INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS GUIDANCE

(ITSG)

(Part 13 of 14 parts)

HUMAN FACTORS SERVICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version 3.1 - April 7, 1997

 

 

AREA IPSC

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.13 Human Factors 3.13-

3.13.1 Human factors for computer hardware 3.13-

3.13.1.1 Human factors for video display terminals 3.13-

3.13.1.2 Human factors for keyboards 3.13-

3.13.1.3 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices 3.13-

3.13.2 Human factors for software user interfaces 3.13-

3.13.2.1 Graphical user interface style guides 3.13-

3.13.2.2 Visualization 3.13-

3.13.2.3 Color use 3.13-

3.13.2.4 Color definition 3.13-

3.13.2.5 Color data interchange 3.13-

3.13.2.6 Color matching 3.13-

3.13.2.7 Customization to local norms 3.13-

3.13.3 Human factors for computer environments 3.13-

3.13.3.1 Human factors for the physical environment 3.13-

LIST OF TABLES

3.13-1 Human factors for video display terminals standards 3.13-

3.13-2 Human factors for keyboards standards 3.13-

3.13-3 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices standards 3.13-

3.13-4 Graphical user interface style guides standards 3.13-

3.13-5 Visualization standards 3.13-

3.13-6 Color use standards 3.13-

3.13-7 Color definition standards 3.13-

3.13-8 Color data interchange standards 3.13-

3.13-9 Color matching standards 3.13-

3.13-10 Customization to local norms standards 3.13-

3.13-11 Human factors for the physical environment standards 3.13-

3.13 Human Factors. Human factors (ergonomics) is the science of determining proper relations between computer systems and the user. Ease of use, comfort, health, and safety are primary concerns (e.g., how a keyboard should be laid out). An ergonomically-designed product implies that the device blends smoothly with the user's body or actions. For computing systems, these standards provide guidelines and requirements for the design of computer hardware, software user interfaces, and computing environments.

3.13.1 Human factors for computer hardware. Human factors requirements for computer hardware concern the user's physical interface through input devices and displays and how well it serves the needs of the user. Health and safety concerns are also addressed.

3.13.1.1 Human factors for video display terminals. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) This base service area addresses the human factors requirements for all types of video displays, and includes safety concerns.

3.13.1.1.1 Standards. Table 3.13-1 presents human factors standards for video display terminals.

TABLE 3.13-1 Human factors for video display terminals standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 1: Introduction

9241-1:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 2: Task Requirements

9241-2: 1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 3: Visual Display Requirements

9241-3:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Requirements for Non-CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Visual Display Units

136 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles in the Design of Work Systems

6385:1981

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/AIIM

Electronic Imaging Output Displays

TR19-1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Guide to Working Safely with Computers - Manual (relates to VDTs)

13068-0000

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Procedure for Measurement of Emissions of Electric and Magnetic Fields from VDUs from 5 Hz to 400 kHz`

172 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 8: Requirements for displayed colors

9241-8

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 7: Display requirements with reflections

9241-7

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Flat Panel Display Ergonomic Requirements

13406

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Requirements for Colour Visual Display Devices

126 (1987)

Informational

(Canceled)

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Requirements for Monochromatic Visual Display Devices

110 (1985)

Informational

(Canceled)

DOD Instruction (DODI) 8120 mandates use of the DOD HCI Style Guide.

AIIM is the Association for Image and Information Management.
ECMA is the European Computer Manufacturers' Association.
HFS is the Human Factors Society.
NSC is the National Safety Council.

ISO 9241-1 presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the Committee Draft (CD) level and will soon be released for Draft International Standard (DIS) ballot. ISO 9241-2 presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

3.13.1.1.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available.

3.13.1.1.3 Standards deficiencies. The performance-based test described in ISO 9241-3 adequately discriminates between a display that meets the physical requirements of the standard and one that does not. However, timing scores may be badly affected by the effects of testing practice. Changes to the test method and metrics are under consideration. ISO 9241-3 does not adequately address flat panel displays. ISO 13406 is intended to remedy this situation.

3.13.1.1.4 Portability caveats. No portability problems are known with the above specifications.

3.13.1.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for video display terminals:

a. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load, Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

b. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definition of Human Factors Terms.

c. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

d. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems (Air Force published, but rarely used, duplicates MIL-STD-1472).

e. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

f. MIL-HDBK-761A(1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

g. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

h. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

i. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

j. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.13.1.1.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require hardware components to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for computer displays. Display characteristics include brightness and contrast, character legibility, image stability, glare, and the use of color.

Note, however, that ISO human factors/ergonomics standards are either normative or informative. An informative standard contains no mandatory requirements. A normative standard contains one or more requirements that must be met in order to achieve conformance with the standard.

ISO 9241-1 presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the Committee Draft (CD) level and will soon be released for Draft International Standard (DIS) ballot. ISO 9241-2 presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative. Part 3 of the ISO 9241 standard is normative; parts 2-9 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance requirements for each normative part are embedded within that part. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

Procurements must recognize the difference between informative and normative parts of the standard in question. Where possible, both the informative and normative parts should be required for the best implementation of modern human factors/ergonomic thinking. In general, conformance tests for informative parts will not be available.

