INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS GUIDANCE

(ITSG)

(Part 14 of 14 parts)

INTERNATIONALIZATION SERVICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Version 3.1 - April 7, 1997

 

 

AREA IPSC

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.14 Internationalization 3.14-

3.14.1 Character set and data representation 3.14-

3.14.1.1 Coded character sets 3.14-

3.14.1.2 Seven-bit coded character sets 3.14-

3.14.1.3 Eight-bit coded character sets 3.14-

3.14.1.4 Eight-bit single byte character sets 3.14-

3.14.1.5 Control functions 3.14-

3.14.1.6 Character set conversion 3.14-

3.14.1.7 Code extension techniques 3.14-

3.14.1.8 Universal character sets 3.14-

3.14.1.9 Currency and funds representation 3.14-

3.14.1.10 Country name representation 3.14-

3.14.1.11 Representation of human sexes 3.14-

3.14.1.12 Representation of names of languages 3.14-

3.14.1.13 Date and time representation 3.14-

3.14.2 Cultural convention services 3.14-

3.14.2.1 Numerical value representation 3.14-

3.14.2.2 Customization to local norms 3.14-

3.14.3 Natural language support services 3.14-

3.14.3.1 Keyboard device layout 3.14-

3.14.4 Related standards and programs 3.14-

3.14.4.1 Character set registration 3.14-

LIST OF TABLES

3.14-1 Coded character sets standards 3.14-

3.14-2 Seven-bit coded character sets standards 3.14-

3.14-3 Eight-bit coded character sets standards 3.14-

3.14-4 Eight-bit single byte character sets standards 3.14-

3.14-5 Control functions standards 3.14-

3.14-6 Character set conversion standards 3.14-

3.14-7 Code extension techniques standards 3.14-

3.14-8 Universal character sets standards 3.14-

3.14-9 Currency and funds representation standards 3.14-

3.14-10 Country name representation standards 3.14-

3.14-11 Representation of human sexes standards 3.14-

3.14-12 Representation of names of languages standards 3.14-

3.14-13 Date and time representation standards 3.14-

3.14-14 Numerical value representation standards 3.14-

3.14-15 Customization to local norms standards 3.14-

3.14-16 Keyboard device layout standards 3.14-

3.14-17 Character set registration standards 3.14-

3.14 Internationalization. Internationalization is the adaptation of a computer system's interface to present data according to local conventions and to use character sets that support the local language.

NOTE: Throughout Part 14, all tables shall have abbreviations listed under the column (Standard Type) as follows:

a. National Public Consensus = NPC
b. International Public Consensus = IPC
c. Government Public Consensus = GPC
d. Consortia Public Consensus = CPC
e. Corporate Private Non-Consensus = CPN-C

3.14.1 Character set and data representation. A character set is a subset of all letters in different alphabets, numbers, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, and other characters used by computers. These services include the capability to input, store, manipulate, retrieve, communicate, and present data independent of the coding scheme used.

3.14.1.1 Coded character sets. (This BSA appears in both part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) A character set is a subset of all letters in different alphabets, numbers, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, and other characters used by computers. These services include the capability to input, store, manipulate, retrieve, communicate, and present data independent of the coding scheme used.

3.14.1.1.1 Standards. Table 3.14-1 presents standards for coded character sets.

TABLE 3.14-1 Coded character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Graphic Character Set for Text Communication - Latin Alphabet Second Edition (replaces 6937 pt.1 & pt. 2)

6937:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Graphic Character Set for Use in the Preparation of Documents used in Electrotechnology and for Information Exchange

1286:1995

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Graphic Character Set for Text Communication

6913

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Mathematical coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

6862

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Hebrew alphabet coded character sets for bibliographic information interchange

8957

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Armenian alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

10585

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Georgian alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

10586

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Character Sets for Text Communication, Parts 0, 3, 7, 8

6937-0,3,7,8:1994

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Coded Character Sets for Text Communication, Parts 4, 5, 6

6937-4,5,6

Informational

(Formative)

3.14.1.1.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include Encoded Binary Decimal (EBCDC) and the Macintosh character set.

