I.250 41

ITU-T I.251 41

ITU-T I.252 40, 41

ITU-T I.253 41

ITU-T I.253.3 40

ITU-T I.254 40, 41

ITU-T I.255 41

ITU-T I.256 41

ITU-T I.258.1 41

ITU-T I.311 (REV1) 45

ITU-T I.361 (REV1) 45

ITU-T I.363 45

ITU-T I.432 44, 46

ITU-T I.460 76

ITU-T I.464 76

ITU-T I.5xw 59

ITU-T I.610 (REV1) 45

ITU-T M.32xx 58

ITU-T M.687-1 58

ITU-T M.816 58

ITU-T M.818.1 58

ITU-T M.1034 58

ITU-T M.1035 58

ITU-T M.1036 58

ITU-T M.1078 58

ITU-T M.1079 58

ITU-T Q.608 55

ITU-T Q.76 61

ITU-T Q.921 19, 20, 37, 38

ITU-T Q.931 37, 38

ITU-T Q.1001 59

ITU-T Q.2130 44, 46

ITU-T Q.2140 44, 46

ITU-T Q.2660 54, 55

ITU-T Q.2761 to Q.2764 44, 46

ITU-T Q.2931 44, 46

ITU-T Q.2971 44, 46

ITU-T Q.FIF 58

ITU-T Q.UPT 60

ITU-T V.35 33, 34

ITU-T V.110 76

ITU-T X.25 31, 32

ITU-T X.121 31, 32

ITU-T X.400 5

ITU-T X.500 4, 5

ITU-T X.509, Version 3 99

ITU-T X.518 90

ITU-T X.75 31, 32

JANAP 128 21

JIEO Spec 9001 65, 66

JIEO Spec 9109 68, 69

JTIDS Spec 72

Link 22 72, 73

MIL-HDBK-1300A 17

MIL-STD-188-105 77

MIL-STD-188-110A 65, 66

MIL-STD-188-112 68, 69

MIL-STD-188-113 23, 24, 47, 48, 49, 50, 74, 75

MIL-STD-188-114A 16, 35

MIL-STD-188-115 51

MIL-STD-188-136 62, 64

MIL-STD-188-140 65, 66

MIL-STD-188-141A 65, 66

MIL-STD-188-145 65, 67

MIL-STD-188-148A 65, 66

MIL-STD-188-161D 16

MIL-STD-188-164 to 188-168 62, 63, 64

MIL-STD-188-171 21

MIL-STD-188-172 21

MIL-STD-188-173 21, 22

MIL-STD-188-174 21, 22

MIL-STD-188-176 44, 45

MIL-STD-188-181 62, 63, 85

MIL-STD-188-182 62, 63

MIL-STD-188-183 62, 63

MIL-STD-188-184 62, 63

MIL-STD-188-185 62, 63

MIL-STD-188-196 to 199 17, 18

MIL-STD-188-200 35, 47, 66, 68, 69

MIL-STD-188-202 47, 48

MIL-STD-188-203-1 72, 73

MIL-STD-188-203-3 72, 73

MIL-STD-188-212 72, 73

MIL-STD-188-216 76

MIL-STD-188-220A 35, 36

MIL-STD-188-242 65, 66

MIL-STD-188-243 65, 67

MIL-STD-188-256 47

MIL-STD-449 66

MIL-STD-461 66

MIL-STD-462 66

MIL-STD-463 66

MIL-STD-1582 62, 64

MIL-STD-2045-14502-1A 7, 8, 35, 36

MIL-STD-2045-18500 99, 102, 107, 109

MIL-STD-2045-44500 17

MIL-STD-2045-47001 4, 6

MIL-STD-2045-48501 113

MIL-STD-2500A 17, 18

NMF OMNIPoint 1 90, 96, 98

NSA R21-Tech-23-94 94

NSA SDN.301, Rev. 1.5 100, 102, 106, 107

NSA SDN.401, Rev. 1.3 100, 102, 107

NSA SDN.701, Rev. 3.0 99, 102, 109

NSA SDN.701, Rev. 4.0 99, 102, 107, 109

NSA SDN.704, Rev. 1.4 100

NSA SDN.706, Rev. 1.1 100

NSA SDN.706, Rev. 2.0 100

NSA SDN 903, version 3.2 94

OMG 95-12-1 91, 109

RFC 951 10, 11, 25, 26

RFC 1038 113

RFC 1072 8

RFC 1108 113

RFC 1144 8

RFC 1240 8

RFC-1305 4, 6

RFC 1323 8

RFC-1332 33, 34

RFC-1333 33, 34

RFC-1334 33, 34

RFC-1356 37, 39, 54, 55, 80

RFC 1415 5

RFC 1421-1424 100, 111

RFC 1441 13

RFC 1443 13

RFC 1445 13

RFC 1446 13

RFC 1449 13

RFC 1461 13

RFC 1495 5

RFC 1533 10, 11, 25, 26

RFC 1534 11

RFC 1536 11

RFC 1541 10, 11, 25, 26

RFC 1542 10, 11, 26

RFC 1570 33, 34

RFC 1577 44, 46, 54, 55

RFC 1583 26, 27

RFC 1584 26, 27

RFC 1618 37, 39

RFC 1644 8

RFC 1664 11

RFC 1693 8

RFC 1708 5

RFC 1738 10, 11

RFC 1771 26, 27

RFC 1772 26, 27

RFC 1808 10, 11

RFC 1812 26, 27

RFC 1825 87

RFC 1826 109

RFC 1830 5

RFC 1841 33

RFC 1883 7, 8, 26

RFC 1884 10, 11, 26

RFC 1885 7, 9, 26

RFC 1886 10, 11, 26

RFC 1887 10

RFC 1890 14

RFC 1902 12, 13

RFC 1904 12, 13

RFC 1905 12, 13

RFC 1907 12, 13

RFC 1908 13

RFC 1912 11

RFC 1933 7, 9, 26

RFC 1945 4, 6

RFC 1970 26

RFC 1971 11

RFC 2002 10, 11

RFC 2065 91

SIG-TWG-008 54

STANAG 4175 72, 86

STANAG 4198 47, 49

STANAG 4202 83

STANAG 4203 83, 84

STANAG 4204 66, 83, 84

STANAG 4205 83, 84

STANAG 4206 to STANAG 4212 78, 79

STANAG 4209 47, 49, 74

STANAG 4213 78, 80

STANAG 4214 78, 79

STANAG 4231 85

STANAG 4245 83

STANAG 4246 83, 84

STANAG 4249 78, 80

STANAG 4250 Series 81

STANAG 4260 Series 81

STANAG 4285 83, 84

STANAG 4290 78, 79

STANAG 4291 83

STANAG 4292 83

STANAG 4372 83

STANAG 5000 16, 82

STANAG 5516 72, 86

TSIG TSIX (RE) 1.1 113

VTC 001 14, 15

X/Open S020 96