The ISO and ISO/IEC standards cited in the gray area of the table are being balloted and revised at a rapid rate. Interested parties should monitor the progress of these standards at six month intervals to ensure they have the latest information. Offerers of products meeting existing or emerging standards should be required to provide a migration plan to ensure compliance of the products with the final standards documents.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended, in particular section 3, which deals with hardware.

3.13.1.2 Human factors for keyboards. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) This BSA covers keyboard layout, including specific directions for layout of regions of the keyboard, and keyboard design. Ease of use and correct ergonomic design also are a part of this BSA.

3.13.1.2.1 Standards. Table 3.13-2 presents human factors standards for keyboards.

TABLE 3.13-2 Human factors for keyboards standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 1: General principles governing keyboard layout

9995-1:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 2: Alphanumeric section

9995-2:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 3: Common secondary layout of the alphanumeric section

9995-3:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 4: Numeric section

9995-4:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 5: Editing section

9995-5:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 6: Function section

9995-6:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 7: Symbols used to represent functions

9995-7:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 8: Allocation of Letters to the Keys of a Numeric Keyboard

9995-8:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Coded Character Sets for Keyboard Arrangement in ANSI X4.23-1982 and X4.22-1983

X3.114-1984 (R1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Keyboard Arrangement

X3.154-1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Alternate Keyboard Arrangement

X3.207-1991

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Standard Keyboard Arrangements

MIL-STD-1280, Notice 1, 1969

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

IEC

Man-Machine Interface (MMI) - Actuating Principles

447:1993

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Cumulative Trauma Disorders: a Manual for Musculoskeletal Diseases of the Upper Limbs

12221-0000

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles in the Design of Work Systems

6385:1981

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ACGIH

Ergonomic Interventions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Injuries in Industry

9000:1987

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Evaluating Your Workplace: Hands & Arms - Ergonomic Changes Manual

12587-0004

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) part 4: Keyboard requirements

9241-4

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

DODI 8120 mandates use of the DOD HCI Style Guide.

The ANSI X3.154 standard specifies the customary "QWERTY" keyboard arrangement. The ANSI X3.207 standard specifies the "DVORAK" keyboard arrangement. ACGIH is the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

3.13.1.2.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available.

3.13.1.2.3 Standards deficiencies. MIL-STD-1472D is in need of a comprehensive revision to update technical material so that it is reasonably consistent with the state of the art and to ensure that the two commands not currently using the standard can do so.

3.13.1.2.4 Portability caveats. No portability problems are known with the above specifications.

3.13.1.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for keyboards:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs), part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ISO 9241-2:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 2: Task Requirements, presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

c. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load -- Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

d. MIL-STD-1908 (1992), Definition of Human Factors Terms.

e. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

f. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems.

g. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

h. MIL-HDBK-761A(1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

i. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

j. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

k. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

l. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.13.1.2.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require hardware components to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for keyboards. Keyboard characteristics include keyboard height, slope, profile, surface properties, adjustability, bounce and character repeat, key positioning, key displacement and force, keytop shape, and keytop legends.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard (see related standards) are informative. Parts 2-9 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance requirements for each normative part are embedded within that part. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

Parts 1-8 of the ISO/IEC 9995 standard are normative. Conformance requirements for each normative part are embedded within that part. Conformance with the overall ISO 9995 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended, particularly for section 3, which covers hardware.

3.13.1.3 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) This section presents human factors standards for input devices other than keyboards. These devices include trackballs, pens, and tablets among others.

3.13.1.3.1 Standards. Table 3.13-3 presents human factors standards for non-keyboard input devices.

TABLE 3.13-3 Human factors for non-keyboard input devices standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layout for Text and Office Systems Part 7: Symbols used to represent functions

9995-7:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

IEC

Man-Machine Interface (MMI) - Actuating Principles

447:1993

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles in the Design of Work Systems

6385:1981

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Cumulative Trauma Disorders: a Manual for Musculoskeletal Diseases of the Upper Limbs

12221-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Evaluating Your Workplace: Hands & Arms - Ergonomic Changes Manual

12587-0004

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Cumulative Trauma

15229-0000

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ACGIH

Ergonomic Interventions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Injuries in Industry

9000:1987

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Text and Office Systems, Dialog Interaction Part 1: Cursor Control

10741-1:1992

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 9: Requirements for non-keyboard input devices

9241-9

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

DODI 8120 mandates use of the DOD HCI Style Guide.

3.13.1.3.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available. Research in this area includes a foot operated control for the cursor when the hands are occupied (nicknamed a "mole" in obvious derivation from "mouse").

3.13.1.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the cited standards are not known.