3.14.1.1.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.14.1.1.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.14.1.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to coded character set standards:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets

b. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Character Code Sets:

(1) SO 1073-1:1976: Alphanumeric character sets for optical recognition- Part 1: Character set OCR-A -- Shapes and dimensions of the printed image

(2) SO 1073-2:1976: Alphanumeric character sets for optical recognition- Part 2: Character set OCR-B -- Shapes and dimensions of the printed image

(3) SO 1831:1980: Printing specifications for optical character recognition

(4) SO 2033:1983: Information processing -- Coding of machine readable characters (MICR and OCR)

c. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Character Sets

(1) SO 2033:1983: Information processing -- Coding of machine readable characters (MICR and OCR)

(2) SO 1004:1995: Information Processing - Magnetic ink character recognition - Print specifications

3.14.1.1.6 Recommendations. ISO 6937 is recommended for ordinary English-only alphabetic applications.

3.14.1.2 Seven-bit coded character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character sets which contain only as many characters as can be uniquely identified using a seven-bit number (i.e., 128 characters numbered 0 to 127).

3.14.1.2.1 Standards. Table 3.14-2 presents standards for seven-bit coded character sets.

TABLE 3.14-2 Seven-bit coded character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Code for Information Interchange, Its Representations, Subsets, and Extensions (ASCII) (adopts ANSI X3.4-1986/R 1992, X3.32-1990, X3.41-1974)

FIPS PUB 1-2:1984

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

ISO 7-Bit Coded Character Set for Information Exchange

646:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Representation of the 7-Bit Coded Character Set on Punched Tape

1113:1979

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Code Extension Techniques for Use with the 7-Bit Coded Character Set of American National Standard Code for Information Interchange

X3. 41-1974

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Arabic 7-Bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

9036:1987

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Parameters and Practices for the Use of the NATO 7-Bit Code

STANAG 5036

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

NATO

Interoperable Characters for Teleprinters Using NATO 7-Bit Code

STANAG 5045

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 646 describes a set of 128 control, alphabetic, digit, and symbol characters. It includes the use of the control characters and describes the option of national replacement characters. It is the standard that formed the basis for creating additional standards that extend the character set to include many languages. A variant, ISO 646:1991 IRV, left open an additional 128 codes to be used to represent symbols for other languages.

3.14.1.2.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include Encoded Binary Decimal (EBCDC) and the Macintosh character set.

3.14.1.2.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.14.1.2.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets. FIPS 19-2, a catalog of widely used code sets that lists and briefly describes code stes in wide use in the United States and might be used in Federal data systems, may be helpful to consult.

3.14.1.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to seven-bit coded character sets:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets

b. Optical Character Recognition Character Code Sets

c. ISO 3275:1974-- Implementation of the 7-bit coded character set and its 7-bit and 8-bit extensions on 3,81 mm magnetic cassette for data interchange

d. ISO 6586:1980 -- Implementation of the ISO 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets on punched cards

e. ISO 1113:1979 -- Representation of the 7-bit coded character set on punched tape

3.14.1.2.6 Recommendations. FIPS 1-2, which adopts the ASCII character set, is recommended for common applications. ISO 646 is also recommended.

3.14.1.3 Eight-bit coded character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character sets which contain only as many characters as can be uniquely identified using an eight-bit number (typically, 256 characters numbered 0 to 255).

3.14.1.3.1 Standards. Table 3.14-3 presents standards for eight-bit coded character sets.

TABLE 3.14-3 Eight-bit coded character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

NPC/IPC

ANSI/ISO/IEC

ISO 8-Bit Code for Information Interchange - Structure and Rules for Implementation (8-Bit ASCII) (Revision and redesignation of ANSI X3.134.1)

4873:1991

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Standardized Coded Graphic Character Sets for Use in 8-Bit Codes

10367:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Coded Character Set

6 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Coded Character Set Structure and Rules

43 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

3.14.1.3.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include EBCDC and the Macintosh character set.

3.14.1.3.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.14.1.3.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.14.1.3.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to eight-bit coded character sets:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets

b. OCR Character Code Sets

c. ISO 3275:1974-- Implementation of the 7-bit coded character set and its 7-bit and 8-bit extensions on 3,81 mm magnetic cassette for data interchange

d. ISO 6586:1980 -- Implementation of the ISO 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets on punched cards

3.14.1.3.6 Recommendations. ISO 4873 is recommended.

3.14.1.4 Eight-bit single byte character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character sets which contain only as many characters as can be uniquely identified using an eight-bit number in a single byte (typically, but not always, 256 characters numbered 0 to 255).