3.13.1.3.4 Portability caveats. No portability problems are known with the above specifications.

3.13.1.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for non-keyboard input devices:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ISO 9241-2:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 2: Task Requirements, presents an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

c. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load -- Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

d. MIL-STD-1908 (1992), Definition of Human Factors Terms.

e. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

f. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems.

g. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

h. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

i. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

j. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

k. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

l. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.13.1.3.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require hardware components to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for non-keyboard input devices. Ergonomic issues for non-keyboard input devices include keyclick, tracking speed, and on-screen ghosting of the pointer.

Parts 1 and 2 of ISO 9241 are informative. Parts 2-9 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product. Parts 1-8 of ISO/IEC 9995 are normative. Conformance with the overall ISO 9995 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product. Part 1 of the ISO/IEC 10741 standard is expected to be normative on completion.

Procurements must recognize the difference between informative and normative parts of the standard in question. Where possible, both the informative and normative parts should be required for the best implementation of modern human factors/ergonomic thinking. In general, conformance tests for informative parts will not be available.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended particularly for section 3, which covers hardware.

3.13.2 Human factors for software user interfaces. This Mid level service area deals with human factors requirements for the software portion of the user interface.

3.13.2.1 Graphical user interface style guides. A GUI's style guide, which is part of the presentation management layer in the NIST's User Interface Reference Model, specifies a standard "look" for the GUI of an application to the user.

3.13.2.1.1 Standards. Table 3.13-4 presents graphical user interface style guides.

TABLE 3.13-4 Graphical user interface style guides standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif Style Guide

Motif SG Rev. 1.2:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Principles of Presentation of Information in Aircrew Stations

STANAG 3705

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

User/Computer Interface

MIL-STD-1801 29 May 1987

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

MIL-STD-1800A 10 Oct. 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Handbook, Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

MIL-HDBK-761A 30 Sep. 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software

ESD-TR-86-278

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Air Force Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) Style Guide

IDHS Style Guide 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Factors Guidelines for the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Soldier-Machine Interface

ATCCS Guidelines v.1.0 and v.2.0, 1990 and 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

The User Interface Specifications for Navy Command and Control Systems

Navy CCS, Version 1.1, 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

DOD-HDBK-71A (DOD 1989c)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

MIL-STD-46855B 26 May 1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems Style Guide

DODIIS Style Guide, 10/91

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 10: Dialogue principles

9241-10:1996

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 11: Guidance on usability specifications and measures

9241-11

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 12: Presentation of information

9241-12

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 13: User guidance

9241-13

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 14: Menu dialogs

9241-14

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 15: Command language dialogs

9241-15

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Officer Work with VDTs Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogs

9241-16

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 17: Form-filling dialogs

9241-17

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Graphical Symbols Used on Screens: Interactive Icons

11581

Informational

(Draft (CD))

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

GPC

DOD

Joint Satellite Control (JSC) Human Computer Interface Standard, Version 1.0

JSC HCI Std., 1.0

Informational

(Draft)

DODI 8120 mandates the DOD HCI Style Guide.

The Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide provides a common framework for HCI design and implementation with emphasis on standard look and feel for GUI based applications. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. It includes a style guide for GUI interfaces.

3.13.2.1.2 Alternative specifications. Several applicable consortia or de facto style guides are available for software user interfaces. These style guides promote consistency in user interface design across applications. However, conformance with one or more the style guides listed below does not guarantee conformance with ergonomic standards (e.g., ISO 9241). These style guides include:

a. The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide (Microsoft)

b. Object-Oriented Interface design: IBM Common User Access Guidelines (IBM)

c. Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines (Apple Computer)

d. SAA Presentation Manager Style Guide/ Common User Access (CUA) (IBM)

e. Standard User Interface Style Guide for Compartmented Mode Workstations (Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA))

f. Compartmented Mode Workstation Labeling: Source Code and User Interface Guidelines (DIA)

g. Air Force Standard Systems Center GUI Style Guide, SSCR 700-10, Vol I

h. User Interface Specifications for the Global Command and Control System (GCCS), Version 1.0, draft, October 1994

i. Theater Battle Management Style Guide (U.S. Navy)

j. Army Theater Battle Management HCI Specification

k. Navy JMCIS.

3.13.2.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Currently, conformance to parts 12-17 of the ISO 9241 standard is on a part-by-part basis. There is concern that the overall standard may thus fail to address potential ergonomic problems arising from interaction between the user interface elements covered by the individual parts.

There is concern that ISO/IEC 11581 may contain overly rigid specifications for the set of icon shapes that can be used to represent different user interface parts.

3.13.2.1.4 Portability caveats. NIST FIPS 158-1 (User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile) mandates the use of the X Window protocol, X library, and X toolkit intrinsics. IEEE P1201.2, when completed, is intended to increase the level of user interface consistency (and thus user interface portability) across X Windows-based environments. There are potential conflicts here.

DOD HCI Style Guide is based on (and intended to supersede) the Army, Navy, Air Force, and DODIIS style guides cited in the table above. The goal of this effort is to minimize unnecessary user interface diversity across DOD systems. There are potential problems with systems designed to accommodate different style guides.