3.14.1.4.1 Standards. Table 3.14-4 presents standards for eight-bit single byte character sets.

TABLE 3.14-4 Eight-bit single byte character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISO 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets: Parts 1-9

8859-1 to 9:1987-1989

Mandated

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISO 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets: Part 10: Latin Alphabet Set No. 6

8859-10:1992

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets, Latin Alphabets No. 1 to No. 4

94 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Cyrillic Alphabet

113 (1988)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Arabic Alphabet

114 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Greek Alphabet

118 (1986)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin/Hebrew Alphabet

121 (1987)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets, Latin Alphabet No. 5

128 (1988)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets - Latin Alphabet No. 6

144 (1992)

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 8859 defines a set of 191 graphic characters with a single 8-bit byte. It uses the characters 0x20 through 0x7F to represent those used in the US-ASCII (ISO 646) set.

3.14.1.4.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative character coding schemes include EBCDC and the Macintosh character set.

3.14.1.4.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.14.1.4.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.14.1.4.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to eight-bit single byte character sets:

a. NIST FIPS 19-2: Catalog of Widely Used Code Sets
b. Optical Character Recognition Character Code Sets

3.14.1.4.6 Recommendations. ISO 8859, parts 1-9, is recommended.

3.14.1.5 Control functions. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange and part 14, Internationalization.) This service area is for definition and coding of control functions for inclusion in character sets.

3.14.1.5.1 Standards. Table 3.14-5 presents standards for control functions.

TABLE 3.14-5 Control functions standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Control Functions for ISO 7-Bit and 8-Bit Coded Character Sets

6429:1992

Adopted

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Additional Controls for Use with American National Standard Code for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.64-1979/R1990)

FIPS PUB 86:1981

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Graphical Representations for the Control Characters of the 7-Bit Coded Character Set

2047:1975

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Bibliographic control characters

6630:1986

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Control Functions for Coded Character Sets

48 (1991)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Graphic Representation of the Control Characters of the ECMA 7-Bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

17 (1968)

Informational

(Canceled)

ISO 6429 defines 7-bit, 7-bit extended, 8-bit, and 8-bit extended character set control functions.

3.14.1.5.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.14.1.5.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.1.5.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.1.5.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.14.1.5.6 Recommendations. ISO 6429 is recommended.

3.14.1.6 Character set conversion. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character set conversion deals with the problem of translating from one character set to another.

3.14.1.6.1 Standards. Table 3.14-6 presents standards for character set conversion.

TABLE 3.14-6 Character set conversion standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Conversion Between the Two Coded Character Sets of ISO 646 and ISO 6937-2 and the CCITT International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2)

6936:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Conversion Between the Two Coded Character Sets of ISO 646 and ISO 6937-2 and the CCITT International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2): Revisions

6936 Revisions

Informational

(Formative)

ISO 6936 specifies conversion between the 58 character ITA2 set and the 128 character ISO 646 set.

3.14.1.6.2 Alternative specifications. There are alternative specifications that are sometimes necessary:

a. Mac to ASCII
b. EBCDC to ASCII

3.14.1.6.3 Standards deficiencies. The greatest deficiency any of these standards have is narrow applicability to a single application or language or no standard means of translation from set to set.

3.14.1.6.4 Portability caveats. Character sets are generally portable, but there are sometimes questions about conversion between sets.

3.14.1.6.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to character sets conversion:

a. Transliteration standards.

3.14.1.6.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations. Character set conversion standards depend on which sets are involved.

3.14.1.7 Code extension techniques. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) There is also a need to define standard techniques for expanding the number of characters represented by a character set. Switching between character sets in mid-string is done by escape sequences.

3.14.1.7.1 Standards. Table 3.14-7 presents standards for code extension techniques.

TABLE 3.14-7 Code extension techniques standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques

2022:1994

Adopted

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Information Processing - Implementation of the 7-Bit Coded Character Set and Its 7-Bit and 8-Bit Extensions on 3,81 mm Magnetic Tape Cassette for Data Interchange

3275:1974

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Latin Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

5426:1983

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Cyrillic Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

5427:1984

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Greek Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

5428:1984

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Documentation - African Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange

6438:1983

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Code Extension Techniques

35 (1994)

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Cyrillic alphabet coded character set for non-Slavonic languages for bibliographic information interchange

10754

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISP for Code Structures Based on ISO/IEC 2022 Part 1: FCS111-2022 Option 1

12070-1:1995

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Extension of the Latin Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Information Interchange: part 2: Latin characters used in minor European languages and obsolete typography

5426-2

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Extensions of the Arabic alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

11822

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO/IEC

ISO 7-Bit and 8-Bit Coded Character Sets - Code Extension Techniques

2022:1986

Informational

(Superseded)

3.14.1.7.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications would include other, larger, forms of character sets (8-bit instead of 7-bit, or multiple-octet sets instead of 8-bit).

3.14.1.7.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.1.7.4 Portability caveats. Few systems support the ISO 2022 encoding architecture because escape sequences present difficulties to processing.

3.14.1.7.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.14.1.7.6 Recommendations. ISO 2022 is recommended.

3.14.1.8 Universal character sets. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Universal character sets are an approach to defining the broadest possible character set. This involves using more than an 8-bit code. Use of a 16-bit code allows for a character set of 32,768 characters, which is sufficient to cover several complete alphabets, including accented letters. The object of UCS is to represent the written form of world languages unambiguously to facilitate information interchange

3.14.1.8.1 Standards. Table 3.14-8 presents standards for universal character sets.

TABLE 3.14-8 Universal character sets standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS), Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane (with Technical Corrigendum 1: 1996)

10646-1:1993

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set Coexistence and Migration

E401 (3/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

Unicode Consortium

Unicode version 1.1

UCS-2

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set, Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane, Amend 1: UTF-16, Amend 2: UTF-8, Amend 3: control characters, Amend 4: remove UTF-1

10646-1, Am 1-4:1993

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set, Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane, Amend 5: Korean Hangul; 6: Tibetan additions; 8: Han unification

10646-1: DAM 5-8

Informational

(Draft)

ISO 10646 is an extension of ISO 8859. A separate part of 8859 is defined for a variety of character sets. The 10646 is multiple-octet character set that can be encoded using 8-, 16-, or 32-bit character sizes. All existing character sets in 8859 are included as pages in the 10646 encoding, along with virtually all known characters on the planet. The 10646 is effectively the dictionary of coded character sets.

Unicode is an implementation of ISO 10646 that defines a set of 16-bit characters and is not exactly a superset of 8859.

3.14.1.8.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternatives for a universal character set.

3.14.1.8.3 Standards deficiencies. Only a small number of modern languages are unrepresentable by these satndards, but are expected to be supported soon.

3.14.1.8.4 Portability caveats. The portability problems with universal character sets involve their multi-byte nature. Translation to and from single-byte sets is full of chances for errors.

3.14.1.8.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.14.1.8.6 Recommendations. If multiple-octet representations (16- or 32-bit) of characters are required, ISO 10646 is recommended.

3.14.1.9 Currency and funds representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Covers characters for and the representation of currency and monetary values.

3.14.1.9.1 Standards. Table 3.14-9 presents standards for currency and funds representation.

TABLE 3.14-9 Currency and funds representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Codes for the Representation of Currencies and Funds

4217:1990

Informational

(Approved)

3.14.1.9.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.14.1.9.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the standard are unknown.

3.14.1.9.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the standard are unknown.

3.14.1.9.5 Related standards. Numerical value representation standards and internationalization locale specifications are related.

3.14.1.9.6 Recommendations. ISO 4217 is recommended.

3.14.1.10 Country name representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) These standards provide for a short character combination that can be used to represent the names of countries.

3.14.1.10.1 Standards. Table 3.14-11 presents standards for country name representation.

TABLE 3.14-10 Country name representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

NIST

Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty and their Principal Administrative Divisions

FIPS PUB 10-4

April 1995

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

American National Standard codes for Representation of Names of Counties, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty and their Principal Administrative Divisions

FIPS PUB 104-1

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Codes for Representation of Names of Countries

3166:1993

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 3166 defines a 2-letter, a 3-letter, and a numeric code for each country. The 2-letter names are well-known and accepted as internet domain names. The 3-letter codes are often used in international sports.