MIL-STD-1800 is an Air Force-only standard that duplicates MIL-STD-1472D and is largely ignored in Air Force acquisitions. It has been recommended that MIL-STD-1800 be canceled and any value added material be added to MIL-STD-1472D.

3.13.2.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to user interface style guides:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is currently at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ISO 9241-2:1992, Ergonomic requirements for office work with VDTs, part 2: Task Requirements, present an overview of factors that should be considered when designing tasks to be performed in a specific computing environment.

c. ISO CD 10075-2, Ergonomic principles related to mental work load -- Part 2: Design Principles, gives guidance on the design of work systems in general, with the intention of providing optimal working conditions with respect to health and safety, well-being, performance, and effectiveness.

d. MIL-STD-1908 (1992), Definition of Human Factors Terms.

e. NIST FIPS 158-1, User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile.

f. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

g. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

h. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

i. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

j. ITU-T E.134 Human Factors Aspects of Public Terminals: Generic Operating Procedures.

k. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.13.2.1.6 Recommendations. A style guide is necessary for development of all GUIs. There are no formal standards efforts in this area. A style guide is part of the Presentation Layer in NIST FIPS 158-1. Procurements that require software user interfaces to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for menu structures, command languages, direct manipulation dialogs, forms-based dialogs, windowing, icons, screen formatting, information coding, and user guidance.

It is recommended that the practices of the DOD HCI Style Guide, TAFIM, Volume 8 be followed. It provides a common framework for HCI design and implementation with emphasis on standard look and feel for GUI based applications. As many aspects of standard GUI style are application specific, application area style guides should also be used when available. Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. It includes a style guide for GUI interfaces and is also recommended.
Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative; parts 10 and 11 are expected to be informative on completion. Parts 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product. The ISO/IEC 11581 standard is expected to be normative on completion.

3.13.2.2 Visualization. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) Visualization is the method of displaying data in a graphical manner to aid in recognition of patterns and trends in data and to give the viewer a depiction of a physical system that has been modeled by data points (e.g., finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)). Another technique is the visualization user interface (VUI), a GUI that interprets text and numbers as pictures to show their relative scales and other relationships. A VUI remodels data so that text and numbers are hidden behind a picture expressing their complex relationships. Engineering visualization is a term freely applied to almost any intersection where the engineering process meets image creation technologies.

3.13.2.2.1 Standards. Table 3.13-5 presents visualization standards.

TABLE 3.13-5 Visualization standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ANSI/SAE

Aerodynamic Flow Visualization Techniques and Procedures

HS J1566 - 1986

Informational

(Approved)

3.13.2.2.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications available, but extensive academic research on this topic is taking place, particularly in the University of Maryland's Human-computer Interaction Laboratory and the Software Psychology Society. Topics include using treemaps for visualizing hierarchical information, using statistical distortion to promote the detection of outlying data, and use of color coding as a visualization aid.

3.13.2.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standard are unknown.

3.13.2.2.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standard are unknown.

3.13.2.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to visualization standards:

a. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems

b. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

c. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definitions of Human Factors Terms

d. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

e. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

3.13.2.2.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations for visualization itself, but it does require the use of power graphics generation if a dynamic system will be shown, rather than a series of static views. Other requirements can include a high degree of mathematical precision and single-pixel accuracy in rendering.

3.13.2.3 Color use. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) The use of color is a vital part of communication with the user of computer applications. Computer representation of color is done through the use of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color separation method which must be used to approximate color definitions used in graphic technologies.

3.13.2.3.1 Standards. Table 3.13-6 presents standards for color use.

TABLE 3.13-6 Color use standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

CIE

Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color-Difference Equations, and Psychrometric Color Terms

CIE Pub. 15, Suppl. 2 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Aircraft Electronic Colour Display Systems

STANAG 3940 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 8: Requirements for displayed colors

9241-8

Informational

(Draft)

DODI 8120 mandates use of the DOD HCI Style Guide. The DOD HCI Style Guide addresses use of color and the meaning of color in section 4.3.

3.13.2.3.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications include any user interface style guide that addresses the use and meaning of color.

3.13.2.3.3 Standards deficiencies. Comparison of color defined by the existing standards assumes identical viewing conditions. There are no standards directly addressing comparisons across viewing environments, although models are being worked on.

3.13.2.3.4 Portability caveats. Translation of color from one color definition system to another can be difficult and is only an approximation at best. There are three different color definitions from the CIE. They are CIEXYZ, CIELAB, and CIELUV. These standards have existed for a long time and are seen as the common basis for any future unifying definitions.

One problem with the use of color is color blindness. To accommodate the color blind, if color is used to convey important information, then a second method should also be used (such as brightness of the color).

3.13.2.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for the use of color:

a. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems

b. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

c. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definitions of Human Factors Terms

d. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Info. Systems

e. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

3.13.2.3.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable. The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended, particularly section 4.3 which addresses the use and meaning of color.