3.14.1.10.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications would include the international codes to designate the country of registration of automobiles.

3.14.1.10.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.1.10.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems with the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.1.10.5 Related standards. There are no related standards.

3.14.1.10.6 Recommendations. There is no recommendation.

3.14.1.11 Representation of human sexes. This BSA concerns the uniform representation of human sexes for the interchange of information.

3.14.1.11.1 Standards. Table 3.14-12 presents standards for representation of human sexes.

TABLE 3.14-11 Representation of human sexes standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Representation of Human Sexes

5218:1977

Informational

(Approved)

3.14.1.11.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.14.1.11.3 Standards deficiencies. ISO 5218 does not meet the requirements of specific medical or scientific applications.

3.14.1.11.4 Portability caveats. ISO 5218 does not prescribe file sequences, storage, media, programming languages, or other features of information processing to be used in its implementation.

3.14.1.11.5 Related standards. No related standards have been identified.

3.14.1.11.6 Recommendations. ISO 5218 is recommended for use.

3.14.1.12 Representation of names of languages. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) This BSA presents standards for code to represent the names of languages.

3.14.1.12.1 Standards. Table 3.14-13 presents standards for representation of names of languages.

TABLE 3.14-12 Representation of names of languages standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Code for the Representation of Names of Languages

639:1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/NISO

Codes for Representation of Languages for Information Interchange

Z39.53

Informational

(Approved)

3.14.1.12.2 Alternative specifications. Alternative specifications may include abbreviations in common use in entomology.

3.14.1.12.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.1.12.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.1.12.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to representation of names of languages:

a. ISO 9:1995: Transliteration of Cyrillic Characters into Latin Characters - Slavic and Non-Slavic Languages

b. ISO 233-2:1993: Information and documentation - Transliteration of Arabic Characters into Latin Characters - Part 2: Arabic Language - Simplified Transliteration

c. ISO 3602:1989: Documentation - Romanization of Japanese (kana script)

d. ISO DIS 14962: ASCII encoded English

3.14.1.12.6 Recommendations. ISO 639 is recommended.

3.14.1.13 Date and time representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Date and time representation and storage require consideration and standardization. Problems include representation of twelve or twenty-four hour time, the order in which the day and month are presented, and dropping of the century digits from the year.

3.14.1.13.1 Standard. Table 3.14-13 presents standards for date and time representation.

TABLE 3.14-13 Date and time representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Defense Data Dictionary System (DDDS), Version 3.2, May 1996

DDDS Ver. 3.2

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representation of Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange (adopts ANSI X3.30-1985/R1991)

FIPS PUB 4-1:1988 Change Notice 3/25/96

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representation of Local Time of the Day for Information Exchange (adopts ANSI X3.43-1986)

FIPS PUB 58-1:1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

NIST

Representations of Universal Time, Local Time Differentials, and US Time Zone References for Information Interchange (Adopts ANSI X3.51-1979)

FIPS PUB 59:1979

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Representation of Dates and Times

8601:1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Representation of Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange

X3. 30-1985 (R1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Representation of Local Time of Day for Information Interchange

X3. 43-1986 (R1992)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Representations of Universal Time, Local Time Differentials, and US Time Zone References

X3. 51-1994

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/EIA

Source and Date Code Marking

476-A:1987

Informational

(Approved)

3.14.1.13.2 Alternative specification. There are no other available specifications.

3.14.1.13.3 Standard deficiencies. In the early days of computer technology, information storage space was at a premium. Engineers saved space by using only the last two digits of the year rather than using full four-digit year representation since they did not anticipate that existing systems would still be in operation in the year 2000. This is a problem to be kept in mind during data design for information systems and their databases. The internal representation of the year and dates is expected to cause enormous difficulties as the year 2000 arrives.