3.13.2.4 Color definition. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, part 12, Multimedia, and part 13, Human Factors.) Color definition deals with establishing a reference base for identifying colors to aid in the matching and exchange of color. Color definition standards apply to defining color in general, and not only to color definition for information technology systems.

3.13.2.4.1 Standards. Table 3.13-7 presents standards for color definition.

TABLE 3.13-7 Color definition standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC

ASTM

Standard Test Method for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System

E308 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

1976 CIE-UCS Chromaticity Diagram with Color Boundaries

TEB26 (1988)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

CIE Standard Colorimetric Illuminants

CIE 10526 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

CIE Standard Colorimetric Observers

CIE 10527 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

CIE

Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color-Difference Equations, and Psychrometric Color Terms

CIE Pub. 15, Suppl. 2 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Technology - Input Data for Characterization of 4-Color Process Printing

IT8.7/3 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Arts Prepress Definition of Default RGB Data for Use in the Graphic Arts Industry

IT8.7/4

Informational

(Approved)

N/A

SMPTE/EIA/VESA/ISO

Unreferenced 24-bit RGB

Technical Reports

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Text and Office Systems Colour Architecture (TOSCA)

JTC1/SC18/WG5

Informational

(Draft)

CPC

ICC

Definition of Named Color

TBD

Informational

(Formative)

NPC

ANSI IT8 and CGATS

Specifications for Web Offset Publications (SWOP)

TBD

Informational

(Formative)

The CIE (International Commission on Illumination) is the principal international standards writing body for agreements for color, vision, and illumination. Under ANSI, four bodies work on color-related standards. ANSI X3 works on office document automation and information systems. ANSI IT8/CGATS is concerned with graphic arts. ASTM deals with color metrology and standard practices, and SMPTE handles standards for color television and color monitors.

ANSI's Committee for Graphic Arts Technology Standards (CGATS) has eight subcommittees working on topics such as materials handling, process control, and color data definition. NPESA is the National Printing Equipment and Supply Association.

3.13.2.4.2 Alternative specifications. The following alternative specifications are also available:

a. Pantone Matching System

b. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) - the method directly used by color video display terminals

c. CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) - used in four color printing

d. HSV (Hue, Saturation, V.)

e. HSL (Hue, Saturation, Luminescence)

f. HVC

g. SWOP (Specifications for Web Offset Publications)

h. HSB (Hue, Saturation, Brightness)

i. TIFF (Tag Image File Format)

3.13.2.4.3 Standards deficiencies. Comparison of color defined by the existing standards assumes identical viewing conditions. There are no standards directly addressing comparisons across viewing environments, although models are being worked on. Strict adherence to correct presentation and output standards will require color calibration equipment.

3.13.2.4.4 Portability caveats. Translation of color from one color definition system to another can be difficult and is only an approximation at best. There are three different color definitions from the CIE. They are the CIEXYZ tristimulus values, and the CIELAB and CIELUV color spaces. These standards have existed for a long time and are seen as the common basis for any future unifying definitions. There are also the problems of color matching. For example, of 1012 Pantone colors for coated paper, 70 cannot be reproduced in the CMYK definition. CIEXYZ is useful in comparing colors under identical viewing conditions. CIEXYZ has a rigorous definition and by itself does not necessarily constitute a complete color specification. CIEXYZ is a standardized set of primaries which are not physically realizable but can match all possible colors with entirely positive tristimulus values. A new form of color definition is emerging, known as high-fidelity color. The idea behind high-fidelity color is the use of five to seven different colors in the printing process to widen the range of colors that can be printed. Two such models that have appeared are the Kupper set which increases the number of printed colors in the blue region by 80%, and the VSF model which provides better performance in deep red and green colors. These processes are very non-standard and should be avoided at present.

Common systems typically do not support colorimetric calibration.

3.13.2.4.5 Related standards. The following types of standards are related to standards for the definition of color:

a. color matching standards
b. color data exchange standards
c. color use standards
d. style guide standards

3.13.2.4.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable. Maintain original copies of source material so that revisions can be produced for next generation systems that will allow the inclusion of calibration information.

3.13.2.5 Color data interchange. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 13, Human Factors.) This BSA deals with the specific problems of interchanging data about color in computer graphics.

3.13.2.5.1 Standards. Table 3.13-8 presents standards for color data interchange.

TABLE 3.13-8 Color data interchange standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Colour Picture Data on Magnetic Tape (ANSI IT8.1-1988)

10755:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Colour Line Art Data on Magnetic Tape

10756:1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Online Transfer from Electronic Prepress Systems to Colour Hardcopy Devices

10758:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Technology - Input Data for Characterization of 4-Color Process Printing

IT8.7/3 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Arts Prepress Definition of Default RGB Data for Use in the Graphic Arts Industry

IT8.7/4

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Generic Architecture for Colour Data Interchange (GACDI)

JTC1/SC18/WG5

Informational

(Draft)

The Generic Architecture for Colour Data Interchange (GACDI) standard is a color architecture standard that will provide a consistent color framework across document-related standards. This standard will enable users to interchange color information in an open systems environment through the use of color data and transform representations.

3.13.2.5.2 Alternative specifications. No alternative specifications are available.

3.13.2.5.3 Standards deficiencies. There are no standards directly addressing comparison across viewing environments, although models are being worked on.

3.13.2.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.13.2.5.5 Related standards. Data interchange standards are related to standards for color data exchange.

3.13.2.5.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable.

3.13.2.6 Color matching. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 13, Human Factors.) This BSA deals with the problem of matching displayed and printed colors in computer systems.

3.13.2.6.1 Standards. Table 3.13-9 presents standards for color matching.

TABLE 3.13-9 Color matching standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Graphic Technology - Prepress Digital Data Exchange - Online Transfer from Electronic Prepress Systems to Colour Hardcopy Devices

10758:1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ASTM

Standard Test Method for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System

E308 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

CIE

Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color-Difference Equations, and Psychrometric Color Terms

CIE Pub. 15, Suppl. 2 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Technology - Input Data for Characterization of 4-Color Process Printing

IT8.7/3 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

NPESA

Graphic Arts Prepress Definition of Default RGB Data for Use in the Graphic Arts Industry

IT8.7/4

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

ICC

ICC Profile Format

ICC Profile Format ver. 3, 1994

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Text and Office Systems Colour Architecture (TOSCA)

JTC1/SC18/WG5

Informational

(Draft)

The ICC was formed in March, 1994, by Apple, Adobe, Silicon Graphics, Taligent, Agfa, Kodak, Microsoft, and Sun for the purpose of defining profiles for color handling. The ICC Profile format has no preferred color space, and provides for more than four input colors.

ColorSync Profile Consortium has adopted the CGATS.5 specification as its definition of colorimetry and color measurement.

The Open System Color Association (OSCA) has taken on the role of providing industry with a centralized, stable, reliable, and common source of certified color-calibration data. OSCA consists of Agfa, DuPont, Fujifilm, Kodak, Radius, 3M, and 24 other non-founding member companies. OSCA's work is in harmony with the ICC Profile format.

3.13.2.6.2 Alternative specifications. The following alternative specifications are also available:

a. Pantone Matching System (PMS)

b. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) - the method directly used by color video display terminals

c. CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) - used in four color printing

d. Apple ColorSync 2.0 (supports ICC and CMYK)

e. Kodak Precision Color Management System (CMS)

f. Electronics for Imaging (EFI) Inc., EFIColor

g. Hewlett-Packard ColorSmart

h. Microsoft Independent Color Matching (ICM) in future versions of WindowsNT and Windows 95. (accepts ICC Profile Format).

i. Pantone Open Color Environment (POCE) (overshadowed by CMS and ColorSync)

j. Pantone ColorDrive (to standardize color palettes)

k. Trumatch SwatchPrinter

l. Tektronix TekColor

m. Agfa-Gevaert FotoFlow

3.13.2.6.3 Standards deficiencies. Comparison of color defined by the existing standards assumes identical viewing conditions. There are no standards directly addressing comparisons across viewing environments, although models are being worked on. The issue of where and how to correct color remains unresolved.

3.13.2.6.4 Portability caveats. Translation of color from one color definition system to another can be difficult and is only an approximation at best. There are three different color definitions from the CIE. They are CIEXYZ, CIELAB, and CIELUV. These standards have existed for a long time and are seen as the common basis for any future unifying definitions.

Because of their display orientation, all standards that are defining computer generated graphics color, use RGB models. Most programmers assume that the RGB values they are using are linear with display intensity and that may be approximately true depending on the response of the graphics system. The actual colors produced vary according to the graphics system used.

3.13.2.6.5 Related standards. Color definition standards are related to human factors standards for color matching.

3.13.2.6.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable.

3.13.2.7 Customization to local norms. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, part 13, Human Factors, and part 14, Internationalization.) Customization to local norms involves modification of the key mapping to accommodate the local language and display of data in the commonly-used format (e.g., numbers, dates, time).

3.13.2.7.1 Standards. Table 3.13-10 presents standards for customization to local norms.

TABLE 3.13-10 Customization to local norms standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation Guide, version 2

G304 (7/93)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Locale Registry Procedures

G303 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif 1.2 (consistent with X/Open's NLS specifications & also double-byte character sets)

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Window System (X font manager- includes double-byte character sets)

X11R5

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Standard Keyboard Arrangements

MIL-STD-1280, Notice 1, 1969

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

User/Computer Interface

MIL-STD-1801 29 May 1987

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

MIL-STD-1800A 10 Oct. 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Handbook, Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

MIL-HDBK-761A 30 Sep. 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software

ESD-TR-86-278

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems Style Guide

DODIIS Style Guide, 10/91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Air Force Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) Style Guide

IDHS Style Guide 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Factors Guidelines for the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Soldier-Machine Interface

ATCCS Guidelines v.1.0 and v.2.0, 1990 and 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

The User Interface Specifications for Navy Command and Control Systems

Navy CCS, Version 1.1, 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

DOD-HDBK-71A (DOD 1989c)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Distributed Internationalisation Services