3.14.1.13.4 Portability caveats. The difference between a little-endian (i.e., 11 May 1995), a big-endian (i.e., 1995 May 11), and mixed mode (i.e., May 11, 1995) date representation can be a portability problem for systems. The stated DoD data element for date format is "YYYYMMDD" where YYYY is the year, MM is the month, and DD is the day. NIST highly recommends that four-digit year elements be used and that two-digit year elements NOT be used for data interchange. On March 25, 1996 NIST published a change notice to FIPS 4-1 that highly recommends four-digit year elements, and states that two-year elements specified in ANSI X3.30:1985 (R1991) should not be used for the purpose of any data interchange among U.S. Government agencies.

3.14.1.13.5 Related standards. The following standard is related to date and time representation:

a. NIST FIPS 34, Guide for the Use of International System of Units in FIPS PUBS

3.14.1.13.6 Recommendations. For purposes of data interchange, DoD requires that year, month, and day be represented as 'YYYYMMDD'.

3.14.2 Cultural convention services. These services provide the capability to store and access rules and conventions for cultural entities maintained in a cultural convention repository.

3.14.2.1 Numerical value representation. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Numerical value representation deals with the presentation of numerical values as character strings in machine- and human- readable form.

3.14.2.1.1 Standards. Table 3.14-14 presents standards for numerical value representation.

TABLE 3.14-14 Numerical value representation standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO

Representation of Numerical Values in Character Strings for Information Interchange

6093:1985

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 6093 specifies three presentations of numerical values as character strings in machine-readable form for data interchange.

3.14.2.1.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.14.2.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.2.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.2.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to numerical value representation:

a. Representation of currency

b. Representation of date/time

c. Localization

d. ANSI X3.50 1986/R1992: Representation for U.S. Customary, SI, and other Units to be used in Systems with limited character sets

e. ISO 2955:1993 - Representation of SI and other Units in Systems with limited Character Sets

3.14.2.1.6 Recommendations. ISO 6093 is recommended.

3.14.2.2 Customization to local norms. (This BSA appears in part 3, User Interface, part 13, Human Factors, and part 14, Internationalization.) Customization to local norms involves modification of the key mapping to accommodate the local language and display of data in the commonly-used format (e.g., numbers, dates, time).

3.14.2.2.1 Standards. Table 3.14-15 presents standards for customization to local norms.

TABLE 3.14-15 Customization to local norms standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

GPC

DOD

Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Style Guide

TAFIM Volume 8, Version 3.0: 1996

Mandated

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation Guide, version 2

G304 (7/93)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Locale Registry Procedures

G303 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif 1.2 (consistent with X/Open's NLS specifications & also double-byte character sets)

Motif 1.2

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

MIT X Consortium

X Window System (X font manager- includes double-byte character sets)

X11R5

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/HFS

American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations

100-1988

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Standard Keyboard Arrangements

MIL-STD-1280, Notice 1, 1969

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

User/Computer Interface

MIL-STD-1801 29 May 1987

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Performance Requirements for Systems

MIL-STD-1800A 10 Oct. 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

DOD Handbook, Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

MIL-HDBK-761A 30 Sep. 1989

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software

ESD-TR-86-278

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Department of Defense Intelligence Information Systems Style Guide

DODIIS Style Guide, 10/91

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Air Force Intelligence Data Handling System (IDHS) Style Guide

IDHS Style Guide 1990

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Factors Guidelines for the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Soldier-Machine Interface

ATCCS Guidelines v.1.0 and v.2.0, 1990 and 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

The User Interface Specifications for Navy Command and Control Systems

Navy CCS, Version 1.1, 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

MIL-STD-1472D Notice 2, 30 June 1992

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Guidelines for Management Information Systems

DOD-HDBK-71A (DOD 1989c)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Distributed Internationalisation Services

S213 (11/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation of Internetworking Specifications

S302 (4/93)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

File System Safe UCS Transformation Format (FSS-UTF)

P316 (1993)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

System Interface and Headers, Issue 3

C212 (3/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Supplementary Definitions, Issue 3

C213 (3/92)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set Coexistence and Migration

E401 (3/94)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI/SAE

Human Interface Design Methodology for Integrated Display Symbology

ARP 4155 (1990)

Informational

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

MIL-STD-46855B 26 May 1994

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification (Spec. 1170), System Interface Definitions, Issue 4, Version 2 (part of XPG4)

C434 (9/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Single Unix Specification (Spec. 1170), System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 4, Version 2, (Part of XPG4)