S213 (11/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation of Internetworking Specifications

S302 (4/93)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

File System Safe UCS Transformation Format (FSS-UTF)

P316 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

System Interface and Headers, Issue 3

C212 (3/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Supplementary Definitions, Issue 3

C213 (3/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set Coexistence and Migration

E401 (3/94)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/SAE

Human Interface Design Methodology for Integrated Display Symbology

ARP 4155 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

MIL-STD-46855B 26 May 1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification (Spec. 1170), System Interface Definitions, Issue 4, Version 2 (part of XPG4)

C434 (9/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification (Spec. 1170), System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 4, Version 2, (Part of XPG4)

C435 (9/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Locale Registry Procedures, Version 2

G502 (5/95)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation Guide, Version 3

G503 (11/95)

Informational

(TBD)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 11: Guidance on usability specifications and measures

9241-11

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 12: Presentation of information

9241-12

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

GPC

DOD

Joint Satellite Control (JSC) Human Computer Interface Standard, Version 1.0

JSC HCI Std., 1.0

Informational

(Draft)

DODI 8120 mandates use of the DOD HCI Style Guide

Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. X11R5 is the current release of Version 11 of the X Windows standard.

3.13.2.7.2 Alternative specifications. Several applicable consortia or de facto style guides are available for internationalization. However, conformance with one or more the style guides listed below does not guarantee conformance with ergonomic standards:

a. The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide (Microsoft)

b. Object-Oriented Interface design: IBM Common User Access Guidelines (IBM)

c. Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines (Apple Computer).

3.13.2.7.3 Standards deficiencies. Currently, conformance to parts 12-17 of the ISO 9241 standard is on a part-by-part basis. There is concern that the overall standard may thus fail to address potential ergonomic problems arising from interactions between the user interface elements covered by the individual parts.

3.13.2.7.4 Portability caveats. Although Motif supports the X/Open Native Language System, it also supports a number of its own internationalization extensions which makes it incompatible with some legacy specifications (e.g., OpenLook).

NIST FIPS 158-1 (User Interface Component of the Applications Portability Profile) mandates the use of the X Window protocol, X library, and X toolkit intrinsics. IEEE P1201.2, when completed, is intended to increase the level of user interface consistency (and thus user interface portability) across X Windows-based environments. There are potential conflicts here.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is based on (and intended to supersede) the Army, Navy, Air Force, and DODIIS style guides cited in the table above. The goal of this effort is to minimize unnecessary user interface diversity across DOD systems. There are potential problems with systems designed to accommodate different style guides.

3.13.2.7.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to cultural convention services:

a. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L001 (1994): ja_JP - Japanese for Japan.

b. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L002 (1994): da_DK - Danish for Denmark.

c. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L003 (1994): de_AT - German for Austria.

d. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L004 (1994): en_DK - English for Denmark.

e. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L005 (1994): fo_FO - Faroese for the Faroes.

f. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L006 (1994) is_IS - Icelandic for Iceland.

g. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L007 (1994) kl_GL - Greenlandic for Greenland.

h. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L008 (1994) lt_LT - Lithuanian for Lithuania.

i. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L009 (1994): lv_LV - Latvian for Latvia.

j. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L010 (1994): de_CH - German for Switzerland.

k. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L011 (1994): de_DE - German for Germany.

l. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L012 (1994): en_GB - English for Great Britain.

m. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L013 (1994): en_IE - English for Ireland.

n. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L014 (1994): en_US - English for the U.S.A.

o. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L015 (1994): hu_HU - Hungarian for Hungary.

p. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L016 (1994): it_IT - Italian for Italy.

q. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L017 (1994): nl_NL - Dutch for the Netherlands.

r. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L018 (1994): pl_PL - Polish for Poland.

s. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L019 (1994): pt_PT - Portuguese for Portugal.

t. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L020 (1994): ro_RO - Romanian for Romania.

u. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

v. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definitions of Human Factors Terms.

w. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

3.13.2.7.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require software user interfaces to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for menu structures, command languages, direct manipulation dialogs, forms-based dialogs, windowing, icons, screen formatting, information coding, and user guidance.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative; parts 10 and 11 are expected to be informative on completion. Part 3 of the ISO 9241 standard is normative; parts 2-9 and 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

Procurements must recognize the difference between informative and normative parts of the standard in question. Where possible, both the informative and normative parts should be required for the best implementation of modern human factors/ergonomic thinking. In general, conformance tests for informative parts will not be available.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended for customization to local norms.

3.13.3 Human factors for computer environments. This Mid-Level Service Area addresses the environment as it affects both the user and the computer.

3.13.3.1 Human factors for the physical environment. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 13, Human Factors.) Procurements that require computing environments to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for illuminance, glare, acoustic noise, the thermal environment, electromagnetic emissions, computer workspace design and furniture design.