C435 (9/94)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Locale Registry Procedures, Version 2

G502 (5/95)

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

OSF

Motif

Motif 2.0

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Internationalisation Guide, Version 3

G503 (11/95)

Informational

(TBD)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 11: Guidance on usability specifications and measures

9241-11

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs Part 12: Presentation of information

9241-12

Informational

(Draft)

NPC

IEEE

Recommended Practice for Graphical User Interface Drivability

P1201.2

Informational

(Draft (Project being canceled, lack of progress))

GPC

DOD

Joint Satellite Control (JSC) Human Computer Interface Standard, Version 1.0

JSC HCI Std., 1.0

Informational

(Draft)

DODI 8120 mandates use of the DOD HCI Style Guide.

Motif 1.2 is the current version of the OSF specification for GUI behavior and appearance and programming and data interfaces. X11R5 is the current release of Version 11 of the X Windows standard.

3.14.2.2.2 Alternative specifications. Several applicable consortia or de facto style guides are available for internationalization. However, conformance with one or more the style guides listed below does not guarantee conformance with ergonomic standards:

a. The Windows Interface: An Application Design Guide (Microsoft)

b. Object-Oriented Interface design: IBM Common User Access Guidelines (IBM)

c. Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines (Apple Computer).

3.14.2.2.3 Standards deficiencies. Currently, conformance to parts 12-17 of the ISO 9241 standard is on a part-by-part basis. There is concern that the overal standard may thus fail to address potential ergonomic problems arising from interactions between the user interface elements covered by the individual parts.

3.14.2.2.4 Portability caveats. Although Morif supports the X/Open Native Language System, it also aupports a number of its own internationalization extensions which makes it compatible with some legacy applications (e.g., OpenLook).

NIST FIPS 158-1 (User Interface Componenet of the Applications Portability Profile) mandates the use of the X Window protocol, X library, and X toolkit intrinsics. IEEE P1201.2, when completed, is intended to increase the level of user interface consistency (and thus user interface portability) across X Windows-based environments. There are potential conflicts here.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is based on (and intended to supersede) the Army, Navy, Air Force, and DODIIS Style Guides cited in the table above. The goal of this effort is to minimize unnecessary user interface diversity across DOD systems. There are potential problems with systems designed to accommodate different style guides.

3.14.2.2.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to cultural convention services:

a. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L001 (1994): ja_JP - Japanese for Japan.

b. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L002 (1994): da_DK - Danish for Denmark.

c. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L003 (1994): de_AT - German for Austria.

d. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L004 (1994): en_DK - English for Denmark.

e. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L005 (1994): fo_FO - Faroese for the Faroes.

f. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L006 (1994) is_IS - Icelandic for Iceland.

g. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L007 (1994) kl_GL - Greenlandic for Greenland.

h. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L008 (1994) lt_LT - Lithuanian for Lithuania.

i. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L009 (1994): lv_LV - Latvian for Latvia.

j. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L010 (1994): de_CH - German for Switzerland.

k. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L011 (1994): de_DE - German for Germany.

l. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L012 (1994): en_GB - English for Great Britain.

m. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L013 (1994): en_IE - English for Ireland.

n. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L014 (1994): en_US - English for the U.S.A.

o. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L015 (1994): hu_HU - Hungarian for Hungary.

p. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L016 (1994): it_IT - Italian for Italy.

q. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L017 (1994): nl_NL - Dutch for the Netherlands.

r. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L018 (1994): pl_PL - Polish for Poland.

s. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L019 (1994): pt_PT - Portuguese for Portugal.

t. X/Open Internationalisation Locale: L020 (1994): ro_RO - Romanian for Romania.

u. MIL-STD-1794 (1986) Human Factors Engineering Program for ICBM Systems.

v. MIL-STD-1908 (1992) Definitions of Human Factors Terms.

w. DOD-HDBK-763 (1987) Human Engineering Procedures Guide.

3.14.2.2.6 Recommendations. Procurements that require software user interfaces to be addressed by ergonomic standards can require conformance with standards for menu structures, command languages, direct manipulation dialogs, forms-based dialogs, windowing, icons, screen formatting, information coding, and user guidance.