The effects of low-level non-ionized radiation, particularly from CRTs, on humans have been a controversial topic. Over the years there have been articles advising pregnant women who have a prior history of miscarriage to stay away from working in computer areas. During the cold war, the Soviets were suspected of secretly bombarding foreigners with non-ionized radiation to study long term effects. People who live near high voltage power lines and have developed cancer are suspected victims of electromagnetic radiation. While there are no hard theories to describe the relationship between health problems and this kind of radiation, let alone a standard established. Some VDT vendors have made claims regarding the emissions of their products and there are aftermarket shields available that may provide some protection against this form of radiation.

Laser printers are said to emit ozone during the printing process. In an enclosed area, high levels of ozone can be unhealthy or even toxic. This issue is still unclear. It remains to be seen how much ozone is emitted and what concentrations are hazardous.

3.13.3.1.1 Standards. Table 3.13-11 presents human factors standards for the physical environment.

TABLE 3.13-11 Human factors for the physical environment standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif Style Guide

Motif SG Rev. 1.2:1992

Mandated

(Approved)

CPN-C

Microsoft

The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide, Microsoft Press, 1992

API Design Guide

Mandated

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Noise Limits for Military Material

MIL-STD-1474C of 8 March 1991

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Physical Ear Noise Attenuation Testing

MIL-STD-912 of 11 December 1990

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Principles Related to Mental Work Load - General Terms and Definitions

10075:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Principles of Visual Ergonomics - Lighting of Indoor Work Systems

8995:1989

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Expression of Users' Requirements Part 1: Thermal Requirements

6242-1:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Expression of Users' Requirements Part 2: Air Purity Requirements

6242-2:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Expression of Users' Requirements Part 3: Acoustical Requirements

6242-3:1992

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

EIA

Considerations Used in Establishing the X-Radiation Ratings of Monochrome and Color Direct-View Television Picture and Data Display Tubes

TEP 194, Amd 1 1987, Amd 2 1988

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Ergonomics in Computerized Offices

12223-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Guide to Working Safely with Computers - Manual (relates to VDTs)

13068-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Guide to Working Safely with Computers

13608-0000

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

NSC

Working Safely with Your Computer

15223-0000

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Ergonomics - Recommendations for VDU (Visual Display Units) Work Places

TR/22 (1984)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Application of Human Engineering to Advanced Aircrew Systems

3994 (1984)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Computer and Business Equipment

74 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Measurement of High Frequency Noise Emitted by Computer and Business Equipment

108 (1989)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Declared Noise Emission Values of Computer and Business Equipment

109 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Determination of Sound Power Levels of Computer and Business Equipment Using Sound Intensity Measurements; Scanning Method in Controlled Rooms

160 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 5: Workplace requirements

9241-5

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 6: Environmental requirements

9241-6

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 7: Display requirements with reflections

9241-7

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (Rev. 1)

100-1988 (Revision 1)

Informational

(Draft (WD))

DODI 8120 mandates use of the DOD HCI Style Guide.

3.13.3.1.2 Alternative specifications. MPR II 1990:8 (Test Methods for Visual Display Units, Section 2.0.1) is a Swedish document containing recommended values for electronic emissions from visual display units. While not an ISO standard, it serves as a de facto electromagnetic emissions standard for displays in most other countries. Many vendors of monitors claim compliance with this or a similar specification. After-market radiation and glare shields are also available.

3.13.3.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.13.3.1.4 Portability caveats. MIL-STD-1474C's criteria are more stringent than those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and also covers additional topics such as nondetectability. This standard may be incorporated into the next revision of MIL-STD-1472, eliminating the need to retain MIL-STD-1474C.

3.13.3.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to human factors standards for computer environments:

a. ISO 9241-1:1992, Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs, part 1: Introduction, presents an overview of the content and usage of the multipart ISO 9241 standard. A revised version of ISO 9241-1 is at the CD level and will soon be released for DIS ballot.

b. ANSI/ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, 1992.

c. ANSI S12.10-1985, Method for Measurement and Designation of Noise Emitted by Computer and Business Equipment.

d. ANSI S1.13-1971, Methods for the Measurement of Sound Pressure Levels.

e. ANSI X5.1-1985, Tests for General Office Chairs.

f. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

g. MIL-STD-1800A (1990) Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems.

h. MIL-HDBK-759B(2) (1993) Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. (Draft 759C is complete.)

i. MIL-HDBK-761A (1989) Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems.

j. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

k. DOD-HDBK-743A (1991) Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel.

l. MIL-STD-740-1 (1986) Airborne Sound Measurements and Acceptance Criteria of Shipboard Equipment.

m. MIL-STD-740-2 (1986) Structureborne Vibratory Acceleration Measurements Acceptance Criteria of Shipboard Equipment.

n. MIL-STD-1294A (1985) Acoustical Noise Limits in Helicopters.

o. An ISO work item for a standard on "Human-Centered design" has been approved, but no working draft has yet been released for comment.

3.13.3.1.6 Recommendations. The approved standards in this section are recommended where they are applicable. Parts 2-9 and 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended particularly for section 3, which covers hardware.