Parts 1 and 2 of the ISO 9241 standard are informative; parts 10 and 11 are expected to be informative on completion. Part 3 of the ISO 9241 standard is normative; parts 2-9 and 12-17 are expected to be normative on completion. Conformance with the overall ISO 9241 standard is based on conformance with all normative parts that apply to a particular product.

Procurements must recognize the difference between informative and normative parts of the standard in question. Where possible, both the informative and normative parts should be required for the best implementation of modern human factors/ergonomic thinking. In general, conformance tests for informative parts will not be available.

The DOD HCI Style Guide is recommended for customization to local norms.

3.14.3 Natural language support services. These services provide the capability to support several languages simultaneously.

3.14.3.1 Keyboard device layout. (This BSA appears in both part 3, User Interface, and part 14, Internationalization.) Keyboard device layout standards specify the arrangement of keys on a keyboard.

3.14.3.1.1 Standards. Table 3.14-16 presents standards for keyboard device layout.

TABLE 3.14-16 Keyboard device layout standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Keyboard Layouts for Text and Office Systems

9995-1..8:1994

Mandated

(Approved)

GPC

DOD

Military Standard Keyboard Arrangements

MIL-STD-1280, Notice 1, 1969

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Allocation of Letters to the Keys of Numeric Keypads

T1.703 (1995)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Coded Character Sets for Keyboard Arrangement in ANSI X4.23-1982 and X4.22-1983

X3.114-1984 (R1991)

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Keyboard Arrangement

X3.154-1988

Informational

(Approved)

NPC

ANSI

Alternate Keyboard Arrangement

X3.207-1991

Informational

(Approved)

CPC

X/Open

Key Values (in Window Management, Issue 3)

XPG3 Vol. 6 C216

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Numeric Applications

3791:1976

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Numeric Keyboard for Home Electronic Systems (HES)

946:1988

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ECMA

Common Secondary Keyboard Layout for Languages Using a Latin Alphabet

115 (1986)

Informational

(Canceled)

IPC

ISO

Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) part 4: Keyboard requirements

9241-4

Informational

(Draft)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard for International Information Processing Interchange Using the ISO 7-Bit Coded Character Set - Alphanumeric Area

2530:1975

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Text/Office Systems

3243:1975

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Text/Office Systems

3244:1984

Informational

(Superseded)

IPC

ISO

Keyboard Layouts for Text/Office Systems

8884:1987

Informational

(Superseded)

NPC

ANSI

Keyboard Arrangement

X4.23-1982

Informational

(Superseded)

3.14.3.1.2 Alternative specifications. The only other available specifications are proprietary.

3.14.3.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.3.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems related to the existing specifications are unknown.

3.14.3.1.5 Related standards. No standards are related to keyboard device layout standards.

3.14.3.1.6 Recommendations. Conformance to all ISO and ISO/IEC keyboard specifications conforming to DIS or IS levels is recommended. This is especially important for equipment that will interoperate with that of U.S. allies (e.g., NATO).

3.14.4 Related standards and programs. This MLSA includes services supporting internationalization indirectly.

3.14.4.1 Character set registration. (This BSA appears in part 5, Data Interchange, and part 14, Internationalization.) Character set registration provides a mechanism for identifying and defining graphic character sets

3.14.4.1.1 Standards. Table 3.14-17 presents standards for character set registration.

TABLE 3.14-17 Character set registration standards

Standard Type

Sponsor

Standard

Standard Reference

Status

DoD

(Lifecycle)

IPC

ISO/IEC

Registration of Repertoires of Graphic Characters from ISO/IEC 10367

7350:1991

Informational

(Approved)

IPC

ISO

Procedure for registration of escape sequences

2375:1985

Informational

(Approved)

ISO 7350 spceifies procedures for preparing, registering, publishing, and maintaining the register of graphic character sets and procedures for assigning identifiers to the sets.

3.14.4.1.2 Alternative specifications. There are no alternative specifications.

3.14.4.1.3 Standards deficiencies. Deficiencies in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.4.1.4 Portability caveats. Portability problems in the existing standards are unknown.

3.14.4.1.5 Related standards. The following standards are related to character set registration:

a. Character set standards

b. Localization standards

c. Symbols for use with data such as currency, date, time, numerical values

3.14.4.1.6 Recommendations. There are no recommendations.